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Hispanophone and
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano or ) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Hispanidad, Spanish language, culture, or people. The term commonly applies to countries with a cultural and historical link to Spain, formerly ...
refers to anything relating to the speech of Spain (the ''Hispanosphere''). In a cultural, rather than merely linguistic sense, the notion of "Hispanophone" goes further than the above definition. The
Hispanic culture The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano or ) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Hispanidad, Spanish language, culture, or people. The term commonly applies to countries with a cultural and historical link to Spain, formerly ...
is the legacy of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, Imperio Español; la, Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy ( es, Monarquía Católica), was a colonial empire governed by Spain that exi ...
, and so the term can refer to people whose cultural background is primarily associated with Spain, regardless of
ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, ...
or geographical differences. The whole sense of identity of the Hispanic population and the Hispanophones is sometimes referred by the term ''
Hispanidad ''Hispanidad'' (, en, Hispanicity) is a term alluding to the group of people, countries, and communities that share the Spanish language and Hispanic culture. The term can have various, different implications and meanings depending on country of o ...
'' (Hispanicity). They are also terms used to refer to speakers of the
Spanish language Spanish () or Castilian (, ) is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe. Today, it is a global language with nearly 500 million native speakers, mainly in Spain and the Americas. It is the world's second-most spoke ...
and the Spanish-speaking world. The terms are derived from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language ...
word ''Hispanicus'' ("Spanish") which refers to anything pertaining to the Roman province of
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Roman Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into ...
("
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 = , ...
"). In addition to the general definition of Hispanophone, some groups in the Hispanic world make a distinction between Castilian-speaking, , or and Spanish-speaking, with the former term denoting the speakers of the Spanish language— also known as Castilian—and the latter the speakers of the Spanish or Hispanic languages (i.e. the
languages of Spain The languages of Spain ( es, lenguas de España), or Spanish languages ( es, lenguas españolas), are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain. Most languages spoken in Spain belong to the Romance language family, of which Spanish is the onl ...

languages of Spain
or the languages of the Hispanic nations).


The Hispanosphere


Geographic distribution

Hispanophones are estimated at between 480 and 577 million (including second language speakers)5th International Congress on Spanish Language
la-moncloa.es


, Antonio Molina, director of the Instituto Cervantes in 2006
fundeu.es
, Luis María Anson of the Real Academia Española
elcultural.es


, Mario Melgar of the México University
lllf.uam.es
, Feu Rosa – Spanish in Mercosur


elpais.com
globally, making Spanish the second most spoken language in terms of native speakers. Around 360 million live in
Hispanic America Hispanic America (Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaking countries of North, Central, and South America. In all ...
and 45 million in
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 = , ...
(70 million in
Europe Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the continental landmass of Eurasia, and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlant ...
). There are more than 52 million Spanish speakers in the United States. There are also smaller Hispanophone groups in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total ...

Canada
, northern
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and occupied mostly by Moro ...
,
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea ( es, Guinea Ecuatorial; french: Guinée équatoriale; pt, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea ( es, link=no, República de Guinea Ecuatorial, french: link=no, République de Guinée équatoriale, pt, l ...
,
Western Sahara Western Sahara ( '; ; ) is a disputed territory on the northwest coast and in the Maghreb region of North and West Africa. About 20% of the territory is controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, while the remaining 8 ...
, the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republika sang ...

Philippines
and
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 millio ...
as well as in many other places around the world, particularly other countries of
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. The EU has developed an internal s ...
, where it is one of 24 official languages, and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixt ...

Australia
.


Countries

During the Spanish period between 1492 and 1898, many people from Spain migrated to the new lands they had conquered. The
Spaniards or * Aragonese and ca, espanyols ** ** * gl, españóis * oc, espanhòls , native_name_lang = , tablehdr = Diaspora , regions = 41,539,400 , flag = Flag of Spain.svg , flag_caption = ''Rojigualda'' (Cu ...
took with them their language and culture, and integrated within the society they had settled, creating a large empire that stretched all over the world and producing several multiracial populations. Their influences are found in the following continents and countries that were originally colonized by the Spaniards.


