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The Gold Coast is a coastal city in the
Australian state The States and Territories of Australia are the regional governments in Australia, distinct from the federal government and local governments. States are self-administered regions with their own constitutions, legislature, police force, depar ...
of
Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south r ...
, approximately south-southeast of the centre of
state capital Below is an index of pages containing lists of capital cities. National capitals *List of national capitals *List of national capitals by latitude *List of national capitals by population *List of national capitals serving as administrative divi ...
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of approximately 2.6 million, and it lies at the centr ...
and immediately north of the border with
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of :Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Coral and Tasman Seas to the east. The Australian ...
. The demonym for the Gold Coast is Gold Coaster. With an estimated population of 679,127, Estimated resident population, 30 June 2018. at June 2019 (including 79,001 in the adjacent
Tweed Valley The Tweed River is a river situated in the Northern Rivers district of New South Wales, Australia. From the middle reaches of its course, the state boundary between New South Wales and Queensland is located approximately north. The river rises ...
of New South Wales), the Gold Coast is the sixth-largest city in Australia, making it the largest non-
capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a department, country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the ...
, and Queensland's second-largest city. The Gold Coast is a major
tourist destination A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or an exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement. Types Places of natural be ...
with a sunny,
subtropical climate The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographic and climate zones located to the north and south of the tropical zone. Geographically part of the north and south temperate zones, they cover the latitudes between 23°26′11.6″ and approxim ...
and has become widely known for its world-class
surfing Surfing is a surface water sport in which an individual, a surfer, uses a board to ride on the forward section, or face, of a moving wave of water, which usually carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily fo ...
beaches A summer tourism at the Yyteri Beach in Pori, Finland">Pori.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Yyteri Beach in Pori">Yyteri Beach in Pori, Finland. A beach is a landform alongside a body of water whic ...
, high-rise dominated skyline,
theme parks Wonder Mountain at Canada's Wonderland An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its struct ...
,
nightlife People enjoying the nightlife at a nightclub in Cape Town, South Africa Nightlife is a collective term for entertainment that is available and generally more popular from the late evening into the early hours of the morning. It includes pubs, b ...
, and
rainforest Rainforests are forests characterized by high and continuous rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests. The monsoon trough, alternatively known as the ...
hinterland Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar). The term's use in English was first documented by geographer George Chisholm in his ''Handbook of Commercial Geography'' (1888). Originally the term was associated ...
. The city is part of the nation's entertainment industry with television productions and a major film industry.


History

The Gold Coast is the ancestral home of a number of Indigenous clans of the Yugambeh people, including the Kombumerri, Bullongin, and Tulgi-gi-gin clans. Europeans arrived in 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach. The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. A number of small townships developed along the coast and in the
hinterland Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar). The term's use in English was first documented by geographer George Chisholm in his ''Handbook of Commercial Geography'' (1888). Originally the term was associated ...
. The western suburb of
Nerang Nerang is a town and suburb in the City of Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. In the , Nerang had a population of 16,864 people. Geography The Nerang River flows through the locality from south to east, passing through the town. The river ultim ...
was surveyed and established as a base for the industry and by 1870 a town reserve had been set aside. By 1873, the town reserve of
Burleigh Heads Burleigh Heads is a suburb in the City of Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. In the , Burleigh Heads had a population of 10,077 people. Geography Burleigh Head is a cape () jutting into the Coral Sea at the northern mouth of Tallebudgera Creek. ...
had also been surveyed and successful land sales had taken place. In 1875, the small settlement opposite the boat passage at the head of the
Nerang River The Nerang River is a perennial river located in South East Queensland, Australia. Its catchment lies within the Gold Coast local government area and covers an area of . The river is approximately in length. Course and features The Nerang River ...
, known as Nerang Heads or Nerang Creek Heads, was surveyed and renamed
Southport Southport is a large seaside town in Merseyside, England. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 90,336, making it the eleventh most populous settlement in North West England. Southport lies on the Irish Sea coast and is fringed to the nor ...
, with the first land sales scheduled to take place in Beenleigh.
Southport Southport is a large seaside town in Merseyside, England. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 90,336, making it the eleventh most populous settlement in North West England. Southport lies on the Irish Sea coast and is fringed to the nor ...
quickly grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of approximately 2.6 million, and it lies at the centr ...
residents. After the establishment of the
Surfers Paradise Surfing is a surface water sport in which an individual, a surfer, uses a board to ride on the forward section, or face, of a moving wave of water, which usually carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily fo ...
Hotel in the late 1920s, the Gold Coast region grew significantly. The Gold Coast was originally known as the South Coast (because it was south of Brisbane). However, over-inflated prices for real estate and other goods and services led to the nickname of "Gold Coast" from 1950. South Coast locals initially considered the name "Gold Coast" derogatory. However, soon the "Gold Coast" simply became a convenient way to refer to the holiday strip from Southport to
Coolangatta Coolangatta is a coastal suburb in the City of Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. It is the Gold Coast's southernmost suburb and it borders New South Wales. In the , Coolangatta had a population of 5,948 people. Geography Coolangatta and its i ...
. The Town of South Coast was formed through the amalgamation of
Town of Coolangatta The Town of Coolangatta was a local government area in South East Queensland, Australia, centred on Coolangatta. It existed from 1914 to 1949. History On 11 November 1879, the Nerang Division was created as one of 74 divisions within Queensland ...
and
Town of Southport The Town of Southport was a local government area in South East Queensland, Australia. History On 11 November 1879, the Nerang and Coomera Divisions was created as two of 74 divisions within Queensland under the ''Divisional Boards Act 1879''. O ...
along with the coastal areas (such as Burleigh Heads) from the
Shire of Nerang The Shire of Nerang was a local government area in South East Queensland, Australia. The shire existed as a local government entity from 1879 until 1949. History On 11 November 1879, the Nerang Division was created as one of 74 divisions within Q ...
on 17 June 1949 with the effect of having the present-day Gold Coast coastal strip as a single local government area. As the tourism industry grew into the 1950s, local businesses began to adopt the term ''Gold Coast'' in their names, and on 23 October 1958 the Town of South Coast was renamed Town of Gold Coast. The area was proclaimed a city, despite the lack of a cathedral, less than one year later on 16 May 1959. The area boomed in the 1980s as a leading tourist destination. In 1994, the City of Gold Coast Local government in Australia, local government area was expanded to include the Shire of Albert, becoming the second most populous local government area in Australia after the City of Brisbane. In 2007, the Gold Coast overtook the population of Newcastle, New South Wales, to become the sixth largest city in Australia and the largest non-capital city. The Gold Coast hosted the 2018 Commonwealth Games.


