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Governor Wales
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A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the
executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes and enforces law. In political systems based on the princi ...
of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
. In
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government ( federalism). In a federation, the self-gover ...

federation
s, ''governor'' may be the title of a
politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resourc ...
who governs a
constituent state A constituent state is a state (polity), state entity that constitutes a administrative division, part of a sovereign state. A constituent state holds regional jurisdiction over a defined administrative territory, within a sovereign state. Gover ...
and may be either appointed or elected. The power of the individual governor can vary dramatically between political systems, with some governors having only nominal or largely ceremonial power, with others having complete control over the entire government. Historically, the title can also apply to the executive officials acting as representatives of a
chartered company A chartered company is an association with investors or shareholder A shareholder (also known as stockholder) is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more share (finance), shares of the share capital of ...
which has been granted exercise of sovereignty in a colonial area, such as the British
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Co ...
or the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC; id, Persatuan Perusahaan Hindia Timur), was a megacorporation founded by a States-General of the Dutch Republic, governmen ...
. These companies operate as a major state within a state with its own armed forces. There can also be non-political governors: high-ranking officials in private or similar
governance Governance comprises all of the processes of governing – whether undertaken by the government of a state (polity), state, by a market (economics), market, or by a social network, network – over a social system (family, tribe, formal organiza ...
such as commercial and non-profit management, styled governor(s), who simply ''govern'' an institution, such as a corporation or a bank. For example, in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
and other
Commonwealth
Commonwealth
countries, there are prison governors ("wardens" in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...
), school governors and bank governors. The adjective pertaining to a governor is gubernatorial, from the Latin root ''gubernare''. The obsolete term for a female governor is the female form ''governess'', however the modern term for female officials is the gender-neutral form ''governor'' (without the gender-specific suffix ''-ess'') to avoid confusion with
other meanings of ''governess''
other meanings of ''governess''
.


Ancient empires


Pre-Roman empires

Though the legal and administrative framework of provinces, each administrated by a governor, was created by the Romans, the term ''governor'' has been a convenient term for historians to describe similar systems in
antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
. Indeed, many regions of the pre-Roman antiquity were ultimately replaced by Roman 'standardized' provincial governments after their conquest by Rome. Plato used the metaphor of turning the
Ship of State The Ship of State is a famous and oft-cited metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning another. It may provide (or obscure) clarity or identify hidden similarities between t ...
with a rudder; the Latin word for rudder is Gubernaculum (classical), gubernaculum.


Egypt

*In Pharaonic times, the governors of each of the various provinces in the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt (called Nome (Egypt), "nomes" by the Greeks, and whose names often alluded to local patterns of religious worship) are usually known by the Greek word.


Pre- and Hellenistic satraps

* Medes, Media and Achaemenid Persian Empire, Persia introduced the satrapy, probably inspired by the Assyrian / Babylonian examples * Alexander the Great and equally Hellenistic diadoch kingdoms, mainly Seleucids (greater Syria) and Lagids ('Ptolemies' in Hellenistic Egypt) * in later Persia, again under Iranian dynasties: ** Parthia ** the Sassanid dynasty dispensed with the office after Shapur I (who had still 7 of them), replacing them with petty vassal rulers, known as ''shahdar''s


