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Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. En ...
. It is bordered by
Bedfordshire Bedfordshire (; abbreviated Beds) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern na ...
and
Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.) is a Counties of England, county in the East of England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the north-east, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and North ...
to the north,
Essex Essex () is a Ceremonial counties of England, county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the Rive ...
to the east,
Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that makes up the majority of the London region. This Regions of England, region forms the administrative boundaries of London and is organised into 33 Districts ...
to the south, and
Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire (), abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county in South East England that borders Greater London to the south-east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north-east a ...
to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the
East of England The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. This region was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics purposes from 1999. It includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex Essex () i ...
region. The county covers an area of . The county derives its name from a hart (stag) and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and of the
flag A flag is a piece of textile, fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colours. It is used as a symbol, a signalling device, or for decoration. The term ''flag'' is also used to refer to the graphic design ...
. Hertfordshire County Council is based in
Hertford Hertford ( , ) is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a syn ...
, once the main
market town A market town is a European Human settlement, settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages, the right to host market (place), markets (market right), which distinguished it from a village or city. In Britain, small ...
. In 2013, the county population was 1,140,700, with Hemel Hempstead,
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official us ...
, Watford, and St Albans – the county's only city – each having between 50,000 and 100,000 residents. Elevations are higher in the north and west, reaching more than in the Chilterns near Tring. The county is approximately the drainage divide of the River Lea and the River Colne, Hertfordshire, Colne; both flow south, and both are accompanied by a canal. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is mainly agricultural and much is protected by Green belt (United Kingdom), green belt. Hertfordshire is well-served with motorways and railways, providing good access to London, the Midlands and the Northern England, North. The largest sector of the county's economy is services.


History

The county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the New towns in the United Kingdom, new town of
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official us ...
built by local inhabitants during the Roman Britain, Roman period, to Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden, Leavesden Film Studios. The volume of intact medieval and Tudor architecture, Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas, especially in St Albans which includes some remains of Verulamium, the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill. His martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the Hertfordshire flag and coat of arms. In 913, Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at
Hertford Hertford ( , ) is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a syn ...
under the rule of Edward the Elder. Hertford is derived from the Old English language, Anglo-Saxon ''heort ford,'' meaning deer crossing (of a watercourse). The name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. Many of the names of the current settlements date back to the Anglo-Saxon period, with many featuring standard placename suffixes attributed to the Anglo-Saxons: "ford", "ton", "den", "bourn", "ley", "stead", "ing", "lett", "wood", and "worth", are represented in this county by Hertford, Royston, Harpenden, Redbourn, Cuffley, Wheathampstead, Tring, Radlett, Borehamwood and Rickmansworth. There is evidence of human life in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period. It was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age. This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. Following the Roman conquest of Britain, Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni quickly submitted and adapted to the Roman life; resulting in the development of several new towns, including Verulamium (St Albans) where in c. 293 the first recorded British martyrdom is traditionally believed to have taken place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill. His martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the Flag of Hertfordshire, flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the End of Roman rule in Britain, departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now-unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century, the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom. This relatively short-lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region finally became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. In the midst of the Norse invasions, Hertfordshire was on the front lines of much of the fighting. King Edward the Elder, in his reconquest of Norse-held lands in what was to become
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. En ...
, established a "burh" or fort in Hertford, which was to curb Norse activities in the area. His father, King Alfred the Great, established the River Lea as a boundary between his kingdom and that of the Norse lord Guthrum, with the north and eastern parts of the county being within the Danelaw. There is little evidence however of Old Norse, Norse placenames within this region, and many of the Anglo-Saxon features remained intact to this day. The county however suffered from renewed Norse raids in the late 10th to early 11th centuries, as armies led by Danish kings Swein Forkbeard and Cnut the Great harried the country as part of their attempts to undermine and overthrow English king Athelred the Unready. A century later, William the Conqueror, William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror, before entering London unopposed and being crowned at Westminster. Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, and at Kings Langley, King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted. The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundred (country subdivision), hundreds. Tring (hundred), Tring and Danais (hundred), Danais became oneDacorumfrom Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxons, Saxon past. The other seven were Braughing, Stevenage, Broadwater, Liberty of St Albans, Cashio, Buntingford, Edwinstree,
Hertford Hertford ( , ) is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a syn ...
, Hitchin and Odsey. In the later Plantagenet period, St. Albans Abbey was an initial drafting place of what was to become the Magna Carta. And in the later Wars of the Roses, St. Albans was the scene of two major battles between the Lancastrians and the Yorkists. In Tudor times, Hatfield House was often frequented by Queen Elizabeth I. Stuart King James I used the locale for hunting and facilitated the construction of a waterway, the New River (London), New River, supplying drinking water to London. As London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital; much of the area was owned by the nobility and aristocracy, this patronage helped to boost the local economy. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first Garden city movement, garden city and
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official us ...
became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946. The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley. From the 1920s in film, 1920s until the late 1980s in film, 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three ''Star Wars'' movies (Star Wars (film), IV, The Empire Strikes Back, V, & Return of the Jedi, VI). The studios generally used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but also lived in the area until his death. ''Big Brother UK'' and ''Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?'' have been filmed there. ''EastEnders'' is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden; the Harry Potter (film series), ''Harry Potter'' series was filmed here and the 1995 James Bond film ''GoldenEye''. On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured. The crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which consequently saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people; the train was at high speed when it derailed and flipped into the air when one of the carriages slid along the platform where it came to rest. In early December 2005, the 2005 Hemel Hempstead fuel depot explosions occurred at the Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal.


