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1 "Lengthen".
2 Common occupational surname.
3 "Master".

Loans into English

Bungalow

1676, from Gujarati bangalo, from Hindi bangla "low, thatched house," lit. "Bengalese," used elliptically for "house in the Bengal style."[79]

Coolie

Bungalow—

1676, from Gujarati bangalo, from Hindi bangla "low, thatched house," lit. "Bengalese," used elliptically for "house in the Bengal style."[79]

Coolie

1598, "name given by Europeans to hired laborers in India and China," from Hindi quli "hired servant," probably from koli, name of an aboriginal tribe or caste in Gujarat.[80]

Tank

c.1616, "pool or lake for irrigation or drinking water," a word originally brought by the Portuguese from India, ult. from Gujarati tankh "cistern, underground reservoir for water," Marathi tanken, or tanka "reservoir of water, tank." Perhaps from Skt. tadaga-m "pond, lake pool," and reinforced in later sense of "large artificial container for liquid" (1690) by Port. tanque "reservoir," from estancar "hold back a current of water," from V.L. *stanticare (see stanch). But others say the Port. word is the source of the Indian ones.[81]

Grammar[1676, from Gujarati bangalo, from Hindi bangla "low, thatched house," lit. "Bengalese," used elliptically for "house in the Bengal style."[79]

Coolie

1598, "name given by Europeans to hired laborers in India and China," from Hindi quli

Coolie

quli "hired servant," probably from koli, name of an aboriginal tribe or caste in Gujarat.[80]

TankTank

tankh "cistern, underground reservoir for water," Marathi tanken, or tanka "reservoir of water, tank." Perhaps from Skt. tadaga-m "pond, lake pool," and reinforced in later sense of "large artificial container for liquid" (1690) by Port. tanque "reservoir," from estancar "hold back a current of water," from V.L. *stanticare (see stanch). But others say the Port. word is the source of the Indian ones.[81]

Grammarbranching language. Adjectives precede nouns, direct objects come before verbs, and there are postpositions. The word order of Gujarati is SOV, and there are three genders and two numbers. There are no definite or indefinite articles. A verb is expressed with its verbal root followed by suffixes marking aspect and agreement in what is called a main form, with a possible proceeding auxiliary form derived from to be, marking tense and mood, and also showing agreement. Causatives (up to double) and passives have a morphological basis.[82]

Sample text

References

  1. ^ a b Gujarati language at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
  2. ^ a b "Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength - 2011" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  3. ^ Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  4. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 - Chapter 1: Founding Provisions". www.gov.za. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Gujarati". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh.
  7. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin. Asterisks mark the 2010 estimates for the top dozen languages.
  8. ^ "Gujarati: The language spoken by more than 55 million people". The Straits Times. 19 January 2017. Gujarati is at least 700 years old and is spoken by more than 55 million people worldwide.
  9. ^ Parekh, Rauf (20 January 2017). "Situationer: The future of Gujarati language in Pakistan". Dawn.
  10. ^ Chitnis, Deepak (14 August 2013). "Hindi and Gujarati fastest growing Indian languages in the US". The American Bazaar.