Geography

The Gold Coast is approximately half covered by forests of various types. This includes small patches of near-pristine ancient rainforest, mangrove-covered islands, and patches of coastal heathlands and farmland with areas of uncleared eucalyptus forest. Of the plantation pine forests that were planted in the 1950s and 1960s, when commercial forest planting for tax minimisation was encouraged by the Commonwealth government, tiny remnants remain. Gold Coast City lies in the southeast corner of
Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south r ...
, to the south of
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of approximately 2.6 million, and it lies at the centr ...
, the state capital. The Albert River, Queensland, Albert River separates the Gold Coast from Logan City, Queensland, Logan City, a local government area south of the City of Brisbane. Gold Coast City stretches from the Albert River, Logan River, and Southern Moreton Bay Islands (Redland City), Southern Moreton Bay to the border with
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of :Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Coral and Tasman Seas to the east. The Australian ...
(NSW) approximately south, and extends from the coast west to the foothills of the Great Dividing Range in World Heritage Site, World Heritage listed Lamington National Park. The southernmost town of Gold Coast City, Coolangatta, Queensland, Coolangatta, includes Point Danger (Tweed Heads), Point Danger and its lighthouse. Coolangatta is a twin city with Tweed Heads located directly across the NSW border. At , this is the most easterly point on the Queensland mainland (Point Lookout on the offshore island of North Stradbroke Island, North Stradbroke is slightly further east). From Coolangatta, approximately forty kilometres of holiday resorts and surfing beaches stretch north to the suburb of Main Beach, and then further on Stradbroke Island. The suburbs of
Southport Southport is a large seaside town in Merseyside, England. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 90,336, making it the eleventh most populous settlement in North West England. Southport lies on the Irish Sea coast and is fringed to the nor ...
and
Surfers Paradise Surfing is a surface water sport in which an individual, a surfer, uses a board to ride on the forward section, or face, of a moving wave of water, which usually carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily fo ...
form the Gold Coast's commercial centre. The major river in the area is the
Nerang River The Nerang River is a perennial river located in South East Queensland, Australia. Its catchment lies within the Gold Coast local government area and covers an area of . The river is approximately in length. Course and features The Nerang River ...
. Much of the land between the coastal strip and the hinterland were once wetlands drained by this river, but the swamps have been converted into man-made waterways (over in length or over 9 times the length of the canals of Venice, Italy) and artificial islands covered in upmarket homes. The heavily developed coastal strip sits on a narrow barrier sandbar between these waterways and the sea. To the west, the city borders a part of the Great Dividing Range commonly referred to as the Gold Coast hinterland. A section of the mountain range is protected by Lamington National Park and has been listed as a World Heritage area in recognition of its "outstanding geological features displayed around shield volcanic craters and the high number of rare and threatened rainforest species". The area attracts bushwalking, bushwalkers and day-trippers. Important rainforest pollinating and seed-dispersing Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto) are found in the area and may be heard foraging at night.


Urban structure

The City of Gold Coast includes suburbs, localities, towns and rural districts. The declaration of Southport as a Priority Development Area (PDA) and new investment into the CBD is driving transformative change and creating new business and investment opportunities.


Waterways

Canal estate, Waterfront canal living is a feature of the Gold Coast. Most canal frontage homes have pontoons. The Gold Coast Seaway, between Southport Spit, Queensland, The Spit and South Stradbroke Island, allows vessels direct access to the Pacific Ocean from Gold Coast Broadwater, The Broadwater and many of the city's canal estates. Breakwaters on either side of the Seaway prevent longshore drift and the bar from silting up. A sand pumping operation on the Spit pipes sand under the Seaway to continue this natural process. Residential canals were first built in the Gold Coast in the 1950s and construction continues. Most canals are extensions to the Nerang River, but there are more to the south along Tallebudgera Creek and Currumbin Creek and to the north along the Gold Coast Broadwater, South Stradbroke Island, Coomera River and southern Moreton Bay. Early canals included Florida Gardens and Isle of Capri which were under construction at the time of a 1954 flood. Recently constructed canals include Harbour Quays and Riverlinks completed in 2007. There are over of constructed residential waterfront land within the city that is home to over 80,000 residents.


