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Hammersmith is a district of west
London London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its estuary leading to the North Sea. London has been a major settlement for two millen ...

London
, England, located west-southwest of
Charing Cross Charing Cross () is a junction in London, England, where six routes meet. Clockwise from north these are: the east side of Trafalgar Square leading to St Martin's Place and then Charing Cross Road; the Strand leading to the City; Northumberland ...

Charing Cross
. It is the administrative centre of the
London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham The London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham () is a London borough partly in West London (Hammersmith, Shepherd's Bush, West Kensington) and partly in Southwest London (Fulham); it forms part of Inner London. Traversed by the east–west main r ...

London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham
, and identified in the
London Plan The London Plan is the statutory spatial development strategy for the Greater London area in the United Kingdom that is written by the Mayor of London and published by the Greater London Authority. The regional planning document was first publi ...

London Plan
as one of 35 major centres in
Greater London Greater London is a ceremonial county of England that makes up the majority of the London region. This region forms the administrative boundaries of London and is organised into 33 local government districtsthe 32 London boroughs and the City ...

Greater London
. It is bordered by
Shepherd's Bush Shepherd's Bush is a district of West London, England, within the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham west of Charing Cross, and identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London Plan. Although primarily residential in character, its ...

Shepherd's Bush
to the north,
Kensington Kensington is an affluent district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in the West of central London. The district's commercial heart is Kensington High Street, running on an east–west axis. The north-east is taken up by Kensingto ...

Kensington
to the east,
Chiswick Chiswick ( ) is a district of West London, England. It contains Hogarth's House, the former residence of the 18th-century English artist William Hogarth; Chiswick House, a neo-Palladian villa regarded as one of the finest in England; and Fulle ...

Chiswick
to the west, and
Fulham Fulham () is an area of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham in southwest London, England, southwest of Charing Cross. It lies on the north bank of the River Thames, between Hammersmith and Kensington and Chelsea, facing Wandsworth, ...

Fulham
to the south, with which it forms part of the north bank of the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest river entirely in England and the second-longest in the United Kingdom, after the Ri ...

River Thames
.
Hammersmith Bridge Hammersmith Bridge is a suspension bridge that crosses the River Thames in west London. It links the southern part of Hammersmith in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, on the north side of the river, and Barnes in the London Borough o ...

Hammersmith Bridge
closed in 2020, severing the link with
Barnes
Barnes
in the southwest. The area is one of west London's main commercial and employment centres, and has for some decades been a major centre of London's
Polish community
Polish community
. It is a major transport hub for west London, with two
London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a rapid transit system serving Greater London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom ...

London Underground
stations and a bus station at
Hammersmith Broadway Hammersmith Broadway is a major transport node and shopping centre in Hammersmith, London. History The shopping centre opened in 1994, on the site of many now-demolished buildings, including The Clarendon Hotel (a music venue) and Palmers Depar ...

Hammersmith Broadway
.


Toponymy

Hammersmith may mean "(Place with) a hammer smithy or forge", although an alternative proposes the initial ''Ham'' being derived from Saxon
ham or hythe
ham or hythe
in connection with Hammersmith's riverside location. The earliest spelling is Hamersmyth in 1294, with alternative spellings of Hameresmithe in 1312, Hamyrsmyth in 1535, and Hammersmith 1675.


History

Hammersmith was the name of a parish, and of a suburban district, within the hundred of Osselstone, in the historic county of Middlesex. In the early 1660s, Hammersmith's first parish church, which later became
St Paul's
St Paul's
, was built by
Sir Nicholas Crispe
Sir Nicholas Crispe
who ran the brickworks in Hammersmith. It contained a monument to Crispe as well as a bronze bust of
King Charles I
King Charles I
by
Hubert Le Sueur Hubert Le Sueur (c. 1580 – 1658) was a French sculptor with the contemporaneous reputation of having trained in Giambologna's Florentine workshop. He assisted Giambologna's foreman, Pietro Tacca, in Paris, in finishing and erecting the equestrian ...

Hubert Le Sueur
. In 1696
Sir Samuel Morland
Sir Samuel Morland
was buried there. The church was completely rebuilt in 1883, but the monument and bust were transferred to the new church.
Hammersmith Bridge Hammersmith Bridge is a suspension bridge that crosses the River Thames in west London. It links the southern part of Hammersmith in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, on the north side of the river, and Barnes in the London Borough o ...

Hammersmith Bridge
was first designed by
William Tierney Clark William Tierney Clark FRS FRAS (23 August 1783 – 22 September 1852) was an English civil engineer particularly associated with the design and construction of bridges. He was among the earliest designers of suspension bridges. Born in Brist ...

