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German South West Africa (german: Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people. The term "'" literally d ...
from 1884 until 1915, though Germany did not officially recognise its loss of this territory until the 1919
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. I ...
. With a total area of 835,100 km², it was one and a half times the size of the mainland German Empire in Europe at the time. The colony had a population of around 2,600 Germans. German rule over this territory was punctuated by numerous rebellions by its native African peoples, which culminated in a campaign of German reprisals from 1904 to 1908 known as the
Herero and Namaqua genocide The Herero and Namaqua genocide or the Herero and Nama genocide was the first genocide of the 20th century, waged by the German Empire against the Ovaherero, the Nama, and the San in German South West Africa (now Namibia). It occurred between 1904 ...
. In 1915, during
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
, German South West Africa was invaded by the Western Allies in the form of South African and British forces. After the war its administration was taken over by the
Union of South Africa The Union of South Africa ( nl, Unie van Zuid-Afrika; af, Unie van Suid-Afrika ) is the historical predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colon ...
(part of the
British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
) and the territory was administered as
South West Africa South West Africa ( af, Suidwes-Afrika; german: Südwestafrika; nl, Zuidwest-Afrika) was the name for modern-day Namibia when it was under South African administration, from 1915 to 1990. Previously the colony of German South West Africa from 188 ...
under a
League of Nations The League of Nations, abbreviated as LON (french: Société des Nations , abbreviated as SDN or SdN), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Founded on 10 January 1920 follo ...
mandate Mandate most often refers to: * League of Nations mandates, quasi-colonial territories established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, 28 June 1919 * Mandate (politics), the power granted by an electorate Mandate may also re ...
. It became independent as
Namibia Namibia (, ), officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean; it shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and eas ...
on 21 March 1990.


Early settlements

Initial European contact with the areas which would become German South West Africa came from traders and sailors, starting in January 1486 when
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
explorer
Diogo Cão Diogo Cão (), anglicised as Diogo Cam and also known as Diego Cam, was a Portuguese explorer and one of the most notable navigators of the Age of Discovery. He made two voyages sailing along the west coast of Africa in the 1480s, exploring the Co ...

Diogo Cão
, possibly accompanied by
Martin Behaim Martin Behaim (6 October 1459 – 29 July 1507), also known as and by various forms of , was a German textile merchant and cartographer. He served John II of Portugal as an adviser in matters of navigation and participated in a voyage to Wes ...
, landed at
Cape Cross Cape Cross (Afrikaans: ''Kaap Kruis''; German: ''Kreuzkap''; Portuguese: ''Cabo da Cruz'') is a small headland in the South Atlantic in Skeleton Coast, western Namibia, on the C34 highway some 60 kilometres north of Hentiesbaai and 120 km no ...
. However, for several centuries, European settlement would remain limited and temporary. In February 1805 the
London Missionary Society The London Missionary Society was a predominantly Congregationalist missionary society formed in England in 1795 at the instigation of Welsh Congregationalist minister Dr Edward Williams working with evangelical Anglicans and various nonconformists. ...
established a small mission in Blydeverwacht, but the efforts of this group met with little success. In 1840 the London Missionary Society transferred all of its activities to the German
Rhenish Missionary Society The Rhenish Missionary Society (''Rhenish'' of the river Rhine) was one of the largest Protestant missionary societies in Germany. Formed from smaller missions founded as far back as 1799, the Society was amalgamated on 23 September 1828, and its ...
. Some of the first representatives of this organisation were Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt (who arrived in October 1842) and
Carl Hugo Hahn Carl Hugo Hahn (1818–1895) was a Baltic German missionary and linguist who worked in South Africa and South-West Africa for most of his life. Together with Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt he set up the first Rhenish mission station to the Herero peo ...
(who arrived in December 1842). They began founding churches throughout the territory. The Rhenish missionaries had a significant impact initially on culture and dress, and then later on politics. During the same time that the Rhenish missionaries were active, merchants and farmers were establishing outposts.


