BackgroundDuring the centuries that followed the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, fall of Rome in 476, several European states viewed themselves as ''translatio imperii'' ("transfer of rule") of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire (481–843) and the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) were thereby attempts to resurrect Western Roman Empire, Rome in the West. This political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a ''Renovatio imperii Romanorum, renovatio imperii'' ("restoration of the empire"), either in the forms of the ''Reichsidee'' ("imperial idea") or the religiously inspired ''Imperium Christianum'' ("christian empire"). Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Holy See, Papacy have been cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Tsardom of Russia, Russian Tsardom, and ultimately the Russian Empire, Empire (1547–1917), declared Moscow to be Moscow, third Rome, Third Rome and inheritor of the Byzantine Empire, Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The gap between Greek East and Latin West had already been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the East–West Schism, Great Schism of 1054, and would be eventually widened again by the Iron Curtain (1945–1991) before the enlargement of the European Union towards Eastern Europe since 2004 onward. Pan-European political thought truly emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French Revolution, French and American Revolutions after the demise of First French Empire, Napoléon's Empire (1804–1815). In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent, especially in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski (1799–1882) or Giuseppe Mazzini (1805–1872). The term ''United States of Europe'' (french: États-Unis d'Europe) was used at that time by Victor Hugo (1802–1885) during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent. In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established ... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Paneuropean Union, Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which then Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, and mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace.
Preliminary (19451957)After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated parts of the continent. In a speech delivered on 19 September 1946 at the University of Zürich, Switzerland, Winston Churchill went further and advocated the emergence of a United States of Europe. The 1948 Hague Congress (1948), Hague Congress was a pivotal moment in European federal history, as it led to the creation of the European Movement International and of the College of Europe, where Europe's future leaders would live and study together. It also led directly to the founding of the Council of Europe in 1949, the first great effort to bring the nations of Europe together, initially ten of them. The Council focused primarily on values—human rights and democracy—rather than on economic or trade issues, and was always envisaged as a forum where sovereign governments could choose to work together, with no supra-national authority. It raised great hopes of further European integration, and there were fevered debates in the two years that followed as to how this could be achieved. But in 1952, disappointed at what they saw as the lack of progress within the Council of Europe, six nations decided to go further and created the , which was declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe". This community helped to economically integrate and coordinate the large number of Marshall Plan funds from the United States. European leaders Alcide De Gasperi from Italy, Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman from France, and Paul-Henri Spaak from Belgium understood that coal and steel were the two industries essential for waging war, and believed that by tying their national industries together, future war between their nations became much less likely. These men and others are officially credited as the founding fathers of the European Union.
Treaty of Rome (19571992)In 1957, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome, which created the (EEC) and established a European Union Customs Union, customs union. They also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for co-operation in developing nuclear power, nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958. The EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC and they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein (Hallstein Commission) and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand (Armand Commission) and then Étienne Hirsch. Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power. Nevertheless, in 1965 an agreement was reached and on 1 July 1967 the Merger Treaty created a single set of institutions for the three communities, which were collectively referred to as the ''European Communities''. Jean Rey (politician), Jean Rey President of the European Commission, presided over the first merged Commission (Rey Commission). In 1973, the Communities were enlarged to include Denmark (including Greenland, which later 1982 Greenlandic European Communities membership referendum, left the Communities in 1985, following a dispute over fishing rights), Ireland, and the Accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities, United Kingdom. Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a 1972 Norwegian European Communities membership referendum, referendum. In 1979, the 1979 European Parliament election, first direct elections to the European Parliament were held. Greece joined in 1981, Portugal and Spain following in 1986. In 1985, the Schengen Agreement paved the way for the creation of open borders without passport controls between most member states and some non-member states. In 1986, the Flag of Europe, European flag began to be used by the EEC and the Single European Act was signed. In 1990, after revolutions of 1989, the fall of the Eastern Bloc, the former East Germany became part of the Communities as part of a German reunification, reunified Germany.
Maastricht Treaty (19922007)The European Union was formally established when the —whose main architects were Helmut Kohl and François Mitterrand—came into force on 1 November 1993. The treaty also gave the name European Community to the EEC, even if it was referred as such before the treaty. With further enlargement planned to include the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Cyprus and Malta, the Copenhagen criteria for candidate members to join the EU were agreed upon in June 1993. The expansion of the EU introduced a new level of complexity and discord. In 1995, Austria, Finland, and Sweden 1995 enlargement of the European Union, joined the EU. In 2002, euro banknotes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. Since then, the eurozone has increased to encompass 19 countries. The euro currency became the second largest reserve currency in the world. In 2004, the EU saw 2004 enlargement of the European Union, its biggest enlargement to date when Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined the Union.
Lisbon Treaty (2007present)In 2007, Bulgaria and Romania became EU members. Later that year, Slovenia adopted the euro, followed by Cyprus and Malta in 2008, Slovakia in 2009, Estonia in 2011, Latvia in 2014, and Lithuania in 2015. On 1 December 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon, Lisbon Treaty entered into force and reformed many aspects of the EU. In particular, it changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the Three pillars of the European Union, EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with a legal personality, created a permanent President of the European Council, the first of which was Herman Van Rompuy, and strengthened the position of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. In 2012, the EU received the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize, Nobel Peace Prize for having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy, and human rights in Europe." In 2013, Croatia became the 28th EU member. From the beginning of the 2010s, the cohesion of the European Union has been tested by several issues, including European debt crisis, a debt crisis in some of the Eurozone countries, European migrant crisis, increasing migration from Africa and Asia, and the Brexit, United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU. A 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, referendum in the UK on its membership of the European Union was held in 2016, with 51.9% of participants voting to leave. The UK formally notified the European Council of its decision to leave on 29 March 2017, initiating the Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, formal withdrawal procedure for leaving the EU; following extensions to the process, the UK left the European Union on 31 January 2020, though most areas of EU law continued to apply to the UK for a transition period which lasted until 23:00 GMT on 31 December 2020.