List of countries


Europe


Spain

The modern-day people that live in the region of ancient
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Roman Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into ...
are the
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
,
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
,
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France to the north and Spain to the south. Believed to hav ...
n and Gibraltarian people.
Historically History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing systems are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term that relates t ...
, the modern country of Spain was formed by the accretion of several independent Iberian kingdoms through dynastic inheritance, conquest and the will of the local elites. These kingdoms had their own nationalistic loyalties and political borders. Today, there is no single Castilian–Spanish identity for the whole country. Spain is a ''de facto'' plurinational state. Many Spanish citizens feel no conflict in recognising their multiple ethnic identities at the same time. Spain is a culturally heterogeneous country, home to a wide range of cultures, each one with its own customs and
tradition A tradition is a belief or behavior (folk custom) passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past. A component of folklore, common examples include holidays or impractical but socially ...
s. Some such cultures have
their own language
their own language
. Since the beginning of the transition to democracy in Spain and the creation of the Spanish ''
autonomous communities eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name = , map = , category = Autonomous administrative division , ...
'', after
Francoist Spain Francoist Spain ( es, España franquista), known in Spain as the Francoist dictatorship ( es, dictadura franquista), was the period of Spanish history between 1936 and 1975, when Francisco Franco ruled Spain with the title ''Caudillo''. After his ...
, there have been many movements towards more autonomy ( delegation of powers) in certain territories of the country, some with the aim of achieving full independence and others with the goal of improving the system of devolution and the state of the autonomies (or self-government entities) . The existence of multiple distinct cultures in Spain allows an analogy to be drawn to the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
. Using the term Spanish for someone of Spanish descent would then be expected to be equivalent to using
Briton The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.: British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and natio ...
to describe someone descending from some part of the United Kingdom. Cultures within the United Kingdom, such as
English English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an adjective for something of, from, or related to England ** English national identity, an identity and ...
,
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
, Scottish, and
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
, would then correspond in this analogy to cultures within Spain such as Castilian,
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * Ca ...
,
GalicianGalician may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain) ** Galician language ** Galician people ** Gallaeci, a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia (currently Galicia (Spain) * Something of, from, or related to ...
and
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques, an ethnic group of Spain and France * Basque language, their language Places * Basque Country (greater region), the homeland of the Basque people with parts in both Spain and France * Basque Country (autonomous comm ...
among others. In contrast with Spain, because of centuries of gradual and mutual consolidation across the Iberian Peninsula, such distinctions tend to be blurred. It is a subtle, yet important, distinction. In Spain, as in the United Kingdom, the economically dominant territories— Castile and
England England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continent ...
—spread their language for mutual communication. However, the political dominance in the United Kingdom tends to be sharper compared to Spain, where most of medieval realms do not correspond with the actual boundaries of the autonomous communities, and the crown was unified into a sole
monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in t ...
.


Americas


Hispanic America

Spanish is the most widely-spoken language of the Americas, as well as the official language in a great part of the Americas.


United States


=Origins and demography

= U.S. Hispanics are citizens of the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...
whose ancestry or national origin is of any of the nations composing the Hispanosphere. A Hispanic person's status is independent from whether or not he or she speaks the Spanish language, for not all Hispanic Americans speak Spanish. A Hispanic person may be of any race (White, Amerindian, mixed, Black, Asian or Pacific Islander). Hispanics accounted for 17.1% of the population, around 53.2 million people. This was an increase of 29% since 2004, when Hispanics were 14.1% of the population (around 41.3 million people). The Hispanic growth rate over the July 1, 2003 to July 1, 2004 period was 3.6% — higher than any other ancestral group in the United States — and more than three times the rate of the nation's total population (at 1.0%). The projected Hispanic population of the United States for July 1, 2050, is 105.6 million people. According to this projection, Hispanics will constitute 25% of the nation's total population by the year 2050. Historically, a continuous Hispanic presence in the territory of the United States has existed since the 16th century, earlier than any other group after the
Amerindians The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who now identify themselves with those peoples. Although some indigenous peoples ...
. Spaniards pioneered the present-day United States. The first confirmed European landing on the continent was that of
Juan Ponce de León Juan Ponce de León (; 1474 – July 1521) (, also , ), was a Spanish explorer and ''conquistador'' known for leading the first official European expedition to Florida and serving as the first governor of Puerto Rico. He was born in Santervás ...
, who landed in 1513 on the shore he christened '' La Florida''. Within three decades of Ponce de León's landing, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the
Appalachian Mountains The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period. They once reached elevations similar to those ...
, the
Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. From its traditional source of Lake Itasca in northern Minne ...
, the
Grand Canyon The Grand Canyon (, yuf-x-yav, Wi:kaʼi:la, , ) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States. The Grand Canyon is long, up to wide and attains a depth of over a mile (). The canyon and adjacent rim are ...