Early history

On 16 November 1882, a German merchant from
Bremen Bremen (, also ; Low German also: ''Breem'' or ''Bräm''), officially the City Municipality of Bremen (german: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, ), is the capital of the German state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (''Freie Hansestadt Bremen''), a two-city-stat ...
,
Adolf Lüderitz 250px, F.A.E. Lüderitz (around 1885) Franz Adolf Eduard Lüderitz (16 July 1834 – end of October 1886) was a German merchant and the founder of German South West Africa, Imperial Germany's first colony. The coastal town of Lüderitz, located i ...
, requested protection for a station that he planned to build in South West Africa, from
Chancellor Bismarck
Chancellor Bismarck
. Once this was granted, his employee Heinrich Vogelsang purchased land from a native chief and established a city at
Angra Pequena Angra may refer to: Places * Bay of Angra (Baía de Angra), within Angra do Heroísmo on the Portuguese island of Terceira in the archipelago of the Azores * Angra do Heroísmo, a municipality in the Azores, Portugal * Angra dos Reis, a municipalit ...
which was renamed
Lüderitz Lüderitz is a harbour town in the ǁKaras Region of southern Namibia. It lies on one of the least hospitable coasts in Africa. It is a port developed around Robert Harbour and Shark Island. The town is known for its colonial architecture, i ...
. On 24 April 1884, he placed the area under the protection of
Imperial Germany The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people. The term "'" literally d ...
to deter possible encroachment by other European powers. In early 1884, the
gunboat ironclad river gunboats assault the Confederates at Fort Donelson on February 1862, during the American Civil War. A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as oppo ...
visited to review the situation. A favourable report from the government, and
acquiescence In law, acquiescence occurs when a person knowingly stands by without raising any objection to the infringement of his or her rights, while someone else unknowingly and without malice aforethought acts in a manner inconsistent with their rights. A ...
from the British, resulted in a visit from the
corvette A corvette is a small warship. It is traditionally the smallest class of vessel considered to be a proper (or "rated") warship. The warship class above the corvette is that of the frigate, while the class below was historically that of the sloop ...
s and . The German flag was finally raised in South West Africa on 7 August 1884. The German claims on this land were confirmed during the
Conference of Berlin The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference (german: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's s ...
. In October, the newly appointed
Commissioner A commissioner is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to include a variety of senior officials, ...
for West Africa,
Gustav Nachtigal Gustav Nachtigal (; born 23 February 1834 – 20 April 1885) was a German explorer of Central and West Africa. He is further known as the German Empire's consul-general for Tunisia and Commissioner for West Africa. His mission as commissioner resul ...
, arrived on the . Chapter 4.1 Initial Period of German South West Africa (SWA): 1884-188
''Chronology'' 1884 Section
/ref> In April 1885, the ''Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft für Südwest-Afrika'' (German Colonial Society for Southwest Africa, known as DKGSWA) was founded with the support of German bankers (
Gerson von Bleichröder Gerson von Bleichröder (22 December 1822 – 18 February 1893) was a Jewish German banker. Bleichröder was born in Berlin. He was the eldest son of Samuel Bleichröder, who founded the banking firm of S. Bleichröder in 1803 in Berlin. Gerson ...

Gerson von Bleichröder
, Adolph von Hansemann), industrialists (
Count Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck
Count Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck
) and politicians (
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian: ''Frangford am Maa'', "Frank ford on the Main"), is the most populous city in the German state of Hesse. Its 763,380 inhabitants as of 31 December 2019 make it the fifth-most populous city i ...
mayor
Johannes von Miquel Johannes von Miquel (19 February 1828 – 8 September 1901) was a German statesman. Biography Born Johannes Franz Miquel at Neuenhaus (Kingdom of Hanover) on 19 February 1828 as a descendant from a French family that had emigrated during the Frenc ...