Ancient Rome

From the creation of the earliest Roman subject provinces, a governor was appointed each year to administer each of them. The core function of a Roman governor was as a magistrate or judge, and the management of taxation and the public spending in their area. Under the Republic and the early Empire, however, a governor also commanded military forces in his province. Republican governors were all men who had served in senior magistracies (the consulate or praetorship) in Rome in the previous year, and carried related titles as governor (''proconsul'' or ''promagistrate, propraetor''). The first Emperor, Octavianus Augustus (who acquired or settled a number of new territories; officially his style was republican: Princeps civitatis), divided the provinces into two categories; the traditionally prestigious governorships remained as before (in what have become known as "senatorial" provinces), while in a range of others, he retained the formal governorship himself, delegating the actual task of administration to appointees (usually with the title ''legatus Augusti''). The ''legatus'' sometimes would appoint a prefect (later procurator (Roman), procurator), usually a man of Equestrian (Roman), equestrian rank, to act as his deputy in a subregion of the larger province: the infamous character of Pontius Pilate in the Christian Gospels was a governor of this sort. A special case was Egypt, a rich 'private' domain and vital granary, where the Emperor almost inherited the theocratic status of a Pharaoh. The Emperor was represented there by a governor ''sui generis'' styled ''praefectus augustalis'', a title evoking the Imperial cult (ancient Rome), religious cult of the Emperor. Emperors Diocletian (see Tetrarchy) and Constantine in the third and fourth centuries AD carried out a root and branch reorganisation of the administration with two main features: *Provinces were divided up and became much more numerous (Italy itself, before the 'colonizing homeland', was brought into the system for the first time); they were then grouped into Roman diocese, dioceses, and the dioceses in turn into four praetorian prefectures (originally each under a residing co-emperor); *Military responsibilities were removed from governors and given to new officials called ''comes rei militaris'' (the comital title was also granted to many court and civilian administrative positions) or ''dux'', later also ''magister militum''. The prestigious governorships of Africa and Asia remained with the title proconsul, and the special right to refer matters directly to the Emperor; the ''praefectus augustalis'' in Alexandria and the ''comes Orientis'' in Antioch also retained special titles. Otherwise, the governors of provinces had various titles, some known as ''consularis'', some as ''corrector'', while others as ''praeses''. Apart from Egypt and the East (''Oriens'' – ''viz'' greater Syria), each diocese was directed by a governor known as a ''vicarius''. The prefectures were directed by ''praetorian prefect, praefecti praetorio'' (greatly transformed in their functions from their role in the Principate, early Empire).


Byzantium

This system survived with few significant changes until the collapse of the empire in the West, and in the East, the breakdown of order with the Persian and Arab invasions of the seventh century. At that stage, a new kind of governor emerged, the Strategos. It was a role leading the Theme (Byzantine district), themes which replaced provinces at this point, involving a return to the amalgamation of civil and military office which had been the practice under the Republic and the early Empire.


Legacy

While the Roman administration in the West was largely destroyed in the barbarian invasions, its model was remembered; this model became very influential through two particular vehicles: Roman law and the Christian Church.


Holy Roman/Habsburg Empires and successor states

*Reichskommissar


Turkish rule

In the Ottoman Empire, all Pashas (generals) administered a province of the Great Sultan's vast empire, with specific titles (such as Mutessaryf; Vali or Wāli which was often maintained and revived in the oriental successor states; Beilerbei (rendered as Governor-general, as he is appointed above several provinces under individual governors) and Dey)


British Empire and Commonwealth Realm

In the British Empire, a governor was originally an official appointed by the British monarch (or the cabinet) to oversee one of his crown colony, colonies and was the (sometimes notional) head of the colonial administration. A governor's power could diminish as the colony gained a more responsible government vested in such institutions as an Executive Council (Commonwealth countries), Executive Council to help with the colony's administration, and in a further stage of self-government, Legislative Councils or Legislative Assembly, Assemblies, in which the Governor often had a role. Today, crown colonies of the United Kingdom continue to be administered by a governor, who holds varying degrees of power. Because of the different constitutional histories of the former colonies of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
, the term "Governor" now refers to officials with differing amounts of power. Administrator of the Government, Administrators, Commissioners and High Commissioners exercise similar powers to Governors. (Note: such High Commissioners are not to be confused with the High Commissioners who are the equivalent of Ambassadors between Commonwealth states). Frequently the name 'Government House' is given to Governors' residences. :The term can also be used in a more generic sense, especially for compound titles which include it: Governor-general and Lieutenant-governor.


Vice-regal governors


United Kingdom overseas territories

In the United Kingdom's remaining crown colony, overseas territories, the governor is normally a direct appointee of the British Government and plays an active role in governing and lawmaking (though usually with the Advice (constitutional), advice of elected local representatives). The Governor's chief responsibility is for the Defence and External Affairs of the colony. In some minor overseas territories, instead of a Governor, there is an Administrator of the Government, Administrator or Commissioner, or the position is held ''ex officio'' by a High Commissioner.


Australia

In Australia, each state has the governor as its formal representative of the Queen, as head of the state government. It is not a political office but a ceremonial one. Each state governor is appointed by the Queen of Australia on the advice of the Premier, who is the political chief executive of the state government (until 1986, state governors were appointed by the Queen of the United Kingdom on the advice of the British Government). State Governors have emergency reserve powers but these are rarely used. The States and territories of Australia, Territories of Australia other than the ACT have Administrator (Australia), Administrators instead of governors, who are appointed formally by the Governor-general. The Governor-General is the representative of and appointed by the Queen of Australia at a federal level on the advice of the Prime Minister of Australia. As with the Governor-General of Australia, Governors-General of Australia and other Commonwealth Realms, State Governors usually exercise their power only on the advice of a government minister.