Grand Canyon
, and the
Great Plains The Great Plains, sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, located in the interior of North America. It lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie ...
. Spanish ships sailed along the East Coast, penetrating to present-day
Bangor, Maine Bangor () is a city in the U.S. state of Maine and the county seat of Penobscot County. The city proper has a population of 33,039, making it the state's 3rd-largest settlement, behind Portland (66,882) and Lewiston (36,221). Modern Bangor was ...
, and up the
Pacific Coast#REDIRECT Pacific coast#REDIRECT Pacific coast {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
as far as
Oregon Oregon () is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho. Th ...
. In 1540
Hernando de Soto Hernando de Soto (; ; 1500 – May 21, 1542) was a Spanish explorer and ''conquistador'' who was involved in expeditions in Nicaragua and the Yucatan Peninsula. He played an important role in Pizarro's conquest of the Inca Empire in Peru, but is ...
undertook an extensive exploration of the present United States. In the same year
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Francisco is the Spanish and Portuguese form of the masculine given name ''Franciscus''. In Spanish, people with the name Francisco are sometimes nicknamed "Paco": San Francisco de Asís was known as Pater Comunitatis (The Community father) when h ...
led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican Indians across today's
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain states. It is the 6th largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. I ...
Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...
border and traveled as far as central
Kansas Kansas () is a state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska to the north; Missouri to the east; Oklahoma to the south; and Colorado to the west. Kansas is named af ...
, close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States. Other Spanish explorers of the United States make up a long list that includes, among others, Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón,
Pánfilo de Narváez Pánfilo de Narváez (; 147?–1528) was a Spanish ''conquistador'' and soldier in the Americas. Born in Spain, he first embarked to Jamaica in 1510 as a soldier. He came to participate in the conquest of Cuba and led an expedition to Camagüey es ...
,
Sebastián Vizcaíno Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548–1624) was a Spanish soldier, entrepreneur, explorer, and diplomat whose varied roles took him to New Spain, the Philippines, the Baja California peninsula, the California coast and Japan. Early career Vizcaíno w ...
,
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo ( pt, João Rodrigues Cabrilho; 1499 – January 3, 1543) was an Iberian maritime explorer best known for investigations of the West Coast of North America, undertaken on behalf of the Spanish Empire. He was the first Euro ...

Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo
,
Gaspar de Portolà Gaspar is a given and/or surname of French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish origin that could refer to: Names *Gáspár, the Hungarian language cognate of Gaspar *Caspar (magus), one of the wise men mentioned in the Bible Given name *Gaspar Ara ...
,
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (; 15 February 1519 – 17 September 1574) was a Spanish admiral and explorer from Avilés, in Asturias, Spain. He is notable for planning the first regular trans-oceanic convoys, which became known as the Spanish treasu ...

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
,
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (; Jerez de la Frontera, 1488/1490/1492"Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Núñez (1492?-1559?)." American Eras. Vol. 1: Early American Civilizations and Exploration to 1600. Detroit: Gale, 1997. 50-51. Gale Virtual Reference ...
,
Tristán de Luna y Arellano Tristán de Luna y Arellano (1510 – September 16, 1573) was a Spanish explorer and Conquistador of the 16th century.Herbert Ingram Priestley, Tristan de Luna: Conquistador of the Old South: A Study of Spanish Imperial Strategy (1936). http://palmm ...
, and
Juan de Oñate Juan de Oñate y Salazar (; 1550–1626) was a Spanish conquistador from New Spain, explorer, and colonial governor of the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México in the viceroyalty of New Spain. He led early Spanish expeditions to the Great Plains ...
. In all, Spaniards probed half of today's lower 48 states before the first English colonization attempt at
Roanoke Island Roanoke Island () is an island in Dare County on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, United States. It was named after the historical Roanoke Carolina Algonquian people who inhabited the area in the 16th century at the time of English colonisation. ...