Beaches

The city consists of of coastline, with some of the most popular Surfing, surf breaks in Australia and the world including, South Stradbroke Island, Southport Spit, Queensland, The Spit, Main Beach, Queensland, Main Beach, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, Surfers Paradise, Broadbeach, Queensland, Broadbeach, Mermaid Beach, Nobby's Beach, Miami, Queensland, Miami, North Burleigh Beach, Burleigh Beach, Burleigh Heads, Queensland, Burleigh Heads, Tallebudgera Beach, Palm Beach, Queensland, Palm Beach, South Palm Beach, Currumbin Beach, Tugun, Bilinga, Queensland, Bilinga, North Kirra Beach Kirra, Queensland, Kirra, Coolangatta, Queensland, Coolangatta, Greenmount Beach, Greenmount, Rainbow Bay, Snapper Rocks and Froggies Beach. Duranbah Beach is one of the world's best known
surfing Surfing is a surface water sport in which an individual, a surfer, uses a board to ride on the forward section, or face, of a moving wave of water, which usually carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily fo ...
beaches and is often thought of as being part of Gold Coast City, but is actually just across the
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of :Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Coral and Tasman Seas to the east. The Australian ...
state border in the Tweed Shire. There are also beaches along many of the Gold Coast's of navigable tidal waterways. Popular inland beaches include
Southport Southport is a large seaside town in Merseyside, England. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 90,336, making it the eleventh most populous settlement in North West England. Southport lies on the Irish Sea coast and is fringed to the nor ...
, Budds Beach, Marine Stadium, Currumbin Alley, Tallebudgera Estuary, Jacobs Well, Jabiru Island, Paradise Point, Harley Park Labrador, Santa Barbara, Boykambil and Evandale Lake. Beach safety and management The Gold Coast has Australia's largest professional surf lifesaving service to protect people on the beaches and to promote surf safety throughout the community. The Queensland Department of Primary Industries carries out the Queensland Shark Control Program (SCP) to protect swimmers from sharks. Sharks are caught by using nets and baited drumlines off the major swimming beaches. Even with the SCP, sharks do range within sight of the beach patrol, patrolled beaches. Lifeguards will clear swimmers from the water if it is considered that there is a safety risk. Gold Coast beaches have experienced periods of severe Coastal erosion, beach erosion. In 1967, a series of 11 cyclones removed most of the sand from Gold Coast beaches. The Government of Queensland engaged engineers from Delft University in the Netherlands to advise what to do about the beach erosion. The Delft Report was published in 1971 and outlined a series of works for Gold Coast Beaches including Gold Coast Seaway, works at Narrow Neck, Queensland, Narrow Neck that resulted in the Northern Gold Coast Beach Protection Strategy and works at the Tweed River (New South Wales), Tweed River that became the Tweed River (New South Wales), Tweed River Entrance Sand Bypassing Project. By 2005 most of the recommendations of the 1971 Delft Report had been implemented. City of Gold Coast commenced implementation of the Palm Beach, Queensland, Palm Beach Protection Strategy but ran into considerable opposition from the community participating in a NO REEF protest campaign. The City of Gold Coast Council then committed to completing a review of beach management practices to update the Delft Report. The Gold Coast Shoreline Management Plan will be delivered by organisations including the Environmental Protection Agency (Queensland), Environmental Protection Agency, City of Gold Coast and the Griffith Centre for Coastal Management. Gold Coast City is also investing into the quality and capacity of the Gold Coast Oceanway that provides sustainable transport along Gold Coast beaches.


Climate

The Gold Coast experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification ''Cfa''), with mild to warm winters and hot, humid summers. The city experiences substantial summer precipitation mostly concentrated in thunderstorms and heavy showers with rain events occasionally lasting up to a few weeks at a time giving residents "the summer blues", while winter is pleasantly mild to warm with little rain. In fact, it is for this pleasant winter weather that both the city and the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Sunshine Coast—the coastal region north of Brisbane—are internationally renowned. Extreme temperatures recorded at Gold Coast Seaway have ranged from on 19 July 2007 to on 22 February 2005, although the city rarely experiences temperatures above in summer or below in winter. The average temperature of the sea at
Surfers Paradise Surfing is a surface water sport in which an individual, a surfer, uses a board to ride on the forward section, or face, of a moving wave of water, which usually carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily fo ...
ranges from in July and August to in February.


Demographics

According to the , the population of the Gold Coast was 569,997. The median age was 39 years old, 1 year older than the nationwide median. The male-to-female ratio was 48.6-to-51.4. The most commonly nominated ancestries were English (29.3%), Australian (22.5%), Irish (8.2%), Scottish (7.5%), and German (3.6%). 64% of people were born in Australia, while the other most common countries of birth were New Zealand (7.9%), England (5.2%), China and South Africa (1.2% each), and Japan (0.7%). Indigenous Australians accounted for 1.7% of the population. The most commonly spoken languages other than English were Mandarin (1.6%), Japanese (1.0%), Korean and Spanish (0.6% each), and Cantonese (0.5%). The most common religious affiliations reported were none (31.8%), Catholic (20.7%), Anglican (16.2%), and Uniting Church (3.9%).