Geography

Hertfordshire is the county immediately north of London and is part of the
East of England The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. This region was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics purposes from 1999. It includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex Essex () i ...
Government Office Region, region, a mainly statistical unit. To the east is
Essex Essex () is a Ceremonial counties of England, county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the Rive ...
, to the west is
Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire (), abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county in South East England that borders Greater London to the south-east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north-east a ...
and to the north are
Bedfordshire Bedfordshire (; abbreviated Beds) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern na ...
and
Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.) is a Counties of England, county in the East of England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the north-east, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and North ...
. A significant minority of the population across all districts Commuting, commute to Central London. The county's boundaries were roughly fixed by the Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844#Hertfordshire, Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844 which eliminated exclaves; amended when, in 1965 under the London Government Act 1963, East Barnet Urban District and Barnet Urban District were abolished, their area was transferred to form part of the present-day London Borough of Barnet and the Potters Bar Urban District of Middlesex was transferred to Hertfordshire. The highest point in the county is at (above sea level, AOD) on the Ridgeway long distance national path, on the border of Hastoe near Tring with Drayton Beauchamp, Buckinghamshire. At the 2011 census, among the county's ten districts, East Hertfordshire had the lowest population density (290 people per km2) and Watford the highest (4210 per km2). Compared with neighbouring Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire lacks large towns or cities on the scale of Luton or Milton Keynes, whose populations exceed 200,000, but its overall population (approximately 1 million) is greater than those of the two aforementioned counties. The River Lea near Harpenden runs through Wheathampstead, Welwyn Garden City, Hertford, Ware, and Broxbourne before reaching Cheshunt and ultimately the River Thames. The far west of the county is the most hilly, with the Chiltern Hills surrounding Tring, Berkhamsted and the Ashridge estate. This Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty runs from near Hitchin in the north to Berkshire and Oxfordshire. Many of the county's major settlements are in the central, northern and southern areas, such as Watford, Hemel Hempstead, Kings Langley, Rickmansworth, St. Albans, Harpenden, Radlett, Borehamwood, Potters Bar, Stevenage, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Welwyn and Welwyn Garden City, Hitchin, Letchworth and Baldock. These are all small to medium-sized locations, featuring a mix of post-WWII new towns and older/more historical locales. The St Albans, City of St. Albans is an example of a historical settlement, as its cathedral and abbey date to the Norman architecture, Norman period, and there are ruins from the Roman settlement of Verulamium nearby the current city centre. Stevenage is a mix of post-WWII new town planning amidst its prior incarnation as a smaller town. The Old Town in Stevenage represents this historic core and has many shops and buildings reflecting its pre-WWII heritage. Hitchin also has a historic centre, with many House of Tudor, Tudor and House of Stuart, Stuart era buildings interspersed amongst more contemporary structures. Hertfordshire's eastern regions are predominantly rural and arable, intermixed with villages and small to medium-sized towns. Royston, Buntingford and Bishops Stortford, along with Ware, Hertfordshire, Ware and the county town of Hertford are major settlements in this regard. The physical geography of eastern Hertfordshire is less elevated than the far west, but with lower rising hills and prominent rivers such as the Stort. This river rises in
Essex Essex () is a Ceremonial counties of England, county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the Rive ...
and terminates via a confluence with the Lea near to Ware. Apart from the Lea and Stort, the River Colne is the major watercourse in the county's west. This runs near Watford and Radlett, and has a complex system/drainage area running south into both Greater London and Buckinghamshire. An unofficial status, the purple star-shaped flower with yellow stamens, the Pulsatilla vulgaris, Pasqueflower is among endemic county flowers.