Johannes von Miquel
). "Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft für Südwestafrika"
/ref> DKGSWA was granted monopoly rights to exploit mineral deposits, following Bismarck's policy that private rather than public money should be used to develop the colonies.
/ref> The new Society soon bought the assets of Lüderitz's failing enterprises, land and mineral rights. Lüderitz drowned the next year while on an expedition to the mouth of the
Orange River The Orange River (from Afrikaans/Dutch: ''Oranjerivier'') is a river in Southern Africa. It is the longest river within the borders of South Africa and the Orange River Basin extends extensively from Lesotho into South Africa and Namibia to th ...
. Later, in 1908, diamonds were discovered. Thus along with gold, copper, platinum, and other minerals, diamonds became a major investment. In May,
Heinrich Ernst Göring Heinrich Ernst Göring (31 October 1839 – 7 December 1913) was a German jurist and diplomat who served as colonial governor of German South West Africa. He was the father of five children including Hermann Göring, the Nazi leader and commander ...
was appointed Commissioner and established his administration at
Otjimbingwe Otjimbingwe (also: Otjimbingue) is a settlement in the Erongo Region of central Namibia. It has approximately 8,000 inhabitants. History The area was already a temporary settlement of some Herero in the early 18th century. Their chief Tjiponda coi ...
. Then, on 17 April 1886, a law creating the legal system of the colony was passed, creating a dual system with laws for Europeans and different laws for natives.''Chronology'' 1886 Section
/ref> Over the following years, relations between the German settlers and the indigenous peoples continued to worsen. Additionally, the British settlement at
Walvis Bay Walvis Bay ( en, lit. Whale Bay; af, Walvisbaai; ger, Walfischbucht or Walfischbai) is a city in Namibia and the name of the bay on which it lies. It is the second largest city in Namibia and the largest coastal city in the country. The city co ...
, a coastal enclave within South West Africa, continued to develop, and many small farmers and missionaries moved into the region. A complex web of treaties, agreements, and vendettas increased the unrest. In 1888 the first group of ''
Schutztruppe (, Protection Force) was the official name of the colonial troops in the African territories of the German colonial empire from the late 19th century to 1918. Similar to other colonial armies, the consisted of volunteer European commissioned an ...
n''—colonial protectorate troops—arrived, sent to protect the military base at
Otjimbingwe Otjimbingwe (also: Otjimbingue) is a settlement in the Erongo Region of central Namibia. It has approximately 8,000 inhabitants. History The area was already a temporary settlement of some Herero in the early 18th century. Their chief Tjiponda coi ...
. In 1890, the colony was declared a German
Crown Colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony administered by the Government of the United Kingdom (the Crown). There was usually a Governor, appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the ''Home'' (UK) Government, with or ...
, and more troops were sent.''Chronology'' 1890 Section
/ref> In July of the same year, as part of the
Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty The Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty (german: Helgoland-Sansibar-Vertrag; also known as the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890) was an agreement signed on 1 July 1890 between the German Empire and the United Kingdom. The accord gave Germany control of th ...
between Britain and Germany, the colony grew in size through the acquisition of the
Caprivi Strip The Caprivi Strip, also known simply as Caprivi, is a geographic salient protruding from the north-eastern corner of Namibia. It is surrounded by Botswana to the south and Angola and Zambia to the north. Namibia, Botswana and Zambia meet at a sing ...
in the northeast, promising new trade routes into the interior. Almost simultaneously, between August and September 1892, the South West Africa Company Ltd (SWAC) was established by the German, British, and Cape Colony governments, aided by financiers to raise the capital required to enlarge mineral exploitation (specifically, the Damaraland concession's copper deposit interests). German South West Africa was the only German colony in which Germans settled in large numbers. German settlers were drawn to the colony by economic possibilities in diamond and copper mining, and especially farming. In 1902 the colony had 200,000 inhabitants, although only 2,595 were recorded as German, while 1,354 were
Afrikaner Afrikaners () are an ethnic group in Southern Africa descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving at the Cape of Good Hope in the 17th and 18th centuries.Entry: Cape Colony. ''Encyclopædia Britannica Volume 4 Part 2: Brain to Ca ...
s and 452 were British. By 1914, 9,000 more German settlers had arrived. There were probably around 80,000 Herero, 60,000
OvamboOvambo may refer to: *Ovambo language *Ovambo people *Ovamboland *Ovambo sparrowhawk (''Accipiter ovampensis''), an African bird of prey {{Disambig Language and nationality disambiguation pages ...
, and 10,000 Nama, who were referred to as Hottentots.