Government

Administratively, the Gold Coast is a local government area called the City of Gold Coast. The City of Gold Coast Council has 14 elected councillors, each representing a division of the City. Businessman Tom Tate is the current Mayor of the Gold Coast, first elected in 2012. Former mayors include Ron Clarke, Ron Clake, Gary Baildon, Lex Bell, Ray Stevens (politician), Ray Stevens, Ern Harley and Bruce Small, Sir Bruce Small, who was responsible for the development of many of the canal estates that are now home to thousands of Gold Coast residents. At the state level, the Gold Coast area is represented by eleven members in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. The seats they hold are: Electoral district of Bonney, Bonney, Electoral district of Broadwater, Broadwater, Electoral district of Burleigh, Burleigh, Electoral district of Coomera, Coomera, Electoral district of Currumbin, Currumbin, Electoral district of Gaven, Gaven, Electoral district of Mermaid Beach, Mermaid Beach, Electoral district of Mudgeeraba, Mudgeeraba, Electoral district of Southport, Southport, Electoral district of Surfers Paradise, Surfers Paradise and Electoral district of Theodore, Theodore. Federally, the Gold Coast area is split between five divisions in the Australian House of Representatives, House of Representatives: Division of Fadden, Fadden (northern), Division of Moncrieff, Moncrieff (central) and Division of McPherson, McPherson (southern) are located entirely within the Gold Coast, while Division of Forde, Forde (north-west) and Division of WWright (south-west) encompass parts of the Gold Coast and other areas of Southeast Queensland. Politically, the Gold Coast has often tilted conservative. It was a National Party of Australia, Country Party bastion for most of the first three decades after World War II, but increasing urbanisation has made it a Liberal Party of Australia, Liberal stronghold. Australian Labor Party, Labor has historically only done well around Labrador and Coolangatta. Only one Labor MP has ever represented a significant portion of the Gold Coast at the federal level since 1949; the three Gold Coast divisions have only returned Liberals since 1984. At the state level, Labor was fairly competitive in the Gold Coast for most of the early part of the 21st century. However, as part of its massive landslide in the 2012 Queensland state election, 2012 state election, the Liberal National Party of Queensland, Liberal National Party won every seat there. The LNP repeated its sweep of the Gold Coast seats at the 2015 Queensland state election, 2015 election, and retained all but one Gold Coast seat at the 2017 Queensland state election, 2017 state election. Southport Courthouse is the city's major courthouse and has jurisdiction to hear petty criminal offences and civil matters up to Australian dollar, A$250,000. Indictable offences, criminal sentencing and civil matters above A$250,000 are heard in the higher Supreme Court of Queensland which is located in Brisbane. There is also a subsidiary Magistrates Court, located at the southern suburb of Coolangatta, Queensland, Coolangatta. In 2013 a brawl between members of Outlaw motorcycle gangs in Australia, Outlaw motorcycle gangs also called "bikies" who fought each other outside a Broadbeach restaurant caused mass fear to restaurant patrons and police. This led to the toughest anti-bikie laws introduced in Australia known as Vicious Lawless Association Disestablishment Act 2013.


Economy

In fifty years, Gold Coast City has grown from a small beachside holiday destination to Australia's sixth largest city (and the country's most populous non-capital city). Situated within South East Queensland's growth corridor, the Gold Coast is one of Australia's fastest growing large cities, with a 5-year annual average population growth rate to 2015 of 1.8%, compared to 1.5% nationally. Estimated resident population, 30 June 2015. Gross Regional Product has risen from A$9.7 billion in 2001, to A$15.6 billion in 2008, a rise of 61 percent. Tourism remains fundamental to Gold Coast City's economy, with almost 10 million visitors a year to the area. In the past the economy was driven by the population derived industries of construction, tourism and retail. Some diversification has taken place, with the city now having an industrial base formed of marine, education, information communication and technology, food, tourism, creative, environment and sports industries. These nine industries have been identified as the key industries by the City of Gold Coast Council to deliver the city's economic prosperity. Gold Coast City's unemployment rate (5.6 per cent) is below the national level (5.9 per cent). The declaration of Southport as the Gold Coast central business district (CBD) and a Priority Development Area (PDA), as well as new investment into the CBD, is driving transformative change and creating new business and investment opportunities. The Gold Coast Economic Development Strategy 2013 - 2023 outlines the framework for the city's long-term growth and prosperity. The strategy outlines actions in the following areas, Innovation, Culture, Infrastructure, Competitive business, Workforce, International.


