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''Hispanidad'' (, en, Hispanicity) is a term alluding to the group of people, countries, and communities that share the
Spanish language Spanish () or Castilian (, ) is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe. Today, it is a global language with nearly 500 million native speakers, mainly in Spain and the Americas. It is the world's second-most spoke ...
and
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano or ) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Hispanidad, Spanish language, culture, or people. The term commonly applies to countries with a cultural and historical link to Spain, formerly ...
culture. The term can have various, different implications and meanings depending on country of origin, socio-political views, and cultural background.


Early use

The term has been used in the early modern period and is in the by Alejo Venegas, printed in 1531, to mean "style of linguistic expression". It was used, with a similar meaning, in the 1803 edition of the ''Dictionary of the
Spanish Royal Academy The Royal Spanish Academy ( es, Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, Spain, but is affiliated with na ...
'' as a
synonym A synonym is a word, morpheme, or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word, morpheme, or phrase in the same language. For example, the words ''begin'', ''start'', ''commence'', and ''initiate'' are all synonyms of one another ...
of ''Hispanismo'' (Hispanism), which, in turn, was defined as "the peculiar speech of the Spanish language".


Revival

In the early 20th century, the term was revived, with several new meanings. Its reintroduction is attributed to Unamuno in 1909, who used the term again on 11 March 1910, in an article, ''La Argentinidad'', published in a newspaper in
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by ...
, ''
La Nación ''La Nación'' (''The Nation'') is an Argentine daily newspaper. As the country's leading conservative paper, ''La Nacións main competitor is the centrist ''Clarín''. It is regarded as a newspaper of record for Argentina. Its motto is: "La Naci ...
''. He compared the term to other similar expressions: ', ', ' and '. Unamuno linked the concept to the multiplicity of peoples speaking the Spanish language, which encompassed in turn his idea of
La Raza The Spanish expression ('the people' or 'the community'; literal translation: 'the race') has historically been used to refer to the Hispanophone populations (primarily though not always exclusively in the Western Hemisphere), considered as a ...
, gave it an egalitarian substrate and questioned the very status of
motherland A homeland is the concept of the place where a cultural, national, or racial identity had formed. The definition can also mean simply one's country of birth. When used as a proper noun, the Homeland, as well as its equivalents in other language ...
for Spain; he claimed the need of approaching Hispanic American republics in terms of sisterhood (opposing "primacies" and "maternities"). Further development of the concept had to wait for the 1920s, when a group of intellectuals was influenced by the ideas of ultranationalist French thinker
Charles Maurras Charles-Marie-Photius Maurras (; ; 20 April 1868 – 16 November 1952) was a French author, politician, poet, and critic. He was an organizer and principal philosopher of ''Action Française'', a political movement that was monarchist, anti-parl ...
and rescued the term. As a precedent, the Spanish writer
José María Salaverría José María Salaverría e Ipenza (1873–1940) was a Spanish journalist and writer. Biography Born on Vinaròs (province of Castellón) on 28 May 1873, he moved early in his life with his family to San Sebastián. In his capacity as a journ ...
, who lived in Argentina between 1910 and 1913, would have implicitly the idea of an Hispanic community, comparable to Hispanidad, but the leading status of Spain in the community is however a moot point in his work. The term was used by Spanish priest Zacarías de Vizcarra, who was living in
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata, on South America's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be trans ...