William Tierney Clark
, opening in 1827 as the first
suspension bridge A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. The first modern examples of this type of bridge were built in the early 1800s. Simple suspension brid ...

suspension bridge
crossing the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest river entirely in England and the second-longest in the United Kingdom, after the Ri ...

River Thames
. Overloading in this original structure led to a redesign by
Joseph Bazalgette Sir Joseph William Bazalgette, CB (; 28 March 181915 March 1891) was a 19th-century English civil engineer. As chief engineer of London's Metropolitan Board of Works his major achievement was the creation (in response to the Great Stink of 185 ...

Joseph Bazalgette
, which was built over the original foundations, and reopened in 1887. In 1984–1985 the bridge received structural support, and between 1997 and 2000 the bridge underwent major strengthening work. In August 2020, it closed to pedestrians, cyclists and road traffic as the cast iron pedestals that hold the suspension system in place became unsafe. In 1745, two Scots, , established the
Vineyard Nursery A vineyard ( , also ) is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science, practice and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. Vineyards ...

Vineyard Nursery
, over six acres devoted to landscaping plants. During the next hundred and fifty years the nursery introduced many new plants to England, including
fuchsia ''Fuchsia'' () is a genus of flowering plants that consists mostly of shrubs or small trees. The first to be scientifically described, ''Fuchsia triphylla'', was discovered on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) ...

fuchsia
and the standard . 1804 saw the trial of Francis Smith for the murder of Thomas Millwood in Beaver Lane, Hammersmith. Called the
Hammersmith Ghost murder case The Hammersmith Ghost murder case of 1804 set a legal precedent in the UK regarding self-defence: that someone could be held liable for their actions even if they were the consequence of a mistaken belief. Near the end of 1803, many people claim ...

Hammersmith Ghost murder case
, it set a unique standard in English legal history. Major industrial sites included the
Osram Osram Licht AG (stylized as OSRAM) is a globally active German company headquartered in Munich, Germany. The "Osram" name is derived from ''osmium'' and ''Wolfram'' (German for tungsten, also used in English), as both these elements were commonly ...

Osram
lamp factory at
Brook Green Brook Green is an affluent London neighbourhood in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. It is located approximately west of Charing Cross. It is bordered by Kensington, Holland Park, Shepherd's Bush, Hammersmith and Brackenbury Village. ...

Brook Green
, the factory (which at one time employed 30,000 people). During both
World War#REDIRECT world war {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from ambiguous term {{R from other capitalisation ...

World War
s,
Waring & Gillow Waring & Gillow is a noted firm of English furniture manufacturers formed in 1897 by the merger of Gillows of Lancaster and London and Waring of Liverpool. History Gillow The firm of Gillow's of Lancaster can be traced back to the luxury furnitu ...

Waring & Gillow
's furniture factory, in Cambridge Grove, became the site of aircraft manufacture. Hammersmith Borough Council had provided the borough with electricity since the early twentieth century from . Upon
nationalisation Nationalization, or nationalisation, is the process of transforming privately owned assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state. Nationalization usually refers to private assets or to ...

nationalisation
of the electricity industry in 1948 ownership passed to the
British Electricity Authority The British Electricity Authority (BEA) was established as the central British electricity authority in 1948 under the nationalisation of Great Britain's electricity supply industry enacted by the Electricity Act 1947. The BEA was responsible for t ...

British Electricity Authority
and later to the
Central Electricity Generating Board The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) was responsible for electricity generation, transmission and bulk sales in England and Wales from 1958 until privatisation of the electricity industry in the 1990s. It was established on 1 January ...

Central Electricity Generating Board
. Electricity connections to the rendered the 20
megawatt The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power or radiant flux. In the International System of Units (SI), it is defined as a derived unit of (in SI base units) 1 kg⋅m2⋅s−3 or, equivalently, 1 joule per second. It is used to quantify the rate of ...

megawatt
(MW) coal-fired power station redundant. It closed in 1965; in its final year of operation it delivered 5,462 of electricity to the borough.


Economy

Hammersmith is located at the confluence of one of the arterial routes out of central London (the ) with several local feeder roads and a bridge over the Thames. The focal point of the district is the commercial centre (the Broadway Centre) located at this confluence, which houses a shopping centre, bus station, an
Underground station#REDIRECT Metro station {{R from other capitalisation ...

Underground station
and an office complex. Stretching about westwards from this centre is , Hammersmith's main shopping street. Named after , it contains a second shopping centre (), many small shops, the
Town Hall In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre (in the UK or Australia), guildhall, or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality. It usually houses the cit ...

Town Hall
, the
Lyric TheatreLyric Theatre or Lyric Theater may refer to: Australia * Sydney Lyric theatre, within The Star casino in Sydney, New South Wales * Lyric Theatre, Sydney (1911) * Lyric Theatre, part of the Queensland Performing Arts Centre, in Brisbane, Queensland ...

