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The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization. It is based in the geography department of Loughborough University in Leicestershire, United Kingdom. GaWC was founded by Peter J. Taylor in 1998. Together with Jon Beaverstock and Richard G. Smith, they create the GaWC's bi-annual categorization of world cities into "Alpha", "Beta" and "Gamma" tiers, based upon their international connectedness.


GaWC city classification


The GaWC examines cities worldwide to narrow them down to a roster of world cities, then ranks these based on their connectivity through four "advanced producer services": accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and law. The GaWC inventory ranks city economics more heavily than political or cultural factors . Beyond the categories of "Alpha" world cities (with four sub-categories), "Beta" world cities (three sub-categories), and "Gamma" world cities (three sub-categories), the GaWC cities include additional cities at "High sufficiency" and "Sufficiency" level. GaWC has published city classifications in 1998, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2016, 2018 and 2020. The 2004 rankings added several new indicators while continuing to rank city economics more heavily than political or cultural factors. The 2008 roster, similar to the 1998 version, is sorted into categories of Alpha world cities (with four sub-categories), Beta world cities (three sub-categories), Gamma world cities (three sub-categories), and additional cities with High sufficiency or Sufficiency presence.


2020 city classification


The cities in the 2020 classification are as follows. (1) or (1) indicates a city moved 1 category up or down since the 2018 classification.


Alpha


Alpha level cities are linked to major economic states and regions and into the world economy and are classified into four sections, Alpha ++, Alpha +, Alpha, and Alpha − cities. ;Alpha ++ : Alpha ++ cities are cities most integrated with the global economy: * London * New York ;Alpha + : Alpha + cities are highly integrated cities, filling advanced service needs: * Beijing * Dubai * Hong Kong * Paris * Shanghai * Singapore * Tokyo ; Alpha : * Amsterdam (1) * Brussels * Chicago * Frankfurt * Jakarta * Kuala Lumpur * Los Angeles * Madrid * Mexico City * Milan * Moscow * Mumbai * São Paulo * Sydney (1) * Toronto ; Alpha − : * Bangkok (1) * Bangalore (1) * Boston (1) * Buenos Aires (1) * Dublin * Guangzhou (1) * Istanbul (1) * Johannesburg * Lisbon * Luxembourg City * Manila * Melbourne (1) * Montreal * Munich * New Delhi * Prague * Riyadh * San Francisco * Santiago * Seoul (1) * Shenzhen * Stockholm * Taipei (1) * Vienna * Warsaw (1) * Zürich (1)


Beta


Beta level cities are cities that link moderate economic regions to the world economy and are classified into three sections, Beta +, Beta, and Beta − cities. ; Beta + : * Atlanta * Auckland * Barcelona (1) * Beirut (1) * Berlin (1) * Bogotá (1) * Brisbane (1) * Bucharest * Budapest (1) * Cairo * Chengdu * Copenhagen * Dallas * Doha * Düsseldorf * Hamburg * Houston (1) * Lima * Miami (2) * Rome (1) * Tel Aviv * Vancouver * Washington, D.C. (1) ; Beta : * Abu Dhabi * Athens (1) * Cape Town * Casablanca * Chennai * Chongqing (1) * Denver * Hangzhou (1) * Hanoi (1) * Helsinki (1) * Ho Chi Minh City (1) * Karachi * Kyiv * Manama * Montevideo * Nairobi * Nanjing * Oslo * Panama City (1) * Perth (1) * Philadelphia * Rio de Janeiro * Seattle (1) * Tianjin ; Beta − : * Almaty * Amman (2) * Austin (2) * Belgrade * Bratislava * Calgary (1) * Caracas (1) * Changsha * Dalian * Detroit (1) * Dhaka * Edinburgh * Geneva * George Town * Guatemala City (1) * Hyderabad (1) * Jeddah * Jinan * Kampala * Kuwait City (1) * Lagos (1) * Lahore (1) * Lyon * Manchester * Minneapolis (1) * Monterrey * Muscat (1) * Nicosia * Osaka (1) * Quito * Saint Petersburg (2) * San Diego (2) * San José * San Salvador * Shenyang * Sofia (1) * Stuttgart * Tampa (2) * Tunis * Wuhan (1) * Xiamen * Xi'an (1) * Zagreb (1) * Zhengzhou (1)