Roanoke Island
in 1585. The Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at
St. Augustine, Florida St. Augustine (from es, San Agustín) is a city in the Southeastern United States, on the Atlantic coast of northeastern Florida. Founded in 1565 by Spanish explorers, it is the oldest continuously-inhabited European-established settlement in the c ...
, in 1565.
Santa Fe, New Mexico Santa Fe ( ; , Spanish for "Holy Faith"; Tewa: ; Northern Tiwa: ; nv, Yootó) is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in New Mexico with a population of 84,683 in 2019, the county seat of Santa Fe County, and ...
also predates
Jamestown, Virginia The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. It was located on the northeast bank of the James (Powhatan) River about southwest of the center of modern Williamsburg. It was esta ...
(founded in 1607) and
Plymouth Colony Plymouth Colony (sometimes Plimouth) was an English colonial venture in America from 1620 to 1691 at a location that had previously been surveyed and named by Captain John Smith. The settlement served as the capital of the colony and developed as ...
(of ''
Mayflower ''Mayflower'' was an English ship that transported a group of English families known today as the Pilgrims from England to the New World in 1620. After a grueling 10 weeks at sea, ''Mayflower'', with 102 passengers and a crew of about 30, reach ...
'' and Pilgrims fame, founded in 1620). Later came Spanish settlements in
San Antonio ("Cradle of Freedom") , image_map = Bexar SanAntonio.svg , mapsize = 280px , map_caption = Location within Bexar County , pushpin_map = Texas#USA#North America ...
,
Tucson Tucson (; es, Tucsón; O'odham: ''Cuk-Ṣon''; Navajo: ''Tó Oostsʼąʼ'') is a city in and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and is home to the University of Arizona. It is the second largest city in Arizona, with a popul ...
,
San Diego San Diego (, ; ) is a city in the U.S. state of California on the coast of the Pacific Ocean and immediately adjacent to the United States–Mexico border. With an estimated population of 1,423,851 as of July 1, 2019, San Diego is the eighth ...
,
Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often abbreviated as L.A., is the largest city in California. With an estimated population of nearly four million people, it is the second most populous ...
, and
San Francisco San Francisco (/ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish for "Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, commercial, and financial center in Northern California. San Francisco is the 16th most populous city in ...
, to name just a few. The Spanish even established a
Jesuit The Society of Jesus (SJ; la, Societas Iesu) is a religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six companions with the approval of Pope Paul III in 1540. The members are called Jesuits ...
mission in
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern regions of the United States, between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are s ...

Virginia
's
Chesapeake Bay The Chesapeake Bay ( ) is the largest estuary in the United States. The Bay is located in the Mid-Atlantic region and is primarily separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Delmarva Peninsula (including the parts: the Eastern Shore of Maryland / Eas ...
37 years before the founding of Jamestown. Two iconic American stories have Spanish antecedents, too. Almost 80 years before
John Smith John Smith is a common placeholder name and assumed name, sometimes comical. It may refer to: People :''In chronological order.'' Academics *John Smith (anatomist and chemist) (1721–1797), professor of anatomy and chemistry at the University o ...
's alleged rescue by
Pocahontas Pocahontas (, ; born Amonute, known as Matoaka, 1596 – March 1617) was a Native American woman, belonging to the Powhatan People, notable for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. She was the daughter of Po ...
, a man by the name of Juan Ortiz told of his remarkably similar rescue from execution by an Indian girl. Spaniards also held a
thanksgiving Thanksgiving is a national holiday celebrated on various dates in the United States, Canada, Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Liberia. It began as a day of giving thanks and sacrifice for the blessing of the harvest and of the preceding year. Simila ...
—56 years before the famous Pilgrims
festival A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures. It is often marked as a local or national holiday, mela, or eid. A festival constitutes typi ...
—when they feasted near St. Augustine with Florida Indians, probably on stewed pork and garbanzo beans. As late as 1783, at the end of the American Revolutionary War, Spain held claim to roughly half of today's continental United States (see New Spain); in 1775, Spanish ships even reached Alaska. From 1819 to 1848, the United States increased the nation's area by roughly a third of former Spanish and Mexican territory, including today's three most populous states: California, Texas, and Florida. Hispanics became the first American citizens in the newly acquired Southwestern United States, Southwest territory and remained the ancestral majority in several states until the 20th century, and a large minority in the 21st century. Hispanic Americans have fought in all the List of United States military history events, wars of the United States and have earned some of the highest distinctions awarded to U.S. soldiers (list of Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients). Historic figures in the United States have been Hispanic from early times. Some recent famous people include actress Rita Hayworth and baseball legends Lefty Gomez and Ted Williams.