Geology

The rocks of Hertfordshire belong to the great shallow syncline known as the London Basin. The beds dip in a south-easterly direction towards the syncline's lowest point roughly under the River Thames. The most important formations are the Cretaceous Chalk, exposed as the high ground in the north and west of the county, forming the Chiltern Hills and the younger Palaeocene, Reading Beds and Eocene, London Clay which occupy the remaining southern part. The eastern half of the county was covered by glaciers during the Ice Age and has a superficial layer of glacial boulder clays.


Natural resources and environment

Much of the county is given over to agriculture. One product, now largely defunct, was water-cress, based in Hemel Hempstead and Berkhamsted supported by reliable, clean chalk rivers. Some quarrying of sand and gravel occurs in the St Albans area. In the past, clay has supplied local brick-making and still does in Bovingdon, just south-west of Hemel Hempstead. The chalk that is the bedrock of much of the county provides an aquifer that feeds streams and is also exploited to provide water supplies for much of the county and beyond. Chalk has also been used as a building material and, once fired, the resultant lime was spread on agricultural land to improve fertility. The mining of chalk since the early 18th century has left unrecorded underground galleries that occasionally collapse unexpectedly and endanger buildings. Fresh water is supplied to London from Ware, Hertfordshire, Ware, using the New River (London), New River built by Hugh Myddleton and opened in 1613. Local rivers, although small, supported developing industries such as paper production at Nash Mills. Hertfordshire affords habitat for a variety of flora and fauna. One bird previously common in the shire is the Hooded Crow#Cultural significance, Hooded Crow, the old name of which is the eponymous name of the regional newspaper, the Royston Crow (newspaper), ''Royston Crow'' published in Royston, Hertfordshire, Royston.


Urban areas


Economy

This is a table of trends of regional gross value added of Hertfordshire at current basic prices with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. Hertfordshire has headquarters of many large well-known UK companies. Hemel Hempstead is home to DSG International (retailer), DSG International. Welwyn Garden City hosts Tesco, as well as Roche UK's headquarters (subsidiary of the Swiss pharmaceutical firm Hoffman-La Roche) and Cereal Partners production facilities, Pure Digital, Pure the Digital Audio Broadcasting, DAB radio maker is based in Kings Langley. Wetherspoons, JD Wetherspoon is in Watford. Skanska is in Rickmansworth, GlaxoSmithKline has plants in Ware, Hertfordshire, Ware and
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official us ...
. Hatfield used to be connected with the aircraft industry, as it was where de Havilland developed the world's first commercial jet liner, the de Havilland Comet, Comet. Now the site is a business park and new campus for the University of Hertfordshire. This major new employment site is home to, among others, EE (telecommunications company), EE, Computacenter and Ocado. A subsidiary of BAE Systems, Airbus and Finmeccanica in
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official us ...
, MBDA, develops missiles. In the same town Airbus Defence and Space, Airbus (Defence & Space Division) produces satellites. The National Pharmacy Association (NPA), the trade association for all of the UK's community pharmacies, is based in St Albans. Warner Bros. also owns and runs Warner Studios in Leavesden.


Sport

In 2012, the Broxbourne (canoeing venue), canoe and kayak slalom events of the 2012 Summer Olympics took place in Waltham Cross, Broxbourne (borough), Broxbourne.


