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Hitchin () is a
market town A market town is a European Human settlement, settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages, the right to host market (place), markets (market right), which distinguished it from a village or city. In Britain, small ...
in the North Hertfordshire
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of ...
in
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, and Buckinghamshire to the west. For gover ...
, England, with an estimated population of 33,350.


History

Hitchin is first noted as the central place of the Hicce people, a tribe holding 300 hides of land as mentioned in a 7th-century document,Gover, J E B, Mawer, A and Stenton, F M 1938 ''The Place-Names of Hertfordshire'' English Place-Names Society volume XV, 8 the Tribal Hidage. Hicce, or Hicca may mean ''the people of the horse.'' The tribal name is
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventu ...
and derives from the Middle Anglian people. It has been suggested that Hitchin was the location of ' Clofeshoh', the place chosen in 673 by
Theodore of Tarsus Theodore of Tarsus ( gr, Θεόδωρος Ταρσού, 60219 September 690). was Archbishop of Canterbury from 668 to 690. Theodore grew up in Tarsus, Mersin, Tarsus, but fled to Constantinople after the Persian Empire conquered Tarsus and other ...
the
Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby ...
during the Synod of Hertford, the first meeting of representatives of the fledgling Christian churches of
Anglo-Saxon England Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the Middle Ages, medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early modern Britain, Early Modern p ...
, to hold annual synods of the churches as Theodore attempted to consolidate and centralise Christianity in England. By 1086 Hitchin is described as a Royal Manor in
Domesday Book Domesday Book ( or , Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. English language underwent distinct va ...
: the feudal services of Avera and Inward, usually found in the eastern counties, especially Cambridgeshire and
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, and Buckinghamshire to the west. For gover ...
, were due from the sokemen, but the manor of Hitchin was unique in levying Inward. Evidence has been found to suggest that the town was once provided with an earthen bank and ditch fortification, probably in the early tenth century but this did not last. The modern spelling of the town first appears in 1618 in the ''"Hertfordshire Feet of Fines"''. The name of the town also is associated with the small river that runs through it, most picturesquely in front of the east end of St. Mary's Church, Hitchin, St. Mary's Church, the town's parish church. The river is noted on maps as the River Hiz. Contrary to how most people now pronounce the name, that is to say as spelt, the 'z' is an abbreviated character for a 'tch' sound in the Domesday Book (as in the name of the town). It would have been pronounced 'River Hitch'. ''The Hicca Way'' is an eight-mile walking route along the River Hiz Valley, believed to have been used for trade between the Danes and English in the Anglo-Saxon age. It is also likely that Hitch Wood, which lies some half a dozen miles south of the town also derives its name from the Hicce tribe, who gave their name to Hitchin. St. Mary's Church, Hitchin, St. Mary's Church is remarkably large for a town of its size and was once a Minster (church), Minster. The size of the church is evidence of how Hitchin prospered from the wool trade. It is the largest parish church in
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, and Buckinghamshire to the west. For gover ...
. Most of the church dates from the 15th century, with its tower dating from around 1190. During the laying of a new floor in the church in 1911, foundations of a more ancient church building were found. In form, they appear to be a basilican church of a 7th-century type, with a later enlarged chancel and transepts, perhaps added in the 10th century. This makes the church older than the story (not recorded before the 15th century) that the church was founded by Offa, king of Mercia 757-796. In 1697, Hitchin (and the nearby village of Offley) were subject to what is thought to have been the most severe hailstorm in recorded British history. Hailstones over 4 inches in diameter were reported The town flourished on the wool trade, and located near the Icknield Way and by the 17th century Hitchin was a staging post for coaches coming from London. By the middle of the 19th century the railway had arrived, and with it a new way of life for Hitchin. The corn exchange was built in the market place and within a short time Hitchin established itself as a major centre for grain trading. The latter half of the 20th century has also brought great changes in communication to Hitchin. Motorways have shortened the journey time and brought Luton, a few miles away on the M1 motorway, M1, and the A1 road (Great Britain), A1 (M) even closer. By the close of the 20th century, Hitchin had developed a strong commuter interest being midway between London and Cambridge. Hitchin also developed a fairly strong Sikh community based around the Walsworth area. During the medieval period, both a priory (Newbigging, now known as The Biggin) and a friary (now known as Hitchin Priory) were established, both of which closed during Henry VIII of England, Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries. They were never reformed, although The Biggin was for many years used as almshouses. The British Schools Museum in Hitchin is home to the world's only surviving complete Lancasterian Schoolroom, which was built in 1837 to teach boys by the Lancasterian method (peer tutoring). This unique community project demonstrates the foundation of education for all. Girton College – a pioneer in women's education – was established on 16 October 1869 under the name of College for Women at Benslow House in Hitchin, which was considered to be a convenient distance from Cambridge and London. It was thought to be less 'risky' and less controversial to locate the college away from Cambridge in the beginning. The college moved to Cambridge a few years later and adopted its present name, Girton College.