Lyric Theatre
, a cinema, the and two hotels. King Street is supplemented by other shops along Shepherds Bush Road to the north, Fulham Palace Road to the south and
Hammersmith Road Hammersmith is a district of west London, England, located west-southwest of Charing Cross. It is the administrative centre of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, and identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater ...

Hammersmith Road
to the east. Hammersmith's office activity takes place mainly to the eastern side of its centre, along Hammersmith Road and in the , an office complex to the south of the which traverses the area.
Charing Cross Hospital Charing Cross Hospital is an acute general teaching hospital located in Hammersmith, London, United Kingdom. The present hospital was opened in 1973, although it was originally established in 1818, approximately five miles east, in central Londo ...

Charing Cross Hospital
on Fulham Palace Road is a large multi-disciplinary hospital with accident & emergency and teaching departments run by the
Imperial College School of Medicine Imperial College School of Medicine (ICSM) is the undergraduate medical school of Imperial College London in England, and one of the United Hospitals. It is part of the college's Faculty of Medicine, and was formed by the merger of several histor ...

Imperial College School of Medicine
.


Architecture

, designed by British architect Ralph Erskine and completed in 1992, has some resemblance to the hull of a sailing ship. Hammersmith Bridge Road Surgery was designed by Guy Greenfield. "
22 St Peter's Square 22 St Peter's Square, in Hammersmith, London, is a grade II Listed building with a former laundry that has been converted to an architects' studio and office building. The property is situated in the western corner of St Peter's Square, that was la ...

22 St Peter's Square
" the former Royal Chiswick Laundry and
Island Records Island Records is a British-Jamaican record label owned by Universal Music Group. It was founded in 1959 by Chris Blackwell, Graeme Goodall, and Leslie Kong in Jamaica, and was eventually sold to PolyGram in 1989. Island and A&M Records, anoth ...

Island Records
HQ converted to architects studios and offices by
Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands is a practice of architects, urban designers and masterplanners established in 1986 and practising out of London. History Alex Lifschutz and Ian Davidson met working on the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters ...

Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands
. It has
Hammersmith SocietyConservation award
plaque (2009) and has been included in tours in Architecture Week. Several of Hammersmith's pubs are
listed building A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, in Wales, and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency i ...

listed building
s, including the '''', '''', '''', '''', the '''', the '''' and '''', as are Hammersmith's two
parish church in North Devon, England Image:St Lawrence's Church nave and chancel, Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire.jpg|Inside the parish church of
es,_St_Paul's
_(the_town's_original_church,_rebuilt_in_the_1890s)_and_[[St_Peter's_Church,_Hammersmith.html" "title="Saint Lawrence in [[Bourton-on-the-Water, England A parish church (or parochial church) in [[Christianity ...

parish church
es,
St Paul's
St Paul's
(the town's original church, rebuilt in the 1890s) and [[St Peter's Church, Hammersmith">St Peter's
St Peter's
, built in the 1820s.


Culture and entertainment

[[Riverside Studios is a cinema, performance space, bar and cafe. Originally film studios, Riverside Studios were used by the [[BBC from 1954 to 1975 for television productions. The [[Lyric Theatre (Hammersmith)|Lyric Hammersmith Theatre is just off King Street.
Hammersmith Apollo The Hammersmith Apollo, currently called the Eventim Apollo for sponsorship reasons, but formerly – and still commonly – known as the Hammersmith Odeon, is a live entertainment performance venue established as a cinema venue, located in Ham ...

Hammersmith Apollo
concert hall and theatre (formerly the Carling Hammersmith Apollo, the Hammersmith Odeon, and before that the Gaumont Cinema) is just south of the gyratory. The former
Hammersmith Palais The Hammersmith Palais de Danse, in its last years simply named Hammersmith Palais, was a dance hall and entertainment venue in Hammersmith, London, England that operated from 1919 until 2007. It was the first ''palais de danse''  to be ...

Hammersmith Palais
nightclub has been demolished and the site reused as student accommodation. The [[Polish Social and Cultural Association is on King Street. It contains a theatre, an art gallery and several restaurants. Its library has one of the largest collections of Polish-language books outside Poland. ''
The Dove
The Dove
'' is a riverside pub with what the ''[[Guinness Book of Records'' listed as the smallest bar room in the world, in 2016 surviving as a small space on the right of the bar. the pub was frequented by [[Ernest Hemingway and [[Graham Greene; [[James Thomson (poet)|James Thomson lodged and likely wrote ''[[Rule Britannia'' here. The narrow alley in which it stands is the only remnant of the riverside village of Hammersmith, the bulk of which was demolished in the 1930s. [[Furnivall Gardens, which lies to the east, covers the site of [[Hammersmith Creek and the High Bridge. Leisure activity also takes place along Hammersmith's pedestrianised riverside, home to pubs, rowing clubs and the riverside park of Furnival Gardens. Hammersmith has a municipal park, [[Ravenscourt Park, to the west of the centre. Its facilities include tennis courts, a basketball court, a bowling lawn, a paddling pool and playgrounds. Hammersmith is the historical home of the [[West London Penguin Swimming and Water Polo Club, formerly known as the ''Hammersmith Penguin Swimming Club''. Hammersmith Chess Club has been active in the borough since it was formed in 1962. It was initially based in [[Westcott Lodge, later moving to St Paul's Church, then to [[Blythe House and now Lytton Hall, near West Kensington tube station.