Tourism

File:Meter Maid 1970.jpg, upThe Surfers Paradise Meter Maids were founded in 1965 and have since become an icon of the Gold Coast. Around 10 million tourists visit the Gold Coast area every year: of 849,114 international visitors, 3,468,000 domestic overnight visitors and 5,366,000 daytrip visitors. Tourism is the region's biggest industry, directly contributing more than $4.4 billion into the city economy every year and directly accounting for one in four jobs in the city There are approximately 65,000 beds, of beach, of canal, 100,000 hectares of nature reserve, 500 restaurants, 40 golf courses and five major theme parks in the city. Gold Coast Airport provides connection across Australia and internationally with airlines including Flyscoot, Jetstar, Qantas, Air New Zealand, Virgin Australia and Airasia X. Brisbane Airport is less than one hour from the centre of Gold Coast, and Airport railway line, Brisbane, direct trains operate. Tourism is Gold Coast City's main industry, generating a total of $2.5 billion in revenue per annum. The Gold Coast is the most popular tourist destination in Queensland. It is Australia's 5th most visited destination by international tourists. The city has over 13,000 available guest rooms contributing over $335 million to the local economy each year. Accommodation options available range from hostels to five star resorts and hotels. The most common style of accommodation is three and four star self-contained apartments. Tourist attractions include surf beaches, and theme parks including Dreamworld (Australian theme park), Dreamworld, Sea World (Australia), Sea World, Wet'n'Wild Water World, Warner Bros. Movie World, WhiteWater World, Topgolf, Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary, David Fleay Wildlife Park, Australian Outback Spectacular, and Paradise Country. Since the opening of what was then the world's highest residential tower in 2005 (it is now the fifth highest), the Q1 (building), Q1 building has been a destination for tourists and locals alike. It is the second highest public vantage point in the southern hemisphere after the Eureka Tower in Melbourne. The observation deck at level 77 is the highest of its kind in
Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south r ...
and offers views in all directions, from
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of approximately 2.6 million, and it lies at the centr ...
to Byron Bay, New South Wales, Byron Bay. It towers over the
Surfers Paradise Surfing is a surface water sport in which an individual, a surfer, uses a board to ride on the forward section, or face, of a moving wave of water, which usually carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily fo ...
skyline, with the observation deck 230 metres (755 feet) high, and the spire extending nearly another hundred metres up. In total, the Q1 is 322.5 metres (1058 feet) high, making it the list of tallest buildings in Australia, tallest building in Australia. Another famous tourist attraction are the Surfers Paradise Meter Maids, instituted in 1965 to put a positive spin on new parking regulations. To avoid tickets being issued for expired parking, the Meter Maids dispense coins into the meter and leave a calling card under the windscreen wiper of the vehicle. The Maids are still a part of the Surfers Paradise culture but the scheme is now run by private enterprise. Chinatown, Gold Coast, is an integral part of the revitalisation of Southport as an international CBD.


Film production

The Gold Coast is the major film production hub in Queensland and has accounted for 75% of all film production in Queensland since the 1990s, with an expenditure of around $150 million per year. The Gold Coast is the third largest film production centre in Australia behind Sydney and Melbourne. It is the filming site for major motion pictures including ''Muriel's Wedding (1994), ''Ghost Ship (2002 film), Ghost Ship'' (2002), ''Scooby-Doo (film), Scooby Doo'' (2002), ''House of Wax (2005 film), House of Wax'' (2005), ''Superman Returns'' (2006), Unbroken (film), ''Unbroken'' (2014), The Inbetweeners 2, ''The'' ''Inbetweeners'' ''2'' (2014), San Andreas (film), ''San Andreas'' (2015) ''Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales'' (2017), ''Kong: Skull Island'' (2017), ''Thor: Ragnarok'' (2017), ''Pacific Rim: Uprising'' (2018), ''Aquaman (film), Aquaman'' (2018), ''Dora the Explorer (film), Dora the Explorer'' (2019) and ''Godzilla vs. Kong'' (2020). Village Roadshow Studios are adjacent to the Warner Bros Movie World Theme Park at Oxenford, Queensland, Oxenford. The Studios consists of eight sound stages, production offices, editing rooms, wardrobe, construction workshops, water tanks and commissary. These sound stages vary in size and have an overall floor area of 10,844 sq metres, making Warner Roadshow Studio one of the largest studio lots in the Southern Hemisphere. The Queensland Government actively supports the film and television production industry in Queensland and provides both non-financial and financial assistance through the Pacific Film and Television Commission.


Culture

The Gold Coast's culture has been impacted by rapid development and traditional marketing programs orbiting around 'sun, sand, surf and sex.' Despite rapid socio-economic changes and a tourist-centred image, there is evidence of local resident-driven culture (such as Surf culture#surf gangs, surf gangs) in geographical pockets and a broader 'Gold Coaster' identity drawn from Globalization#Cultural globalization, globalised resort and real estate marketing material. The Gold Coast hosts cultural activities that attract tourists and residents alike.


Music

Music groups in this region include the Northern Rivers Symphony Orchestra and Operator Please. Musicians Cody Simpson and Ricki-Lee Coulter are from the Gold Coast. Music events include Big Day Out, Good Vibrations Festival, Summafieldayze, the Blues on Broadbeach Festival and V Festival (Australia), V Festival (2007–2009).


Arts

Home of the Arts, Gold Coast, Home of the Arts (HOTA) is the Gold Coast's premier cultural facility for visual and performing arts with a performance theatre, two cinemas and an underground venue. The theatre has hosted performance by the Imperial Russian Ballet, The Australian Ballet and the Queensland Ballet. Musicals, plays and a variety of performances are regularly scheduled. The city is also home to the Gold Coast City Art Gallery. Film festivals and the Comedy Club host international artists. A redeveloped Gold Coast cultural precinct opened before the city hosted the 2018 Commonwealth Games.
Bleach* The Gold Coast Festival
takes place annually across the City in August. The program is one of Australia's leading and most exciting site-specific contemporary arts programs. Quintessentially Gold Coast, Bleach* celebrate's the city's most dynamic and adventurous artists, welcomes renowned Australian and international collaborators and engages a broad audience through a range of events. Bleach* has attracted more than 470,000 people since its inaugural year in 2012. The program features work across all genres including dance, theatre, contemporary music, opera, installations, circus and major public events.