Government

Hitchin is in the Non-metropolitan district, local government district of North Hertfordshire which was formed in 1974 by the amalgamation of rural and urban councils. There is now no town council in Hitchin. Residents elect 13 members to the North Hertfordshire District Council. There are five electoral wards in Hitchin: Bearton, Highbury Ward, Highbury, Hitchin Oughton, Oughton, Priory and Walsworth. Before 1974 the town was administered by Hitchin Urban District Council Council, which was based at Hitchin Town Hall. The town is represented in Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliament by the constituency of Hitchin and Harpenden (UK Parliament constituency), Hitchin and Harpenden. The incumbent Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party MP Bim Afolami was 2017 United Kingdom general election, elected in 2017. Between 1983 and 1997 Hitchin was included in the constituency of North Hertfordshire (UK Parliament constituency), North Hertfordshire. Before that it was in the constituency of Hitchin (UK Parliament constituency), Hitchin. In the European Parliament, Hitchin was represented by the East of England (European Parliament constituency), East of England constituency. Prior to 1999 and the adoption of proportional representation, it was in the European constituency of Hertfordshire (European Parliament constituency), Hertfordshire.


Transport


Rail

Hitchin railway station is on the East Coast Main Line Great Northern Line, and is also on the Cambridge Line as the last stop before it diverges towards Cambridge, to the north east of Hitchin. The station is a call on services provided by Govia Thameslink Railway under its Great Northern and Thameslink brands. These provide direct connections to Cambridge railway station, Cambridge, Letchworth Garden City railway station, Letchworth Garden City, Peterborough railway station, Peterborough and London King's Cross railway station, London Kings Cross; as well as St Pancras railway station, St Pancras International, Gatwick Airport railway station, Gatwick Airport, Three Bridges railway station, Three Bridges and Brighton railway station, Brighton. Journeys to London and Cambridge typically take 33 minutes. Journeys to Stevenage take 5 minutes, Peterborough 45 minutes, and Gatwick Airport 78 minutes. Hitchin Rail Users Group serve as the local voluntary group actively consulting with train companies on behalf of local people.


Road

The A505 road, A505, A600 and A602 road, A602 roads intersect in Hitchin, which is about from the A1(M) motorway and about from the M1 motorway.


Aviation

Hitchin is about from Luton Airport, with a direct bus service linking the two. The connections are provided by National Express (number 787) or Arriva in Herts and Essex (100 Saphire services).


Education

There are several primary schools in Hitchin. Secondary education is provided at Hitchin Girls' School, Hitchin Boys' School and the The Priory School, Hitchin, Priory School. There is a campus of the North Hertfordshire College in Hitchin, and it is also the home of the Benslow Music Trust which provides music education for adults, while North Herts Music School adjoined to Hitchin Girls' School delivers music lessons & activities for children & young people. The Emil Dale Academy is located on Wilbury Way in Hitchin. EDA is a drama school where students train and study for a BA (hons) degree in Musical Theatre in partnership with the University of Bedfordshire. The school also has a sixth form and a weekend school. North Hertfordshire Museum has an extensive collection that tells the story of the town and wider area from prehistoric times. The British Schools Museum is housed in original Edwardian and Victorian school buildings.


Culture and community

File:Hitchin lavender fields.jpg, Lavender fields near Hitchin In March 2013 a poll in ''The Times'' voted Hitchin the 9th best town in the UK in which to live. Hitchin hosts an annual Arts and Music Festival with over 100 events taking place during the month. Hitchin Festival includes picnics, concerts, theatre, ghost walks, art exhibitions, comedy club, talks, summer fetes and fireworks. Since 2014, Hitchin has hosted the yarn festival, organised and run by members of Hitchin Stitchin. Music plays a very big part all year round with many venues hosting regular gigs. Hitchin Folk Club is one of the longest running and most respected clubs in the country meeting at The Sun Hotel on Sunday evenings; Hitchin Light Orchestra, Hitchin Symphony Orchestra and Hitchin Chamber Orchestra give regular concerts often in St Mary's Church and Hitchin Band perform around the country in brass band championship competition as well as the home town. An independent music venue, Club 85, hosts an "eclectic mix of contemporary bands and DJs" in the area. There are three theatres in the town. The Factory Playhouse is located on Wilbury Way and is the theatre of Emil Dale Academy. They host several full scale musicals each year with professional producers, directors, choreographers and West End musicians. The Market Theatre, Hitchin is a professional theatre, has a year-round programme including comedy plays, thrillers, historical shows, jazz nights and cocktail evenings. The Market Theatre is known for its annual Adult Panto (running between December and May) which also tours nationally. Additionally, the Queen Mother Theatre hosts the town's Bancroft Players, Big Spirit Youth Theatre and occasional visiting companies as well as Hitchin Films in the Richard Whitmore Studio. Hitchin Market remains one of the largest in the area with general markets every Tuesday and Saturday, a bric-a-brac and collectables market on Fridays, and a Sunday Car Boot. There are also Local Produce and Crafts specialist markets on the last Saturday of each month. A Lifestyle market is held on every second Saturday of the month, while infrequently there are occasional Art Markets. Hitchin Markets is also the venue for the annual Duck Race during Hitchin Festival. The town centre has a wealth of independent retailers in food and drink and fashion and the historic core is a place to find niche boutiques. Since 1995, Hitchin has benefited from award-winning town centre management and in 2009 established one of Hertfordshire's first Business Improvement Districts. In 2019 the town's centre was a finalist for England in the Visa Inc., Visa/Government of the United Kingdom, UK Government Great British High Street Awards. There are a number of organisations for young people, including Air Training Corps, 1066 Hitchin Squadron ATC, Army Cadet Force, Hitchin Army Cadets, Sea Cadet Corps, Sea Cadets Letchworth and Hitchin, as well as various scouting groups. The main burial ground for the town is Hitchin Cemetery on St. John's Road. Hitchin is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: * Nuits-St-Georges, France * Bingen am Rhein, Germany