=National Hispanic Heritage Month

= The National Hispanic Heritage Month is celebrated in the United States from September 15 to October 15.


Racial diversity

The term ''Hispanic'' is cultural and not racial. The racial diversity found among Hispanics stems from the fact that Hispanic America has always been, since 1492, an area of immigration until late in the 20th century, when the region has increasingly become an area of emigration. Even outside the broad U.S. definition of Hispanic, the term encompasses a very racially and ethnically diverse population. While in the United States, Hispanics are often treated as a group apart from white (people), whites, black (people), blacks or other races, they actually include people who may identify with any or all of those racial groups. In the American mass media as well as popular culture, Hispanic is often incorrectly used to describe a subject's Race (classification of human beings), race or human physical appearance, physical appearance. In general, Hispanics are assumed to have traits such as dark hair and eyes, and brown or olive skin. Many others are viewed as physically intermediate between whites, Black people, blacks and/or Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Amerindians and/or Asian people, Asians. Hispanics with mostly Caucasoid or Negroid features may not be recognized as such in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...
in spite of the ethnic and racial diversity of most Hispanic American populations. Hispanics who do not look like the stereotypical Hispanic may have their ancestral status questioned or even challenged by others. Actors Martin Sheen, Alexis Bledel and Cameron Diaz, for example, are Hispanic even though they may be presumed not to be so because, being white, they do not fit the stereotype. If Hispanics with mostly Caucasoid features are to be considered Hispanic, they have stereotypical Mediterranean race, Mediterranean/Southern European appearance - olive skin, dark hair, and dark eyes. A great proportion of Hispanics identify as Mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian) regardless of national origin. This is largely because most Hispanics have their origins in majority mixed Hispanic American countries. El Salvador, Paraguay, and
Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...
are examples of mostly mixed populations, with 90% of Salvadorans, 95% of Paraguayans, and 70% of Mexicans identifying as mestizo, with Mexico having the largest total mestizo population at over 66 million. Many individuals identified as Hispanics (based on the U.S. definition) are of unmixed Amerindian ancestry. For example, many of those from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru constitute a majority or plurality of the population as do a considerable proportion in
Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...
. Many Hispanics born in or with descent from the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Cuba, Uruguay, and other countries may be of African descent, be it mulatto (mixed European and black African), zambo (mixed Amerindian and black African), Multiracial, triracial (specifically European, black African, and Amerindian), or unmixed black African. Recently, Hispanics of unmixed black African blood are perceived and defined by American mass media and popular culture as Hispanic, because of existing mulatto Hispanics of Negroid phenotypes and the dark-skinned stereotype of Hispanics. The majority of people in Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile are largely of European descent; not only of Spaniards, Spanish Europeans, but Italian people, Italian,
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
, German people, German, Polish people, Polish,
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
, British people, British, etc. In countries like
Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...
, there was a process of miscegenation, which resulted in many people having both indigenous and European origins. Many white Mexicans, though labeled ''Hispanic'' by the U.S. definition because of their assimilated culture and country of birth, trace their ancestries to European countries other than Spain, and some to non-European countries (see next paragraph). Nevertheless, in most cases, they have some Spanish ancestry, as the waves of European immigrants to these countries tended to quickly assimilate, intermarrying with the country's local population. (From 1850 to 1920, the U.S. Census form did not distinguish between whites and Mexican Americans. In 1930, the U.S. Census form asked for "color or race," and census enumerators were instructed to write ''W'' for white and ''Mex'' for Mexican. In 1940 and 1950, the census reverted its decision and made Mexicans be classified as white again and thus the instructions were to "Report ''white'' (W) for Mexicans unless they were definitely of full Indigenous Indian or other non-white races (such as Black or Asian).") Initially colonial Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile had predominately mestizo population, but because of a massive European migration (mostly Spaniards and Italians, with Germans, British, Polish, etc.) in the 19th century, and the repeated intermarriage with white Europeans and Middle Easterners, like white Mexicans, they also have some Spanish blood, wherein the mestizo population became a so-called castizo population; with more European settlers arriving in the early 20th century, the population of Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile has overwhelmingly become white and European (some Middle Eastern) in race, culture and tradition. Like mentioned above, the Hispanics of Caucasian race, including white Mexicans, white Argentines, white Uruguayans, and white Chileans, and Spaniards themselves, who are perceived by U.S. mass media as well as general U.S. popular culture as Hispanic usually possess stereotypical Mediterranean appearance (Hispanics of other Southern European descent, mostly descendants of Italian and Portuguese settlers and quite a large number descendants of Greek settlers, are even perceived by U.S. definition as Hispanic) Likewise, a percentage of Hispanics as defined by the U.S. government trace their ancestries to the Middle East, for example Colombians, Ecuadorians and Mexico, Mexicans of Lebanon, Lebanese or Palestinian people, Palestinian ancestry; Hispanics of Middle Eastern ancestry are usually to be considered Hispanic by the U.S. government, because they possess stereotypical Southern European appearance. Many Hispanics are of East Asian ancestry, as in the case of Cubans, Mexicans, Panamanians and Peruvians of Chinese people, Chinese and/or Japanese people, Japanese descent. If they were to migrate to the United States, the definition most frequently advocated would consider them Hispanic (''see also: Asian Latin American, Asian Hispanic American and Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans''). A percentage of Hispanics are from Pacific Islander descent, mostly Rapa Nui people, Rapa Nui from Chilean territorial possession of Easter Island; Hispanics of Pacific Islander descent are also considered as Hispanic based on definition of U.S. government because they are brown-skinned and black-haired. The presence of these mentioned ethnic groups are not country-specific, since they can be found in every Hispanic American country, whether as larger of smaller proportions of their respective populations. Even in Spain, the European motherland of Hispanicity, recent decades has seen a growing population of mestizos and mulattoes and of unmixed Amerindian and African descent due to the reversal of the historic Old World-to-New World migration pattern, i.e.: Latin American immigration to Spain. Of the over 35 million Hispanics counted in the United States Census, 2000, Federal 2000 Census, 47.9% identified as White (people), White (termed white Hispanic and Latino Americans, White Hispanic by the Census Bureau); 42.2% some other race; 6.3% two or more races; 2% Black or African American; 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native; 0.3% Asian; and 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. Note that even among those Hispanics who reported one race only, most would also possess at least some ancestral lineage from one or more other races, despite the fact that only 6.3% reported as such (this is also applicable to the non-Hispanics counted in the U.S. Census, although maybe in less proportion). According to one study (Stephens et al. 2001), from the genetic perspective, Hispanics generally represent a differential mixture of European, Native American, and African ancestry, with the proportionate mix typically depending on country of origin. The populations of Iberia (both Spain and Portugal), like all European populations, have received multiple other influences, even though they are still largely descended from the prehistoric European populations, and to a greater degree than any other major group. The ancestry of Iberians has thus received many, (limited and often very localized) influences from the many people who settled on its territory throughout history, including Phoenicians, Greeks, Ancient Rome, Romans, Punics, Celts, Vandals, Suebi, Buri (Germanic tribe), Buri, Visigoths, Alans, Byzantine Empire, Byzantines, Slavic peoples, Slavs (saqaliba), Berber people, Berbers, Arabs, Magyars, Jews, and—particularly in Andalusia—Romani people, Roma.