Sport

The Gold Coast is represented in two national competitions by the following teams: Burleigh Bears rugby league football club play in the Queensland Cup and have won four premierships (in 1999, 2004, 2016 and 2019). Recreational activities on the Gold Coast include surfing, fishing, cycling, boating and golf. The Gold Coast area has numerous golf links, including Hope Island, Queensland, Hope Island, Sanctuary Cove and The Glades. Sporting facilities include the Carrara Stadium, Carrara Indoor Sport Centre, Nerang Velodrome and the Sports Super Centre. Some of these facilities are being superseded by newer and larger capacity facilities. Two examples of these are the Gold Coast Convention and Exhibition Centre to play host to a Gold Coast Basketball team and Skilled Park to host National Rugby League, NRL games. Former WWE, World Wrestling Entertainment performer Nathan Jones (wrestler), Nathan Jones comes from the Gold Coast, as do Olympic gold medal winning swimmer Grant Hackett, 2011 US Open (tennis), 2011 US Open tennis champion Samantha Stosur and Sally Pearson (who received the keys to the city).


Commonwealth Games

The 2018 Commonwealth Games was held on the Gold Coast between 4 and 15 April 2018 which was an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth. It was the fifth time Australia had hosted the Commonwealth Games and the first time a major multi-sport event achieved gender equality by having an equal number of events for male and female athletes. More than 4,400 athletes including 300 para-athletes from 71 Commonwealth Games Associations took part in the event. The venues such as Carrara Stadium, Carrara Sports and Leisure Centre, Carrara Indoor Stadium, Carrara Indoor Sports Stadium, Gold Coast Convention and Exhibition Centre, Gold Coast City Convention and Exhibition Centre. Broadbeach Bowls Club Nerang National Park, Nerang Mountain Bike Trails, Coomera Indoor Sports Centre, Oxenford Studios, The Gold Coast Hockey Centre, Southport Broadwater Parklands, Gold Coast Aquatic Centre, Optus aquatic centre, Robina Stadium, The Currumbin, Queensland, Currumbin Beachfront, and
Coolangatta Coolangatta is a coastal suburb in the City of Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. It is the Gold Coast's southernmost suburb and it borders New South Wales. In the , Coolangatta had a population of 5,948 people. Geography Coolangatta and its i ...
Beachfront were used for the Games.


Other events

The Gold Coast 600 (formerly known as Lexmark Indy 300) is a car racing event held annually, usually in October. The course runs through the streets of Surfers Paradise, Queensland, Surfers Paradise and Main Beach, Queensland, Main Beach. The GC 600 comprises many other events such as the Indy Undie Ball and the Miss Indy Competition. Formerly an Indy car event, V8 Supercars are now the headline attraction, using a similar track route, as the circuit was cut in half by a hairpin. The Magic Millions horse racing auction at the Gold Coast Turf Club was the brainchild of entrepreneurs Gerry Harvey (of retailer Harvey Norman) and John Singleton (Australian entrepreneur), John Singleton. There are plans to relocate and build a state-of-the-art new racetrack at Palm Meadows which will incorporate the Magic Million sale with facilities for up to 4000 horses. Each June, Coolangatta hosts the Wintersun Festival renamed as Cooly Rocks On for 2011, a two-week 1950s and 1960s nostalgia festival with free entertainment and attractions, including hot rods, restored cars and revival bands playing music of the era. Every July, more than 25,000 congregate on the Gold Coast from around the world to participate in the Gold Coast Marathon. It is also the largest annual community sporting event held on the Gold Coast. In 2015, it will be held on 4–5 July and the 37th Gold Coast Airport Marathon is set to motivate and challenge more than 25,000 people of all ages and abilities. The Gold Coast Airport Marathon will feature an event for all ages and abilities, including the full Gold Coast Airport Marathon, ASICS Half Marathon, Southern Cross University Run, Suncorp Bank Challenge, and Junior Dash over and . In August Currumbin hosts the annual half distance Challenge Gold Coast triathlon, with the 1.9 km swim taking place in the Currumbin River, the 90 km bike going through the Currumbin and Tallebudgera Valley, Queensland, Tallebudgera Valleys in the Hinterland, and the 21.1 km run going along the beach to Elephant Rock and Tugun, Queensland, Tugun. Late November to early December sees thousands of school leavers across the country descend on the Gold Coast for Schoolies, a two-week period of celebration and parties throughout Surfers Paradise, hosted by the City of Gold Coast. The event is often criticised nationally and locally for its portrayal of drinking and acts of violence, however every effort by the Queensland Police Service and State Government to ensure all school leavers have a good time are put into place, including locals volunteering by walking the streets and keeping an eye out for those in need of assistance. Early each year the Gold Coast hosts one leg of the ASP World Tour of surfing, where some of the worlds best surfers compete in the Quiksilver Pro at Coolangatta. The Arts Centre Gold Coast located in Evandale, features a fine art gallery featuring local and international works from painting to sculpture and new media. In addition, there is a theatre for live productions including musicals as well two arts cinemas showing foreign and independent films from Australia and abroad. Chinatown, Gold Coast, located in Southport, hosts the annual citywide Lunar New Year festival as well as regular monthly events.