Sport in Hitchin


Rugby Union

Hitchin Rugby Club was founded in 1954 and competes in rugby union at all age levels within the Hitchin area. This includes teams at ages 7 to 12, 13 to 17, under 19s, seniors, over 35s, and a Ladies side. The club's highlights have included playing at Twickenham in the final of the national Junior RFU Cup in 1993 and the establishment of the country's first Academy. Currently membership stands at over 500 people. The club are also active as a voluntary group with their community development programme.


Association Football

Hitchin Town F.C. was established in 1865 and later reformed in 1928. It is one of only three clubs who competed in the inaugural FA Cup, paying the then £25 entry fee (£2,892 in 2019 adjusted for inflation), and continue to compete. They claim to be the second oldest club in English football, but some dispute this due to the reformation in the 1920s. The side currently compete in the Southern Football League, Southern League Premier Division Central, the seventh tier of English football. The club play at 4,554-capacity ground Top Field, in the north of the town, and came close to achieving promotion in the late 2010s, but have recently come into a more troubled spell. Their highlights include wins in the F.A. Cup against higher ranked sides Hereford United in 1994 and Bristol Rovers in 1995 during which period they developed a reputation for "giant-killing". The side count Hitchin-born England international Jack Wilshere among their supporters. Wilshire studied at the Priory School in the town and now runs a youth scheme called the Jack Wilshere Soccer School. The club were featured by Sky Sports during their coverage of Non-League Day 2019 (taking place on 12 October each year), with the broadcaster following the match day experience at the club.


Other sports

Hitchin is also home to Blueharts Hockey Club, a leading club since 1946, with 7 men's teams and 7 women's team plus a thriving junior section. It also houses Hitchin Cricket Club, which has been an important cricket club within the area since 1866. Hitchin Swimming Club are based locally and competes at local, county and regional level. The Hitchin Nomads Cycling Club, which caters for many competitive and non-competitive cycling disciplines, was formed in the town in 1931. It is affiliated to British Cycling, the Cyclists' Touring Club, Cycling time trials and local cycling associations. Notable former members include pre-eminent cycling travel writer Harold Briercliffe and Max Pendleton, father of Olympic Games, Olympic gold-medallist and Cycling World Championship, track cycling World Champion Victoria Pendleton. Formed in 2003 and known as FVS TRI until November 2009, Team Trisports is a Hitchin-based triathlon club. In addition to triathlon, the club an England Athletics and British Cycling affiliate. Hitchin Running Club was formed in 2008 and is one of the most popular clubs in the town. They enjoy a large fan base and many local people of all abilities take part in the social activities. They are based at the rugby club and are a not for profit organisation.


Districts of Hitchin

* Bearton * Benslow * Poets Estate (Hitchin), Poets Estate * Purwell * Sunnyside (Hitchin), Sunnyside * Walsworth * West Hitchin * Westmill (Hitchin), Westmill


Nearby settlements

Ickleford is a village situated on the northern outskirts of Hitchin, and to the south is St Ippolyts, Charlton, Hertfordshire, Charlton and Gosmore. The nearest towns are Letchworth, Baldock, Stevenage and Luton.


Notable people


Filmography

Mike Leigh’s 1982 film ''Home Sweet Home (1982 film), Home Sweet Home'' for BBC Television was set in Hitchin. Part of the 2010 BBC TV series ''Just William (2010 TV serial), Just William'' was filmed at the British Schools Museum. Scenes from the BBC drama series ''Doctor Foster (TV series), Doctor Foster'' were filmed in Hitchin, as well as the Channel 4 series ''Humans (TV series), Humans''.


Miscellaneous

In 1960 Hitchin Urban District Council was the first in Britain to introduce 'black bags' for refuse collection. Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, Elizabeth the Queen Mother's birth in 1900 was registered at Hitchin, which is a few miles from her parent's English country house, St Paul's Walden Bury, where she spent much of her childhood. The 1951 book ''My Turn to Make the Tea'' by Monica Dickens is set in Hitchin (renamed Downingham in the book).


References


External links


Hitchin Historical Society

Hitchin Society

Historical Map of Hitchin Pubs
an interactive map of Hitchin public houses both current and closed. * {{Authority control Hitchin, Towns in Hertfordshire Market towns in Hertfordshire Unparished areas in Hertfordshire North Hertfordshire District