Football

As of the 2020–21 season, there are three Professionalism in association football, professional football teams in Hertfordshire: Watford F.C., Stevenage F.C., and Arsenal W.F.C.. Since 1922, Watford play their home games at Vicarage Road. The club joined the Football League in 1920 as a founding member of the Third Division and first played in the First Division of English football in 1982–83 Watford F.C. season, 1982, finishing as runners-up to champions Liverpool F.C., Liverpool. Watford currently play in the EFL Championship, Championship following relegation from the Premier League at the end of the 2019–20 season. Stevenage F.C. was formed in 1976 as Stevenage Borough and have played at Broadhall Way since 1980. Stevenage was the first club to win a competitive match at the new Wembley Stadium, beating Kidderminster Harriers 3–2 in the 2007 FA Trophy Final. The club currently play in the EFL League Two and have been managed by former player Dino Maamria since March 2018. Arsenal F.C., whilst based at the Emirates Stadium in the London Borough of Islington, has long held a training ground in the county. Until 1999, it held the London Colney University of London facility, until it built a new purpose-built compound adjacent to it. Watford FC currently utilises the old Arsenal training area as its training facility. Arsenal W.F.C. play at Meadow Park (Borehamwood), Meadow Park in Borehamwood. The club was formed in 1987 and have played in the FA Women's Super League since its inaugural season in 2011 FA WSL, 2011. Hertfordshire has many semi-professional and amateur clubs. The highest placed of these is Boreham Wood F.C., Boreham Wood who play in the National League (division), National League, the fifth tier of English football. The next highest placed are Hemel Hempstead Town F.C., Hemel Hempstead Town and St Albans City F.C., St Albans City, who play one division lower in the National League South.


Rugby


Rugby league

Hemel Stags are a rugby league team based in Hemel Hempstead. Hemel Stags have played at Pennine Way Stadium since the club's founding in 1981. Until 2018, the club played in League 1 (rugby league), league 1, the British rugby league system#Tier 3: League 1, third tier of the British rugby league system, and now compete in the Conference League South.


Rugby union

The Hertfordshire Rugby Football Union is the governing body for rugby union in Hertfordshire and is responsible for any interested parties involved in rugby. Tring Rugby play matches at Cow Lane, Tring. The first XV currently play in the London & South East Premier, a English rugby union system#Level 4: National League 2 South and National League 2 North, level 4 league.


Landmarks

Below is a list of notable visitor attractions in Hertfordshire: * Aldenham Country Park * Ashridge – the estate surrounding the neo-Gothic house by James Wyatt (not open to the public) is National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, National Trust land. ** Bridgewater Monument, built in 1832 in memory of Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater. tall and open to the public to ascend to the top * Berkhamsted Castle * Cedars Park, Broxbourne – historic park once the site of James I's favourite residence, Theobalds Palace. Maintained by Broxbourne Services and the Friends of Cedars Park. * de Havilland Aircraft Heritage Centre, between London Colney and South Mimms * Frogmore Paper Mill, Apsley, Hertfordshire, Apsley * Hatfield, Hertfordshire, Hatfield ** Hatfield House – Jacobean house, gardens and park ** Mill Green Watermill in Hatfield * Henry Moore Foundation, Much Hadham – sculpture park on the work of Henry Moore * Knebworth House, of country park, venue of many rock and pop festivals * Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden, Leavesden Film Studios, home of the Warner Bros. ''Harry Potter (film series), Making of Harry Potter'' studio tour * Letchworth Garden City – the world's first Garden city movement, Garden City. Site of the first planned Green Belt, the UK's first roundabout, and a number of experiments in early town planning and house and factory design ** Spirella Building * Magic Roundabout (Hemel Hempstead) – a complex road junction * Royston Cave – in Royston, Hertfordshire, Royston town centre * Rye House Gatehouse in Hoddesdon (part of the Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II of England, King Charles II) * St Albans ** Beech Bottom Dyke – large-scale Iron Age defensive or boundary ditch ** Sopwell Nunnery ** St Albans Cathedral ** Verulamium – Ancient Rome, Roman town remains, including museum of Roman life and the remains of a Roman amphitheatre * Scott's Grotto, Ware, Hertfordshire, Ware * Shaw's Corner, Ayot St Lawrence – home of George Bernard Shaw *
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official us ...
– the first UK New towns in the United Kingdom, New Town ** Six Hills Roman Britain, Roman barrows site * Therfield Heath – a local nature reserve in the north of the county * University of Hertfordshire – a public research university based in Hatfield, Hertfordshire, Hatfield * Welwyn Roman Baths * Welwyn Viaduct to the north of Welwyn Garden City * Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum, Tring – a museum-annotated collection of dead mammals, birds, reptiles and insects * Watford Museum, fine art and local artefacts