Media

Print The daily local newspaper is the ''Gold Coast Bulletin'' which is published by News Corporation (1980–2013), News Corporation. National surfing magazine ''Australia's Surfing Life'' is published in the Gold Coast suburb of
Burleigh Heads Burleigh Heads is a suburb in the City of Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. In the , Burleigh Heads had a population of 10,077 people. Geography Burleigh Head is a cape () jutting into the Coral Sea at the northern mouth of Tallebudgera Creek. ...
by Morrison Media. Television The Gold Coast straddles the boundary between the television licence areas of both Brisbane (metropolitan) and Northern NSW (regional): the Brisbane primary channels are Seven Network, Seven's BTQ, Nine Network, Nine's QTQ and Network 10, 10's TVQ, while the regional affiliates are Prime7's NEN (TV station), NEN, NBN Television and WIN Television. Both sets of commercial stations are available throughout the Gold Coast, as well as the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, ABC and Special Broadcasting Service, SBS television services. Other channels include 10 Boss, 10 Peach, Sky News on WIN (regional), ABC Comedy, ABC Me, ABC News (TV channel), ABC News, SBS Viceland, 7two, 7mate, 7flix, 9Gem, 9Go! & 9Life. Subscription television service Foxtel is also available. Of the main metropolitan and regional commercial networks: *Seven News#Gold Coast, Seven News and Nine Gold Coast News, Nine News both produce half-hour local bulletins at 5.30pm on weeknights, broadcasting from studios in
Surfers Paradise Surfing is a surface water sport in which an individual, a surfer, uses a board to ride on the forward section, or face, of a moving wave of water, which usually carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily fo ...
. These bulletins air as opt-outs on the respective metropolitan stations (BTQ7 and QTQ9) ahead of the main 6pm news from Brisbane. *NBN Television airs ''NBN News'', an hour-long regional program combining regional, national and international news - including local opt-outs for the Gold Coast and Northern Rivers - every night at 6pm. It broadcasts from studios in Newcastle, New South Wales, Newcastle with reporters based in Lismore and Surfers Paradise. *WIN Television airs short local news updates for the Gold Coast/Lismore district throughout the day. Radio There are numerous commercial, ABC and community stations broadcasting along the Gold Coast. The Gold Coast's FM broadcasting, FM commercial and community stations include 92.5 Gold FM and 90.9 Sea FM, Hot Tomato, Rebel FM, Rebel 99.4, The Breeze (Australia), Breeze 100.6, Jazz Radio 94.1FM, 94.1FM, Juice107.3, Radio Metro and 4CRB. 91.7 ABC Gold Coast is the local ABC station on the Gold Coast, which is complemented by the ABC's national radio services including Triple J, ABC Radio National, ABC NewsRadio and ABC Classic FM. A number of narrowcast services are also available on the Gold Coast including Raw FM (Australian radio network), Raw FM and Vision Radio Network, Vision Radio. The Gold Coast can also easily receive Brisbane and Northern NSW FM and AM stations.


Education


Colleges and universities

The Gold Coast is home to two major university campuses: Bond University at Robina, Queensland, Robina and Griffith University at
Southport Southport is a large seaside town in Merseyside, England. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 90,336, making it the eleventh most populous settlement in North West England. Southport lies on the Irish Sea coast and is fringed to the nor ...
. Southern Cross University also operates a smaller campus in Bilinga, Queensland, Bilinga near the Gold Coast Airport. The Gold Coast Institute of TAFE, Gold Coast Institute of Technical and Further Education (Technical and further education, TAFE) has five campuses at Southport, Ridgeway (Ashmore), Benowa, Coomera and Coolangatta.


Schools and libraries

There are over 100 primary and secondary schools, both public and private and of a variety of denominations, including the selective state high school Queensland Academy for Health Sciences and Single-sex education, single-sex private schools The Southport School and St Hilda's School. The longest established public school on the Gold Coast is Southport State High School, having originally opened in 1916. There are a number of libraries located on the Gold Coast. For a full list see Gold Coast libraries.


Infrastructure


Utilities

Electricity Electricity for the Gold Coast is sourced from Powerlink Queensland at bulk supply substations which is provided via the National Electricity Market from an interconnected multi-State power system. The Government-owned electricity corporation Energex distributes and retails electricity, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and value-added products and services to residential, industrial and commercial customers in South-East Queensland. Water supply The Hinze Dam southwest of Nerang is the population's main water supply. The Little Nerang Dam which feeds into Hinze Dam can supplement part of the city area's water needs, and both are managed by the city council directorate Gold Coast Water. Reforms of the way in which the water industry is structured have been announced by the State Government, with transfer of ownership and management of water services from local government to the state occurring in 2008–09. City of Gold Coast also sources water from Wivenhoe Dam, west of Brisbane for northern suburbs when the Hinze Dam, at one-tenth of Wivenhoe's capacity, becomes low. Water shortage and water restrictions have been current local issues, and a few new Gold Coast residential areas have recently included dual reticulation in their planning and development to supply water from a new water recycling plant being built concurrently. This will make available highly treated recycled water for use around the home in addition to potable water. The Gold Coast has received world recognition for this scheme in its Pimpama-Coomera suburbs. Gold Coast Water has also been recognised for its world leading HACCP water quality management system by the World Health Organization which published Gold Coast Water's system as a good model for managing water quality and safety from catchment to tap. The Gold Coast desalination project, Gold Coast desalination plant, which opened in February 2009, has the capacity to supply up to 133 megalitres of desalinated water per day.