Gamma


Gamma level cities are cities that link smaller economic regions into the world economy and are classified into three sections, Gamma +, Gamma, and Gamma − cities. ; Gamma + : * Adelaide * Ahmedabad (1) * Algiers (1) * Antwerp (1) * Baku (1) * Baltimore (1) * Belfast (1) * Charlotte (1) * Cologne (2) * Dar es Salaam * Glasgow * Guadalajara (1) * Hefei (1) * Islamabad (1) * Kolkata (1) * Kunming (1) * Ljubljana (1) * Medellín (2) * Orlando (2) * Phnom Penh (2) * Phoenix (1) * Porto (1) * Pune * Qingdao (1) * Riga * Rotterdam * San Jose (1) * St. Louis (1) * Suzhou (1) * Tbilisi (1) ; Gamma : * Ankara * Bristol * Colombo (1) * Dakar (2) * Durban (1) * Gothenburg (3) * Guayaquil (1) * Haikou (3) * La Paz * Malmö (3) * Managua (2) * Nantes (1) * Nashville (1) * Ottawa (1) * San Juan (2) * Santo Domingo * Taichung (3) * Tegucigalpa * Tirana (1) * Turin * Valencia (2) * Vilnius * Wellington * Wrocław (1) ; Gamma − : * Accra (2) * Asunción (1) * Belo Horizonte * Bilbao (1) * Cleveland (2) * Columbus (2) * Douala (1) * Edmonton (1) * Fuzhou * Harare (2) * Harbin (2) * Kaohsiung (1) * Kansas City (1) * Katowice (2) * Lausanne (1) * Limassol (2) * Luanda (1) * Málaga (2) * Maputo * Milwaukee * Nagoya (2) * Nassau (1) * Port Louis (3) * Penang * Poznań * Querétaro (1) * Sacramento * Salt Lake City (2) * Taiyuan (1)


Sufficiency


Sufficiency level cities are cities that have a sufficient degree of services so as not to be overly dependent on world cities. This is sorted into High Sufficiency cities and Sufficiency cities. ; High Sufficiency : * Abidjan * Abuja * Birmingham (4) * Brasília (1) * Cincinnati (1) * Curitiba (1) * Dammam (1) * Hartford * Indianapolis (1) * Johor Bahru (1) * Kraków (1) * Leeds * Lusaka (2) * Macau (1) * Ningbo * Porto Alegre * Port of Spain (1) * Puebla (1) * Raleigh * San Antonio (1) * Seville (1) * Strasbourg (1) * The Hague (1) * Tijuana (1) * Ulaanbaatar (1) * Yangon (1) * Yerevan (1) ; Sufficiency : * Aarhus * Aberdeen * Aguascalientes City * Alexandria * Baghdad * Bandar Seri Begawan * Barranquilla * Basel * Bergen * Bern * Birmingham * Bishkek * Blantyre * Bologna * Bordeaux * Brazzaville * Bremen * Buffalo * Bursa * Busan * Cali * Campinas * Canberra * Cardiff * Cebu City * Changchun * Chihuahua * Chișinău * Christchurch * Ciudad Juárez * Córdoba * Des Moines * Dortmund * Dresden * Dushanbe * Essen * Florence (1) * Fukuoka * Gaborone (1) * Genoa * Goiânia * Graz * Grenoble * Guiyang * Haifa * Halifax * Hamilton * Hanover * Harrisburg * Hobart * Hohhot * Honolulu * Hsinchu * İzmir (1) * Jacksonville * Jerusalem * Kabul * Kazan * Kigali * Kingston * Kinshasa * Kobe * Kochi * Kyoto * Labuan (1) * Lanzhou * Las Vegas (1) * Leipzig * León * Libreville * Liège * Lille * Linz * Liverpool * Łódź * Lomé * Louisville * Malacca * Mannheim * Marseille * Memphis * Mérida * Mexicali * Minsk (2) * Montpellier * Nanchang * Nanning * Naples * New Orleans * Newcastle upon Tyne * Nice * Nottingham * Novosibirsk * Nur-Sultan * Nuremberg * Oklahoma City * Omaha * Palermo * Palo Alto * Pittsburgh * Podgorica * Port Elizabeth * Port Harcourt * Portland * Port Moresby * Pretoria * Quebec City * Recife * Reykjavík * Richmond * Rochester * Rosario * Salvador * San Luis Potosí City * San Pedro Sula * Sanaa * Santa Cruz de la Sierra * Sapporo * Sarajevo * Saskatoon * Sendai * Sheffield * Shijiazhuang * Skopje (1) * Southampton (1) * Surabaya (1) * Suva * Tainan * Tallinn (3) * Tashkent * Toulouse * Trieste * Tulsa * Ürümqi * Utrecht * Valencia * Valparaíso * Vientiane * Windhoek * Winnipeg * Wuxi * Yokohama * Zhuhai


No longer classified


The following cities were included in the 2018 edition, but not in the 2020 edition: * Antananarivo * Kathmandu * Leicester * Madison * Nantong * Weifang * Xining

See also

* Global city

Notes




References





External links



Globalization and World Cities Research Network official website
{{authority control Category:Research institutes in Leicestershire Category:Social science institutes Category:Think tanks established in 1998 Category:1998 establishments in England Category:Loughborough University Category:Global studies research