Transport

The area is on the main A4 [[trunk road heading west from central London towards the [[M4 motorway and [[Heathrow Airport. The A4, a busy commuter route, passes over the area's main road junction, Hammersmith Gyratory System, on a long viaduct, the [[Hammersmith Flyover.
Hammersmith Bridge Hammersmith Bridge is a suspension bridge that crosses the River Thames in west London. It links the southern part of Hammersmith in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, on the north side of the river, and Barnes in the London Borough o ...

Hammersmith Bridge
closed in August 2020 to pedestrians, cyclists and road traffic, severing the link with
Barnes
Barnes
in the southwest. Its cast iron pedestals that hold the suspension system in place had become unsafe. The centre of Hammersmith is served by two
London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a rapid transit system serving Greater London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom ...

London Underground
stations named Hammersmith: [[Hammersmith tube station (Circle and Hammersmith & City lines)|one is served by the [[Hammersmith & City line|Hammersmith & City and [[Circle line (London Underground)|Circle lines and [[Hammersmith tube station (District and Piccadilly lines)|the other is served by the [[Piccadilly line|Piccadilly and [[District line|District lines. The latter station is part of a larger office, retail and transport development, locally known as "The Broadway Centre".
Hammersmith Broadway Hammersmith Broadway is a major transport node and shopping centre in Hammersmith, London. History The shopping centre opened in 1994, on the site of many now-demolished buildings, including The Clarendon Hotel (a music venue) and Palmers Depar ...

Hammersmith Broadway
stretches from the junction of Queen Caroline Street and King Street in the west to the junction of Hammersmith Road and Butterwick in the east. It forms the north side of the gyratory system also known as Hammersmith Roundabout. The Broadway Shopping Centre includes a major bus station. The length of King Street places the westernmost shops and offices closest to [[Ravenscourt Park tube station|Ravenscourt Park Underground station on the [[District line, one stop west of Hammersmith itself.


In literature and music

Hammersmith features in [[Charles Dickens' ''[[Great Expectations'' as the home of the Pocket family. Pip resides with the Pockets in their house by the river and goes boating on the river. [[William Morris's utopian novel ''[[News from Nowhere'' (1890) describes a journey up the river from Hammersmith towards [[Oxford. In 1930, [[Gustav Holst composed ''Hammersmith'', a work for military band (later rewritten for orchestra), reflecting his impressions of the area, having lived across the river in Barnes for nearly forty years. It begins with a haunting musical depiction of the River Thames flowing underneath Hammersmith Bridge. Holst taught music at [[St Paul's Girls' School and composed many of his most famous works there, including his ''[[The Planets'' suite. A music room in the school is named after him. Holst dedicates ''Hammersmith'': ''To the Author of "[[The Water Gipsies (novel)|The Water Gypsies."''


Notable people


17th century

* [[John Milton (1608–1674), poet[[Lewalski, Barbara K. ''The Life of John Milton''. Oxford: Blackwells, 2003. * [[William Sheridan (Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh)|William Sheridan (c. 1635 – 3 October 1711), Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh


18th century


19th century


20th century

File:John Milton 1.jpg|The poet [[John Milton lived in Hammersmith. File:William Morris age 53.jpg|The [[Arts and Crafts designer [[William Morris lived on Hammersmith Mall. File:Gustav Holst.jpg|The composer [[Gustav Holst taught at [[St Paul's Girls School. File:Hugh Grant 2014.jpg|The actor [[Hugh Grant went to [[Latymer Upper School.


See also

* [[List of districts in Hammersmith and Fulham


References


External links


London Borough of Hammersmith & Fulham

Hammersmith's local community web site

Hammersmith Chess Club



Hammersmith, Fulham and Putney
by Geraldine Edith Mitton and [[John Cunningham Geikie, 1903, from [[Project Gutenberg
NHS Hammersmith and Fulham

HammersmithLondon Business Improvement District (BID)
{{Authority control [[Category:Hammersmith| [[Category:Business improvement districts in London [[Category:Districts of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham [[Category:Districts of London on the River Thames [[Category:History of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham [[Category:Major centres of London [[Category:Places formerly in Middlesex [[Category:Polish-British culture