Canada

In Canada, there are governors at the federal and provincial levels of government who, within their jurisdictions, act as representatives of the Queen of Canada, who is Canada's Head of State. The federal governor is the Governor General of Canada, and the governor of each province is the Lieutenant governor (Canada), Lieutenant Governor. The Governor General is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister of Canada, whereas the lieutenant governors are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister. The role of the Governor General and of the lieutenant governors in Canada is largely ceremonial, although they do retain the authority to exercise reserve powers in exceptional circumstances. Each of the three territories is headed by a Commissioner#Canadian territories, commissioner appointed by the federal Cabinet of Canada, Cabinet. Unlike provincial Lieutenant governor (Canada), lieutenant governors, they are not representatives of the Queen, but rather are representatives of the federal government.


British Hong Kong (1841–1997)

In the colonial period of British Hong Kong, Hong Kong, the Governor of Hong Kong, governor was the representative of the The Crown, Sovereign from 1843, which was the year that the authorities and duties of the post were officially defined by the Hong Kong Letters Patent and the Royal instructions, Royal Instructions, until the Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, handover of Hong Kong to the China, PRC government in 1997. Each governor was appointed by Monarchy of the United Kingdom, the monarch and possessed significant powers such as the power of appointing lawmakers in the Legislative council, Legislative Council, the power to grant land, the power of veto over Bill (law), bills and Motion (parliamentary procedure), motions, the power of pardon, etc. At the same time, the governor was also the head of the colonial Cabinet (government), cabinet, the chairman of the Executive Council of Hong Kong, Executive Council, the President of the Legislative Council (until 1993), as well as the commander-in-chief of the British Forces Overseas Hong Kong, British Forces in Hong Kong.


New Zealand

The Governor-General of New Zealand is always the Governor of the Ross Dependency, an Antarctic sector which is claimed by the Realm of New Zealand.


Within the United Kingdom

Within the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
itself, there was a position of Governor of Northern Ireland from 1922 until the suspension of the devolved Parliament of Northern Ireland in 1973.


Within England

From the 16th century until 1995, there was a Governor of the Isle of Wight, part of England. Since the reign of Henry VIII, the monarch has borne the title of Supreme Governor of the Church of England.


Other colonial empires

European powers other than the United Kingdom, with colonies in Asia, Africa and elsewhere, gave their top representatives in their colonies the title of governor. Those representatives could be from chartered companies that ruled the colonies. In some of these colonies, there are still officials called governors. See: *Danish colonial empire *Dutch Empire *Empire of Japan *French colonial empire *German colonial empire *Italian Empire, Italian empire *Portuguese Empire *Spanish Empire *Swedish overseas colonies


Russia and former Soviet Union

In the Russian Empire, Governorate (Guberniya) and Governorate-General were the main units of territorial and administrative subdivision since the reforms of Peter the Great. These were governed by a Governor and Governor-general respectively. A special case was the Chinese Eastern Railway Zone, which was governed as a concession (territory), concession granted by Late Imperial China, Imperial China to the Russian 'Chinese Eastern Railway Society' (in Russian ''Obshchestvo Kitayskoy Vostochnoy Zheleznoy Dorogi''; established on 17 December 1896 in St. Petersburg, later moved to Vladivostok), which built 1,481 km of tracks (Tarskaya – Hilar – Harbin – Nikolsk-Ussuriski; 3 November 1901 traffic opened) and established on 16 May 1898 the new capital city, Harbin; in August 1898, the defense for Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) across northeast China was assumed by Russia (first under Priamur governor). On July 1, 1903, the Chinese Eastern Railway was opened and given authority of its own CER Administration (Russian: ''Upravleniye KVZhD''), vested in the Directors of the Chinese Eastern Railway, with the additional quality of Governors of the Chinese Eastern Railway Zone (in Harbin; as such being August 12, 1903 – July 1, 1905 subordinated to the imperial Viceroyalty of the Far East, see Lüshunkou). The post continued to function despite various political changes until after World War II. Some of the administrative subdivisions of Russia are headed by governors, while others are headed by Presidents or heads of administration. From 1991 to 2005, they were elected by popular vote and from 2005 to 2012, they were appointed by the federal president and confirmed by the province's legislature. After the debate, conducted by State Duma in April 2012, the direct elections of governors were expected to be restored.