Buenos Aires
. He proposed in 1926 that the expression '' Fiesta de la Raza'' should be changed to ''Fiesta de la Hispanidad''. During the reign of King
Alfonso XIII Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941), also known as El Africano or the African, was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. He was a monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died th ...
of Spain, the Virgin of Guadaloupe was proclaimed "Queen of the Hispanidad" in Spain. In the later years of the decade, vanguard writer Ernesto Giménez Caballero began to elaborate a neo-imperialist narrative of the Hispanidad in '. The doctrine of Hispanidad would also become a core tenet of the
reactionary In political science, a reactionary or reactionist is a person or entity holding political views that favour a return to a previous political state of society that they believe possessed positive characteristics that are absent in contemporary socie ...
thought in Spain in the coming years. During the
Second Spanish Republic The Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, Segunda República Española), was the form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 193 ...
, Spanish monarchist author
Ramiro de Maeztu Ramiro de Maeztu y Whitney (May 4, 1875 – October 29, 1936) was a prolific Spanish essayist, journalist and publicist. His early literary work adscribes him to the Generation of '98. Adept to Nietzschean and Social Darwinist ideas in his youth, he ...

Ramiro de Maeztu
, who had been the ambassador to Argentina between 1928 and 1930, considered the concept of Hispanidad, motivated by the interests aroused on him by Argentine-related topics, and the meetings between him and the attendants to the courses of Catholic culture as nationalist, Catholic and anti-liberal. Maeztu explained his doctrine of Hispanidad in his work ''Defensa de la Hispanidad'' (1934); he thought it was a spiritual world that united Spain and its former colonies by the Spanish language and Catholicism. He attributed the concept to Vizcarra, instead of Unamuno. In the Hispanidad of Maeztu, the Christian and humanist features that would identify Hispanic peoples would replace rationalism, liberalism and democracy, which he called alien to the Hispanic ''
ethos Ethos ( or ) is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. The Greeks also used this word to refer to the power of music to influence emotions, behav ...
''. His work "relentlessly" linked
Catholicism The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international ...
and Hispanidad and was highly influential with
Argentine nationalists Argentine nationalism refers to the nationalism of Argentine people and Argentine culture. It surged during the War of Independence and the Civil Wars, and strengthened during the 1880s. There were waves of renewed interest in nationalism in respo ...
and the Spanish far right, including
Francoism Francoist Spain ( es, España franquista), known in Spain as the Francoist dictatorship ( es, dictadura franquista), was the period of Spanish history between 1936 and 1975, when Francisco Franco ruled Spain with the title ''Caudillo''. After his ...
. Although declaredly antiracist because of its Catholic origin, the sense of racial egalitarianism in the Maeztu's idea of the Hispanidad was restricted to the scope of heavenly salvation. Spanish
Primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal constituting the taxonomic order Primates (). Primates arose 85–55 million years ago first from small terrestrial mammals, which adapted to living in the trees ...
Isidro Gomá y Tomás issued in Argentina, on 12 October 1934, a Maeztu-inspired manifesto, ''Apology of the Hispanidad'': According to Stephen G. H. Roberts, Gomá linked the ideas of Maeztu and the ideology that was developed by the dictatorship of Franco. According to the philosopher and writer
Julián Marías Julián Marías Aguilera (17 June 1914 – 15 December 2005) was a Spanish philosopher associated with the Generation of '36 movement. He was a pupil of the Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset and member of the Madrid School.A. Pablo Iannon ...
, the
Spanish America Hispanic America (Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaking countries of North, Central, and South America. In all ...
n territories were not only colonies but also extensions of Spain that mixed with the native American peoples, with whom Europeans intermarried, creating a multicultural society.