Main footpaths

*The Ridgeway *Icknield Way Path, Icknield Way *Grand Union Canal 145 mile Race, Grand Union Canal Walk *Icknield Way Path, Harcamlow Way *Hertfordshire Way *Hertfordshire Chain Walk


Transport

Hertfordshire is a home county with many towns forming part of the London commuter belt and has some of the principal roads in England including the A1 road (Great Britain), A1, A1 road (Great Britain), A1(M), A41 road, A41, A414 road, A414, M1 motorway, M1, M11 motorway, M11, and the M25 motorway, M25. Four principal national railway lines pass through the county: * the West Coast Main Line from . Avanti West Coast operates high speed InterCity (British Rail), intercity services via to the Midlands, North Wales, the North West England and Scotland. West Midlands Trains provides local commuter and regional services. * the East Coast Main Line from . Local commuter and regional services are provided by Govia Thameslink Railway. London North Eastern Railway runs high speed intercity services via to the east coast of Northern England and Scotland * the Midland Main Line which forms part of the Thameslink, Thameslink route between Bedford railway station, Bedford and Brighton railway station, Brighton via Central London with services are provided by Govia Thameslink Railway. East Midlands Railway provide intercity services along the line from St Pancras railway station, London St Pancras to the East Midlands and Yorkshire * the West Anglia Main Line from Liverpool Street station, London Liverpool Street. Local commuter and regional services are provided by Greater Anglia (train operating company), Greater Anglia mainly in the east of the county A number of other local rail routes also cross Hertfordshire: * the London to Aylesbury Line from Marylebone railway station, London Marylebone runs via Rickmansworth station, Rickmansworth and Chorleywood station, Chorleywood * the Abbey Line, a local line from Watford to * the Cambridge Line, a branch of the East Coast line which runs via Royston railway station, Royston and Letchworth Garden City railway station, Letchworth to Three commuter lines operated by Transport for London enter the county: * the Lea Valley Lines, a suburban metro line from Liverpool Street to Cheshunt railway station, Cheshunt via Seven Sisters railway station, Seven Sisters * the Watford DC Line, a suburban metro line from Euston to Watford Junction * five stations on the London Underground Metropolitan line Stansted Airport and Luton Airport are both within of the county's borders. The commercial airfield at Elstree is for light aircraft. The Grand Union Canal passes through Rickmansworth, Watford, Hemel Hempstead, Berkhamsted and Tring.


Education

Hertfordshire has 26 independent schools and 73 state secondary schools. The state secondary schools are entirely comprehensive school, comprehensive, although 7 schools in the south and southwest of the county are partially selective school (England), partially selective (see Watford#Education, Education in Watford). All state schools have sixth forms, and there are no sixth form colleges. The tertiary colleges, each with multiple campuses, are Hertford Regional College, North Hertfordshire College, Oaklands College and West Herts College. The University of Hertfordshire is a modern university based largely in Hatfield, Hertfordshire, Hatfield. It has more than 23,000 students.


Literature

Hertfordshire is the location of Jack Worthing's country house in Oscar Wilde's play ''The Importance of Being Earnest''. Jane Austen's novel ''Pride and Prejudice'' is primarily set in Hertfordshire. The location of Mr Jarndyce's Bleak House in Charles Dickens's ''Bleak House'' is near St Albans. The eponymous residence in E. M. Forster's novel ''Howards End'' was based on Rooks Nest House just outside
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official us ...
. George Orwell based ''Animal Farm'' on Wallington, Hertfordshire, where he lived between 1936 and 1940. Manor Farm and The Great Barn both feature in the novel.


See also

* Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire * High Sheriff of Hertfordshire * Custos Rotulorum of Hertfordshire – Keeper of the Rolls * Hertfordshire (UK Parliament constituency) – Historical list of MPs for Hertfordshire constituency * List of Jewish communities in the United Kingdom#Hertfordshire, List of Jewish communities in Hertfordshire * Hertfordshire GAA


Notes


References


External links

*
Hertfordshire County Council website
{{authority control Hertfordshire, Non-metropolitan counties Home counties Counties of England established in antiquity