Other European countries and empires


Austria

A Landeshauptmann (German language, German for "state captain" or "state governor", literally 'country headman'; plural ''Landeshauptleute'' or ''Landeshauptmänner'' as in Styria till 1861; ''Landeshauptfrau'' is the female form) is an official title in German for certain political offices equivalent to a Governor. It has historical uses, both administrative and colonial, and is now used in federal Austria and in South Tyrol, a majority German-speaking province of Italy adjacent to Tyrol (state), Tyrol.


Benelux monarchies

* In the Netherlands, the government-appointed heads of the provinces were known as ''Gouverneur'' from 1814 until 1850, when their title was changed to ''King's'' (or ''Queen's'') ''Commissioner''. In the southern province of Limburg (Netherlands), Limburg, however, the commissioner is still informally called Governor. * In the Dutch crown's Caribbean Overseas territories (Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten), the style Governor is still used, alongside the political head of government. * In Belgium, each of the Provinces of Belgium, ten provinces has a Governor, appointed by the regional government. He represents not only the regional, but also the federal government in the province. He controls the local governments and is responsible for law and order, security and emergency action. The national capital of Brussels, which is not part of a province, also has Governor of the Administrative Arrondissement Brussels-Capital, a governor with nearly the same competences.


France

During the Ancien Régime in France, the representative of the king in his Provinces of France, provinces and cities was the "gouverneur". Royal officers chosen from the highest French nobility, nobility, provincial and city governors (oversight of provinces and cities was frequently combined) were predominantly military positions in charge of defense and policing. Provincial governorsalso called "Lieutenant-General (France), Lieutenant Generals"also had the ability of convoking provincial parlements, provincial estates and municipal bodies. The title "gouverneur" first appeared under Charles VI of France, Charles VI. The ordinance of Blois of 1579 reduced their number to 12, but an ordinance of 1779 increased their number to 39 (18 first-class governors, 21 second-class governors). Although in principle, they were the king's representatives and their charges could be revoked at the king's will, some governors had installed themselves and their heirs as a provincial dynasty. The governors were at the height of their power from the middle of the 16th to the middle of the 17th century, but their role in provincial unrest during the civil wars led Cardinal Richelieu to create the more tractable positions of intendants of finance, policing and justice, and in the 18th century the role of provincial governors was greatly curtailed.


Germany

Until 1933, the term ''Landeshauptmann'' (state governor) was used in Prussia for the head of government of a province,Duden; Definition of Landeshauptmann, in German

/ref> In the modern-day states of Germany, the counterpart to ''Landeshauptmann'' is the ''Ministerpräsident'' (minister-president). In the present States of Germany, German states of Baden-Württemberg, Free State of Bavaria, Bavaria, Hesse, and North Rhine-Westphalia there are – and earlier in more German states there were – sub-state administrative regions called in german: Regierungsbezirk, which is sometimes translated into English as governorate. Thus its respective head, in german: Regierungspräsident, is also translated as governor.


Greece

Ioannis Kapodistrias was the first (and, with the exception of the short tenure of his younger brother Augustinos Kapodistrias, the only) List of heads of state of Greece, head of state of Greece to bear the title of governor.


Italy

*The essentially Stato da Mar, maritime empire of the Venetian republic, comprising Terra Firma, other Adriatic (mainly Istria and Dalmatia) and further Mediterranean (mainly Greek) possessions, used different styles, such as ''(castelleno e) provveditore (generale)'' or ''baile''. *In the fascist regime there was the governor of the colonies of the Italian colonial empire. *In today's Italy, the official name of a head of a Regione (the Italian subnational entity) is ''Presidente della Giunta regionale'' (President of the regional executive council), but since 2000, when a constitutional reform decided the direct election of the president by the people, it has been usual to call him/her ''governatore/governatrice'' (governor). *In the various Italian provinces (former principalities and city-states) that became amalgamated as the Papal States, the Holy See exerted temporal power via its papal legate, Legates and Delegate Apostolic, Delegates, including some Cardinals *Also in Avignon and the surrounding southern French Comtat Venaissin, the home of the Popes during their 'Babylonian exile', and retained centuries after, but never incorporated into the Papal States, Papal legate, Legates and Vice-legates were appointed. *The sovereign modern remnant of the formerly large Papal States, the tiny Vatican City State, is now a mere enclave in Rome, the capital of Italian Republic. As it is too small to have further administrative territorial divisions, it is the equivalent of a Prime Minister, Governor and Mayor all rolled into one post, styled the Governor of Vatican City.