Francoist Spain

That narrative was heavily featured in Nationalist propaganda during the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( es, Sublevaci ...
, being used as war tool. Spanish philosopher and Francoist propagandist would make
Francisco Franco Francisco Franco Bahamonde (, ; 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who led the Nationalist forces in overthrowing the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War and thereafter ruled over Spain from 1939 ...
the saviour of the legacy of the Hispanidad from an "invisible army" that was sent by the
Communist International The Communist International (Comintern), also known as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international organization that advocated world communism. It was controlled by the Soviet Union. The Comintern resolved at its Second Congres ...
of
Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the capital and largest city of Russia. The city stands on the Moskva River in Central Russia, with a population estimated at 12.4 million residents within the ci ...
. García Morente would synthetize the essence of Hispanidad in the archaistic ideal of " Christian knight", half-monk and half-soldier; that figure was used in the pages of student books during the beginning of the Francoist dictatorship. After the Spanish Civil War, the
Our Lady of the Pillar Our or OUR may refer to: * The possessive form of "we" * Our (river), in Belgium, Luxembourg, and Germany * Our, Jura, a commune in France * Office of Utilities Regulation, a government utility regulator in Jamaica * Operation Underground Railroad, ...
became a symbol of Hispanidad in Spain and was linked to the
National Catholicism National Catholicism (Spanish: ''nacionalcatolicismo'') was part of the ideological identity of Francoism, the political system with which dictator Francisco Franco governed Spain between 1939 and 1975. Its most visible manifestation was the hege ...
of the Franco´s regime to the ideas of patriotism and "Hispanic essences". Franco created the Council of the Hispanidad on 2 November 1940. It was thought at first to be a sort of supranational institution, and it ended up being a council of 74 members, charged with the task of coordinating the relations with Latin America. The Hispanidad became the source of an expansive nationalism (first imperialist and then cultural). Besides its character both as national identity element and as stalwart of Catholicism, Francoism used the Hispanidad in international relations. The Council of the Hispanidad would become the in 1946 and change from a more
Falangist Falangism ( es, falangismo) was the political ideology of two political parties in Spain that were known as the Falange, namely first the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FE de las JONS) and afterwards the Falang ...
profile to a more Catholic one. That happened within a framework of a general change in the doctrine of the Hispanidad between 1945 and 1947, with Alberto Martín-Artajo at the helm of the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The message then became more defensive and less aggressive, with fewer mentions of "empire" and "race" (biological). Afterwards, later in the Francoist dictatorship, the regime, then less constrained by the international community, recovered more aggressive rhetorics, but it failed to reach the full extent of when Ramón Serrano Suñer was Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 1958, the Day of the Race was renamed to Day of the Hispanidad in Spain.


Mexico

Already in the 1930s, conservative Mexican writer had become an active propagandist of the Hispanidad. One of the key parts of the ideology of ''"Panista"'' Mexican politician , who strongly supported
miscegenation Miscegenation () is a term which refers to reproduction by people who are considered to be members of different races. Anonymous authors invented the word in an 1863 fraudulent political pamphlet, indicating that ''miscegenation'' meant interraci ...
, was the Hispanidad, which he conceived in terms of a united community of sovereign states that defended their own values from foreign threats like communism. Other opponents of post-revolutionary Mexico, who spread the doctrine of the Hispanidad were , , Salvador Abascal Infante, Salvador Abascal, and Salvador Borrego. The National Synarchist Union saw in the Hispanidad a key component of the vitality of the Mexican nation.


Spanish exiles

The idea of Hispanidad was also featured with new meanings in authors of the Spanish Republic in exile, such as Fernando de los Ríos, Joaquin Xirau Palau, Joaquín Xirau, Eduardo Nicol and Américo Castro. Salvador de Madariaga, also exiled, defended the Hispanidad as a positive factor towards cultural ontogeny; he believed its miscegenation was much better than the Anglo-Saxon example.


Argentina

In Argentina, one of the few countries with good relations with Francoist Spain after the end of World War II, President Juan Domingo Perón defended the concept of Hispanidad by highlighting the Hispanic roots of Argentina. However, Peronism began to detach itself from the idea from 1950 to 1954 period to replace it with (Latinity).


Other countries

In Colombia, used the idea of Hispanidad in his work. In Chile, Jaime Eyzaguirre would do the same. Currently in Ecuador, the writer Francisco Núñez del Arco has developed the idea in his works.


See also

* Hispanismo * Traditionalist conservatism * ''Breve Historia de México'' * Spanish-speaking world


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * {{Countries and languages lists Hispanidad, Spanish-speaking countries and territories, Foreign relations of Spain during the Francoist dictatorship