Rebellion against German rule and genocide of the Herero and Namaqua

Through 1893 and 1894, the first "Hottentot Uprising" of the Nama and their legendary leader Hendrik Witbooi occurred. The following years saw many further local uprisings against German rule. Before the
Herero and Namaqua genocide The Herero and Namaqua genocide or the Herero and Nama genocide was the first genocide of the 20th century, waged by the German Empire against the Ovaherero, the Nama, and the San in German South West Africa (now Namibia). It occurred between 1904 ...
of 1904–1907, the Herero and Nama had good reasons to distrust the Germans, culminating in the Khaua-Mbandjeru rebellion. This rebellion, in which the Germans tried to control the Khaua by seizing their property under cover of European legal views of property ownership (criticised at home for being no real reform of the notion of collective tribal ownership). This led to the largest of the rebellions, known as the Herero Wars (or Herero genocide) of 1904. Remote farms were attacked, and approximately 150 German settlers were killed. The ''
Schutztruppe (, Protection Force) was the official name of the colonial troops in the African territories of the German colonial empire from the late 19th century to 1918. Similar to other colonial armies, the consisted of volunteer European commissioned an ...
'' of only 766 troops and native auxiliary forces was, at first, no match for the Herero. The Herero went on the offensive, sometimes surrounding
Okahandja Okahandja is a city of 24,100 inhabitants in Otjozondjupa Region, central Namibia, and the district capital of the Okahandja electoral constituency. It is known as the ''Garden Town of Namibia''. It is located 70 km north of Windhoek on the B1 ...
and
Windhoek Windhoek (, , ) is the capital and largest city of Namibia. It is located in central Namibia in the ''Khomas Highland'' plateau area, at around above sea level, almost exactly at the country's geographical centre. The population of Windhoek in ...
, and destroying the railway bridge to
Osona Osona () is a ''comarca'' situated in Catalonia, Northeast Spain. Its capital is Vic. Its population in 2001 was 129,543. Osona covers roughly the same area as the historic Catalan county of Osona. The name Osona comes from ''Ausetans'', a group o ...
. Additional 14,000 troops, hastened from Germany under
Lieutenant General Lieutenant general or lieutenant-general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-9) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the secon ...

Lieutenant General
Lothar von Trotha General Adrian Dietrich Lothar von Trotha (3 July 1848 – 31 March 1920) was a German military commander during the European new colonial era. As a brigade commander of the East Asian Expedition Corps, he was involved in suppressing the Boxer Re ...

Lothar von Trotha
, crushed the rebellion in the
Battle of Waterberg The Battle of Waterberg (Battle of Ohamakari) took place on August 11, 1904 at the Waterberg, German South West Africa (modern day Namibia), and was the decisive battle in the German campaign against the Herero. Armies The German Imperial Forces ...
. Earlier von Trotha issued an ultimatum to the Herero people, denying them the right of being German subjects and ordering them to leave the country, or be killed. To escape, the Herero retreated into the waterless
Omaheke Omaheke is one of the fourteen regions of Namibia, its capital is Gobabis. It lies on the eastern border of Namibia and is the Western extension of the Kalahari desert. The name Omaheke is the Herero word for Sandveld. The self-governed villages of ...
region, a western arm of the
Kalahari Desert The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savannah in Southern Africa extending for , covering much of Botswana, and parts of Namibia and South Africa. It is not to be confused with the Angolan, Namibian, and South African Namib coastal ...
, where many of them died of thirst. The German forces guarded every water source and were given orders to shoot any adult male Herero on sight. Only a few Herero managed to escape into neighbouring British Bechuanaland. The German official military report on the campaign lauded the tactics: In late 1904, the Nama entered the struggles against the colonial power under their leaders Hendrik Witbooi and Jakobus Morenga, the latter often referred to as "the black Napoleon", despite losing most of his battles. This uprising was finally quashed during 1907–1908. In total, between 25,000 and 100,000 Herero, more than 10,000 Nama and 1,749 Germans died in the conflict. After the official end of the conflict, the remaining natives, when finally released from detention, were subject to a policy of dispossession, deportation, forced labour, and racial segregation and discrimination in a system that in many ways anticipated apartheid. The genocide remains relevant to ethnic identity in independent Namibia and to relations with Germany. The neighbouring British objected to what they regarded as the inhumane German policy. This involved maintaining a number of concentration camps in the colony during their war against the Herero and Nama peoples. Besides these camps, the indigenous people were interned in other places. These included private businesses and government projects, ships offshore, ''Etappenkommando'' in charge of supplies of prisoners to companies, private persons, etc., as well as any other materials. Concentration camps implies poor sanitation and a population density that would imply disease. Prisoners were used as slave labourers in mines and railways, for use by the military or settlers. The Herero and Namaqua genocide has been recognised by the United Nations and by the Federal Republic of Germany. On the 100th anniversary of the camp's foundation, Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (Germany), German Minister for Economic Development and Cooperation Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul commemorated the dead on-site and apologised for the camp on behalf of Germany. File:Erichsen Abused San or Nama child prisoners p. 52 v2.jpg File:Erichsen p.59 v2.jpg File:Erichsen slave labour p. 83 v2.jpg File:Erichsen p.92 v2.jpg File:Sarkin p. 225.jpg File:Erichsen p.57 v2.jpg File:Zimmerer+Zeller Genocide in GSWA p.137.jpg