Other modern Asian countries


China

In the People's Republic of China, the title "Governor" () refers to the highest ranking executive of a Province of China, provincial government. The Governor is usually placed second in the provincial power hierarchy, below the Party chief of the Communist Party of China, Secretary of the provincial Communist Party of China (CPC) committee (省委书记), who serves as the highest ranking Party official in the province. Governors are elected by the provincial congresses and approved by the provincial party chief. All governors are not locals in the provinces which they govern. The title can be also used while referring to a County (People's Republic of China), County Governor (县长).


India

In India, each state has a ceremonial Governor appointed by the President of India. These Governors are different from the Governors who controlled the British-controlled portions of the Indian Empire (as opposed to the princely states) prior to 1947. A Governor is the head of a state in India. Generally, a Governor is appointed for each state, but after the 7th Constitutional Amendment, 1956, one Governor can be appointed for more than one state.


Malaysia

In Malaysia, each of the four non-monarchical states (Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak) has a ceremonial Governor styled ''Yang di-Pertua Negeri'', appointed to a renewable four-year term by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the federal King of Malaysia on the advice of the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Prime Minister after consulting the state governments. Each of these states has a separate head of government called the ''Ketua Menteri'' or Chief Minister. The four Yang di-Pertua Negeri are members of the Conference of Rulers, however they cannot participate in the election of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, discussions related to the privileges of the Malay rulers and matters concerning the observance of Islam.


Pakistan

In Pakistan, each of the four provinces has a Governor who is appointed by the President of Pakistan, President. The governor is the representative of the president in their province and is the ceremonial head of the province whereas the chief minister is the head of the provincial government. The governor exercises powers similar to the president's, in their respective province.


Papua New Guinea

In Papua New Guinea, the leaders of the provinces have been known as governors since August 1995. Previously they were called premiers.


Sri Lanka

The provincial councils of the 9 provinces of Sri Lanka are headed by governors, as representatives of the President of Sri Lanka, President. Prior to 1948, in Ceylon (former name for Sri Lanka), the Governor of Ceylon was the head of the British Ceylon, British Colony.


Indonesia

In Indonesia, the title ''gubernur'' refers to the highest ranking executive of a Provinces of Indonesia, provincial government. The Governor and the Vice Governor are elected by a direct vote from the people as a couple, so the Governor is responsible to the provincial residents. The governor has a term of five years to work in office and can be re-elected for another single period. In case of death, disability, or resignation, the vice governor would stand in as acting governor for some time before being inaugurated as the permanent governor. The elected Governor is inaugurated by President of Indonesia, the president, or by the Minister of Home Affairs (Indonesia), Indonesian minister of home affairs on behalf of the president. In addition, the governor is the representative of central government in the province, and is responsible to the president. The governor's authority is regulated within the Law ( id, Undang-undang) Number 32/2004 and the Governmental Ordinance ( id, Peraturan Pemerintah) Number 19/2010. Principally, the governor has the tasks and the authorities to lead governmental services in the province, based upon the policies that have been made together with the Provincial Parliament. The governor is not the superordinate of regents or mayors, but he/she is only to guide, supervise, and coordinate the works of city/municipal and regency governments. In other parts, municipal and regency governments have the rights to manage each governance affairs based on autonomy principle and assistantship duties.


Japan

In Japan, the title refers to the highest ranking executive of a Prefectural Government. The Governor is elected by a direct vote from the people and had a fixed term of four years. There is no restriction on the number of terms a person may serve as governor. The governor holds considerable power within the prefecture, including the ability to veto ordinances that have been passed by the prefecture assembly, as well as control of the prefecture's budget and the power to dissolve the prefecture assembly. The governor can be subjected to a recall referendum. A total of one to four vice governors are appointed by the governor with the approval of the assembly. In the case of the governor's death, disability, or resignation, a vice governor would stand in as governor or acting governor. See List of governors of Japan for a list of the current governors.


Philippines

In the Philippines, the title "Governor" (''Gobernador'' or ''Punong Lalawigan'' in Filipino), refers to the highest ranking executive of a Provinces of the Philippines, province. The governor is elected by a direct vote from the people and has a fixed term of three years. A governor can serve only up to a maximum of three consecutive terms. He may however be suspended by either the Ombudsman of the Philippines, Ombudsman or the President of the Philippines, President, through the Secretary of the Interior and Local Government. He may be removed by the President if found guilty of an administrative case or a criminal act during his tenure. He may be subjected to a recall vote, but unlike a referendum, the voters elect the governor of their choice. In case of death, disability, resignation, forced removal, or suspension, the vice governor, elected separately in the same election for governor, succeeds as governor, or acting governor, as the case may be. During both the History of the Philippines (1565–1898), Spanish and History of the Philippines (1898–1946), American colonial periods, as well as during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, Japanese occupation of World War II, the chief executive of the Philippines was called Governor-General of the Philippines.