Transport

The car is the dominant mode of transport in the Gold Coast, with over 70% of people using it as their sole mode of travelling to work. The Gold Coast has an extensive network of arterial roads that link coastal suburbs with inland suburbs. In recent the years the local and state governments have invested money in transport infrastructure on the Gold Coast to combat the increasing congestion on many of the city's roads. The Gold Coast has an extensive public transport network that includes buses, heavy rail & the new light rail for commuting to work, visiting attractions, and travelling to other destinations.


Road

A number of major roads connect the Gold Coast with Brisbane, New South Wales, and the surrounding areas. The Pacific Motorway (Brisbane–Brunswick Heads), Pacific Motorway (M1) is the main motorway in the area. Beginning at the Logan Motorway (M6) in Brisbane, it travels through the inland Gold Coast region and links with the Pacific Highway (Australia), Pacific Highway at the New South Wales/Queensland border near Tweed Heads, New South Wales, Tweed Heads. Before the Tugun Bypass was completed in 2008, the motorway ended at Tugun, Queensland, Tugun. The Gold Coast Highway services the coastal suburbs of the Gold Coast, including Surfers Paradise, Southport, and Burleigh Heads. Starting at the Pacific Motorway at Tweed Heads, it runs parallel to the coast until it reaches Labrador, where it turns inland to meet the Pacific Motorway again at Helensvale. Other arterial roads include the Smith Street Motorway which connects Southport, Gold Coast’s CBD with the Pacific Motorway (Brisbane–Brunswick Heads), M1 in Parkwood, Queensland, Parkwood. Other major roads include Reedy Creek Road, Nerang–Broadbeach Road, Robina Parkway and Southport – Burleigh Road, Southport–Burleigh Road.


Light rail

The Gold Coast's light rail service is called G:link, a line between Helensvale, Queensland, Helensvale and Broadbeach, Queensland, Broadbeach that also connects the key activity centres of
Southport Southport is a large seaside town in Merseyside, England. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 90,336, making it the eleventh most populous settlement in North West England. Southport lies on the Irish Sea coast and is fringed to the nor ...
and Surfers Paradise, Queensland, Surfers Paradise. The G:link was opened in 2014 between Broadbeach and Southport, with an extension to Helensvale completed in 2017 in preparation for the 2018 Commonwealth Games.


Heavy rail

Queensland Rail operates rail services from Brisbane to the Gold Coast along the Gold Coast railway line. The line follows the same route as Brisbane's Beenleigh railway line, continuing on after reaching Beenleigh railway station, Beenleigh. It then follows a route similar to that of the Pacific Motorway, passing stations at Ormeau railway station, Ormeau, Coomera railway station, Coomera, Helensvale railway station, Helensvale, Nerang railway station, Nerang and Robina railway station, Robina before terminating at Varsity Lakes railway station, Varsity Lakes. An extension of the Gold Coast line to the Gold Coast Airport is proposed.


Bus

The Gold Coast's main provider of public bus services is Surfside Buslines. It is a part of the TransLink (South East Queensland), TransLink network that coordinates the public transport in South East Queensland. Services are frequent during the day, with intervals being as little as 5 minutes between Southport and
Burleigh Heads Burleigh Heads is a suburb in the City of Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. In the , Burleigh Heads had a population of 10,077 people. Geography Burleigh Head is a cape () jutting into the Coral Sea at the northern mouth of Tallebudgera Creek. ...
.


Airport

Gold Coast Airport is located at Coolangatta, approximately south of Surfers Paradise. Services are provided to interstate capitals and major cities as well as to major New Zealand cities, Malaysia, Japan and Singapore. It is the List of the busiest airports in Australia, sixth busiest airport in Australia.


Projects

*The Gold Coast has been debating a controversial cruise ship terminal * A third extension of the G:link to Burleigh Heads, Queensland, Burleigh Heads is planned with fesability studies and community consultation currently underway. * The existing heavy rail Gold Coast railway line, Gold Coast line will be extended to Coolangatta


International relations

The City of Gold Coast has relationships with the following cities: Sister City Agreements * Beihai, China * Da Nang, Vietnam (Friendship agreement) * Zhuhai, China * Tainan, Taiwan * Taipei, Taiwan * Dubai, United Arab Emirates * Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States * Takasu, Hokkaido, Takasu, Japan * Nouméa, New Caledonia * Netanya, Israel * Chengdu, China * Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan (Friendship Agreement) Other Partnerships * Jining * Wuhan * Makassar * Phuket Province, Thailand https://www.goldcoast.qld.gov.au/business/sister-cities-international-partnerships-15053.html


Notable people

* Mick Doohan, five time 500 cc Grand Prix motorcycle racing List of 500cc/MotoGP Motorcycle World Champions, World Champion was born on the Gold Coast. * Megan Anderson (fighter), MMA fighter currently competing in the UFC. * Toni Storm, professional wrestler currently competing in World Wrestling Entertainment, WWE on the WWE NXT, NXT brand.


See also

* Gold Coast hinterland


References


External links

* * * * * * *
Explore Gold Coast
Everything About Gold Coast
Destination Gold Coast – Official Tourism website

Gold Coast City Council


Gold Coast City Council
TransLink – Public transport – bus train ferry


Tourism Australia {{Authority control Gold Coast, Queensland, 1823 establishments in Australia Coastal cities in Australia Populated places established in 1823 Seaside resorts in Australia