First World War

During the First World War, South African troops opened hostilities with an assault on the Ramansdrift police station on 13 September 1914. German settlers were transported to concentration camps near Pretoria and later in Pietermaritzburg. Because of the overwhelming numerical superiority of the South African troops, the Schutztruppe, German Schutztruppe, along with groups of
Afrikaner Afrikaners () are an ethnic group in Southern Africa descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving at the Cape of Good Hope in the 17th and 18th centuries.Entry: Cape Colony. ''Encyclopædia Britannica Volume 4 Part 2: Brain to Ca ...
volunteers fighting in the Maritz Rebellion on the German side, offered opposition only as a delaying tactic. On 9 July 1915, Victor Franke, the last commander of the Schutztruppe, capitulated near Khorab. Two members of the Schutztruppe, geography professors Fritz Jaeger and Leo Waibel, are remembered for their explorations of the northern part of German South West Africa, which became the book ''Contributions to the Geography of South West Africa'' (Beiträge zur Landeskunde von Südwestafrika).


Postwar

After the war, the territory came under the control of Britain and then was made a South African
League of Nations The League of Nations, abbreviated as LON (french: Société des Nations , abbreviated as SDN or SdN), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Founded on 10 January 1920 follo ...
mandate. The colony developed peacefully under British rule. In 1990, the former colony became independent as
Namibia Namibia (, ), officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean; it shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and eas ...
, governed by the former liberation movement SWAPO.


German legacy

Many German names, buildings, and businesses still exist in the country, and about 30,000 people of German descent still live there. German language in Namibia, German is still widely used in Namibia, with the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation operating a German-language radio station and broadcasting television news bulletins in German, while the daily newspaper ''Allgemeine Zeitung (Namibia), Allgemeine Zeitung'', founded in 1916, remains in publication. Deukom, a satellite television service, offers television and radio channels from Germany.Die DEUKOM Fernsehsender
/ref> In addition, Lutheranism is the predominant Christianity, Christian denomination in present-day
Namibia Namibia (, ), officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean; it shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and eas ...
.


German placenames

Most place names in German South West Africa continued to bear German spellings of the local names, as well as German translations of some local phrases. The few exceptions to the rule included places founded by the
Rhenish Missionary Society The Rhenish Missionary Society (''Rhenish'' of the river Rhine) was one of the largest Protestant missionary societies in Germany. Formed from smaller missions founded as far back as 1799, the Society was amalgamated on 23 September 1828, and its ...
, generally biblical names, as well as: *Hoornkrans *Sandfontein *Stolzenfels *Waterberg (Otjiwarongo)


Planned symbols for German South West Africa

In 1914 a series of drafts were made for proposed Coat of Arms and Flags for the German colonial empire, German Colonies. However,
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
broke out before the designs were finished and implemented and the symbols were never actually taken into use. Following the defeat in the war, Germany lost all its colonies and the prepared coat of arms and flags were therefore never used.
Flag of Deutsch-Südwest.svg, Proposed flag Proposed Coat of Arms Southwest Africa 1914.png, Proposed coat of arms


See also

*List of colonial governors of South West Africa *List of former German colonies *Postage stamps and postal history of German South West Africa *Germans of Namibia *German Kamerun *Togoland *German East Africa *German African Party


References

;Notes ;Bibliography
Table of Contents
*
Table of Contents
*


Further reading

*Aydelotte, William Osgood. "The First German Colony and Its Diplomatic Consequences." ''Cambridge Historical Journal'' 5#3 (1937): 291-313
Online
* Alan Bullock, Bullock, A.L.C. ''Germany's Colonial Demands'', Oxford University Press, 1939. *Isabel V. Hull, Hull, Isabel. ''Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany''. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006
Preview
*Hillebrecht, Werner. "'Certain uncertainties', or venturing progressively into colonial apologetics?" Journal of Namibian Studies, 1. 2007. pp. 73–95. Accessed 6 September 2020
Online


External links


Klaus Dierks' chronology of Namibia


* :s:The New Student's Reference Work/German Southwest Africa, The New Student's Reference Work/German Southwest Africa
Debie LeBeau's Development work on Namibia

"Contributions to the Geography of South West Africa"
from 1920–21 via the World Digital Library {{Coord, 22, 34, 12, S, 17, 05, 01, E, source:kolossus-svwiki, display=title German South West Africa, History of Namibia Former German colonies, South West Africa Former protectorates German colonisation in Africa Germany–Namibia relations Former colonies in Africa 1884 establishments in German South West Africa 1915 disestablishments in South West Africa