Thailand

In Thailand, the title "Governor" (ผู้ว่าราชการ ''Phuwa Ratcha Gaan'' in Thai) refers to the administrator of each Provinces of Thailand, Thai province, who is appointed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The only exception is the specially governed district of Bangkok, whose governor is elected by its population, thus making him or her equivalent to a mayor.


Other modern countries in North America


United States

In the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...
, the title "Governor" refers to the chief executive of each U.S. state, state or United States insular area, insular territory. Governors retain sovereign police power, are not subordinate to the federal authorities except by laws provided by the enumerated powers section of the federal constitution, and serve as the political and ceremonial head of the state. Nearly three-fourths of the states (36) hold gubernatorial elections in the same years as United States midterm election, midterm elections (2 years off set from presidential elections). Eleven states hold them in the same years as presidential elections (Vermont and New Hampshire hold elections every two years in every even numbered year), while the remaining five hold them in odd numbered years (two in the year after a presidential election, three in the year before). In colonial North America, governors were chosen in a variety of ways, depending on how the colony was organized. In the crown colony, crown colonies of Great Britain, France, and Spain, the governor was chosen by the ruling monarch of the colonizing power, or his designees; in British colonies, the Board of Trade was often the primary decision maker. Colonies based on a corporate charter, such as the Connecticut Colony and the Massachusetts Bay Colony, elected their own governors based on rules spelled out in the charter or other colonial legislation. In Proprietary colony, proprietary colonies, such as the Province of Carolina before it became a crown colony (and was divided into Province of North Carolina, North and Province of South Carolina, South), governors were chosen by the Lords Proprietor who controlled the colony. In the early years of the American Revolutionary War, eleven of the Thirteen Colonies evicted (with varying levels of violence) royal and proprietary governors. The other two colonies (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had corporate charters; Connecticut Governor Jonathan Trumbull was governor before and during the war period, while in Rhode Island, Governor Joseph Wanton was removed from office in 1775 for failing to support the rebel war effort. Before achieving statehood, many of the fifty states were Territories of the United States, territories. Administered by the federal government, they had governors who were appointed by the President of the United States, President and confirmed by the United States Senate, Senate rather than elected by the resident population.


Mexico

In Mexico, ''governor'' refers to the elected chief and head of each of Mexico, the nation's thirty one States of Mexico, Free and Sovereign States with the official Spanish language, Spanish title being ''Gobernador''. Mexican governors are directly elected by the citizens of each state for a six-year term and cannot be re-elected.


Other modern countries in South America

Many of the South American republics (such as Chile and Argentina) have provinces or states run by elected governors, with offices similar in nature to U.S. state governors.


Brazil

Until the History of Brazil (1930–1945), 1930 Revolution, the heads of the Brazilian Provinces of Brazil, Provinces, now called States of Brazil, States, were styled as (provincial/state) presidents (''presidentes''). From 1930 to 1945, they were styled either governors (''governadores'') or, when appointed by the federal government, intervenors (''interventores''). From 1945 on, they have only been called governors.


Modern equivalents

As a generic term, Governor is used for various 'equivalent' officers governing part of a state or empire, rendering other official titles such as: *colonial High Commissioner (not the Ambassadors exchanged within the Commonwealth) This also applies to non-western or antique culture


Other meanings of the word

The word ''governor'' can also refer to an administrator or supervisor (individually or collectively, see Board of Governors); the Governor of a national bank often holds ministerial rank. *Federal Reserve System, Federal Reserve Board of Governors *Governor of the Bank of Canada *Governor of the Bank of England *Governor of the National Bank of Romania *List of governors of national banks of Serbia and Yugoslavia *:Governors of the Hudson's Bay Company, Governors of the Hudson's Bay Company


See also

* Bey * Chief executive (gubernatorial), Chief executive *Chief minister * Deputy governor * Governorate * Governor-in-chief * Governor-general, Governor-General * Lieutenant governor * Premier * Viceroy * Voivode


References

{{Authority control Government occupations Gubernatorial titles Positions of authority Governance of the British Empire