Africa


Angola

The former Portuguese colony has a community of Afro-Cubans known as Amparos. They descend from Cuban soldiers brought to the country in 1975 as a result of the Cuban involvement in the Cold War. Fidel Castro deployed thousands of troops to the country during the Angolan Civil War. As a result of this era, there exists a small Spanish-speaking community in Angola of Afro-Cubans numbering about 100,000.


Equatorial Guinea

In the former Spanish province of
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea ( es, Guinea Ecuatorial; french: Guinée équatoriale; pt, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea ( es, link=no, República de Guinea Ecuatorial, french: link=no, République de Guinée équatoriale, pt, l ...
, although Portuguese and French are co-official languages, the majority of the population speak Spanish. There is a small minority of African people who possessed Spanish and other European ancestry. These individuals form less than 1% of the population.


Morocco

In the former Spanish protectorate of
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and occupied mostly by Moro ...
, Spanish speakers are present in small numbers, located in the northern coastal region of the country. However the majority of Moroccan people are predominantly Arabic speaking Muslims of Berber people, Berber and African ancestry.


Nigeria

The small Amaro population are descendants of repatriated Afro-Cuban indentured servants, they were called ''Saro (Nigeria)#Amaros, Amaros''. Despite being free to return to Cuba when their tenure was over, they remained in these countries, marrying into the local native population.


Spanish territories in North Africa

Since the Reconquista,
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 = , ...
has held numerous emplacements in North Africa. Most of them were promptly lost, but to date, with an approximate population of 143,000 people, the Autonomous Communities of Spain, autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla, which constitute the two ''plazas de soberanía mayores'' (Major Territories under [Spanish] Sovereignty) remained Spanish, and the Chafarinas Islands, the Peñón de Alhucemas and the Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, which constitute the three ''plazas de soberanía menores'' (Minor Territories under [Spanish] Sovereignty), still forming part of Spain. The Canary Islands, a constituent part of Spain's main territorial subdivisions, are also located in North Africa.


Western Sahara

In the former Spanish province of
Western Sahara Western Sahara ( '; ; ) is a disputed territory on the northwest coast and in the Maghreb region of North and West Africa. About 20% of the territory is controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, while the remaining 8 ...
, Spanish is ''de facto'' official (however, in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, one of the claimants to the territory, it is ''de jure'' co-official). Most Arabic speakers speak Spanish as second language.


Asia


Philippines

In the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republika sang ...

Philippines
, a Spanish Filipino is a Filipino people, Filipino who has Spanish or Hispanic lineage and descent, mostly born and raised in the Philippines. Most common languages spoken today by Spanish Filipinos are Philippine Spanish, Spanish language, Spanish; Chavacano, the only Spanish-based creole language in Asia and is spoken by over a million people; and English language, English, which is used in the public sphere. A number of Spanish Filipinos also speak other Languages of the Philippines, Philippine languages. Section 7, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution, 1987 Philippine Constitution specifies Spanish (along with Arabic) a language to "be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis", while the Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language ( es, Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española) remains the state regulating body for the language. Castilian Spanish is the sole dialectal standard taught in schools, while Philippine Spanish currently has a few thousand native speakers left. Despite its rapid decline in the 20th century, there has been a revival of interest in the Spanish language in the first decade of the 21st century. Since the rule of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (herself a fluent speaker), Spanish is slowly being re-introduced into the Education in the Philippines, educational system, with a revival of Spanish-language media including ''Filipinas Ahora Mismo'' ( tl, Filipinas Ora Mismo), a radio programme broadcast on Radio Manila FM. Many Languages of the Philippines, Philippine languages including Filipino language, Filipino notably contain numerous Spanish language in the Philippines#Influence on the languages of the Philippines, loanwords of Spanish origin.


Pacific Islands


Easter Island (Rapa Nui)

Spanish is the official language of Easter Island, a territorial possession of Chile in Polynesia, Easter Island is the only place in Austronesian world where people fluently speak Spanish.


Mariana Islands

The Mariana Islands (today split between the United States territory of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) were formerly governed as a part of the Spanish East Indies, and thus many Chamorros possess some degree of Spanish admixture. While most people living on these islands no longer speak Spanish, the native Chamorro language exhibits a noticeable Spanish influence in its vocabulary. Many Chamorros have also preserved Hispanic cultural elements such as party, fiestas, cockfighting, and the Catholic faith despite having integrated with the American way of life. Spanish surnames are still prevalent on Guam, it is spoken by Catholic people and Puerto Ricans, and the custom of women keeping their maiden names after marriage is a both byproduct of Spanish culture on these islands as well as the matrilineal structure of indigenous Chamorro people, Chamorro culture.


Religion

The Spanish and the Portuguese took the Roman Catholic faith to their colonies in the Americas, Africa, and Asia; Roman Catholicism remains the predominant religion amongst most Hispanics. A small but growing number of Hispanics belong to a Protestantism, Protestant denomination.


See also

* Flag of the Hispanic People * List of hispanophones *
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano or ) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Hispanidad, Spanish language, culture, or people. The term commonly applies to countries with a cultural and historical link to Spain, formerly ...
* Hispanidad, Hispanicity * Hispanism and Pan-Hispanism * Hispanophobia * Hispanic and Latino Americans, Latino * Language geography and ''Sprachraum'' * ''Lingua franca'' and World language * Anglophone, Francophone, Lusophone, the corresponding words relating to use of the English, French, and Portuguese languages, respectively


Notes


References

{{Countries and languages lists Spanish-speaking countries and territories, Country classifications Cultural regions Spanish diaspora Spanish language Hispanidad