Population, the population of the European Union was about 447 million people (5.8% of the world population). In 2015, 5.1million children were born in the EU-28 corresponding to a birth rate of 10 per 1,000, which is 8 births below the world average. For comparison, the EU-28 birth rate had stood at 10.6 in 2000, 12.8 in 1985 and 16.3 in 1970. Its population growth rate was positive at an estimated 0.23% in 2016. In 2010, 47.3million people who lived in the EU were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4million), France (5.1million), the United Kingdom (4.7million), Spain (4.1million), Italy (3.2million), and the Netherlands (1.4million). In 2017, approximately 825,000 people acquired Citizenship of the European Union, citizenship of a member state of the European Union. The Immigration to Europe, largest groups were nationals of Morocco, Albania, India, Turkey and Pakistan. 2.4million Immigration to Europe, immigrants from non-EU countries entered the EU in 2017.
UrbanisationThe EU contains about 40 urban areas with populations of over 1million. The largest metropolitan area in the EU is Paris, followed by Madrid, Barcelona, Berlin, the Ruhr, Rome, and Milan, all with a metropolitan population of over 4million.https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/submitViewTableAction.do The EU also has numerous Conurbation, polycentric urbanised regions like Rhine-Ruhr (Cologne, Dortmund, Düsseldorf et al.), Randstad (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht et al.), Frankfurt Rhine-Main (Frankfurt, Wiesbaden, Mainz et al.), the Flemish Diamond (Antwerp, Brussels, Leuven, Ghent et al.) and Upper Silesian metropolitan area, Upper Silesian area (Katowice, Ostrava et al.).
LanguagesThe European Union has 24 official languages: Bulgarian language, Bulgarian, Croatian language, Croatian, Czech language, Czech, Danish language, Danish, Dutch language, Dutch, English language, English, Estonian language, Estonian, Finnish language, Finnish, French language, French, German language, German, Greek language, Greek, Hungarian language, Hungarian, Italian language, Italian, Irish language, Irish, Latvian language, Latvian, Lithuanian language, Lithuanian, Maltese language, Maltese, Polish language, Polish, Portuguese language, Portuguese, Romanian language, Romanian, Slovak language, Slovak, Slovene language, Slovene, Spanish language, Spanish, and Swedish language, Swedish. Important documents, such as legislation, are translated into every official language and the European Parliament provides translation for documents and plenary sessions. Due to the high number of official languages, most of the institutions use only a handful of working languages. The European Commission conducts its internal business in three ''procedural languages'': English, French, and German. Similarly, the Court of Justice of the European Union uses French as the working language, while the European Central Bank conducts its business primarily in English. Even though language policy is the responsibility of member states, EU institutions promote multilingualism among its citizens.See Articles 165 and 166 (ex Articles 149 and 150) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, o
ReligionThe EU has no formal connection to any religion. The Article 17 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union recognises the "status under national law of churches and religious associations" as well as that of "philosophical and non-confessional organisations". The preamble to the Maastricht Treaty, Treaty on European Union mentions the "cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe"."Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union"
GeographyThe EU's member states cover an area of .This figure includes the extra-European territories of member states which are part of the European Union, and excludes the European territories of member states which are not part of the Union. For more information see Special member state territories and the European Union. The EU's highest peak is Mont Blanc in the Graian Alps, Above mean sea level, above sea level. The lowest points in the EU are Lammefjorden, Denmark and Zuidplaspolder, Netherlands, at 7 m (23 ft) below sea level. The landscape, climate, and economy of the EU are influenced by its coastline, which is long.
PoliticsThe EU operates through a hybrid system of Supranational union, supranational and intergovernmentalism, intergovernmental decision-making, and according to the principles of Principle of conferral, conferral (which says that it should act only within the limits of the competences conferred on it by the Treaties of the European Union, treaties) and of Subsidiarity#European Union law, subsidiarity (which says that it should act only where an objective cannot be sufficiently achieved by the member states acting alone). European Union law, Laws made by the EU institutions are passed in a variety of forms. Generally speaking, they can be classified into two groups: those which come into force without the necessity for national implementation measures (regulations) and those which specifically require national implementation measures (directives). Constitutionally, the EU bears some resemblance to both a confederation and a federation, but has not formally defined itself as either. (It does not have a formal constitution: its status is defined by the Treaty of European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union). It is more integrated than a traditional confederation of states because the general level of government widely employs qualified majority voting in some decision-making among the member states, rather than relying exclusively on unanimity. It is less integrated than a federal state because it is not a state in its own right: sovereignty continues to flow 'from the bottom up', from the several peoples of the separate member states, rather than from a single undifferentiated whole. This is reflected in the fact that the member states remain the 'masters of the Treaties', retaining control over the allocation of competences to the Union through constitutional change (thus retaining so-called ''Kompetenz-kompetenz''); in that they retain control of the use of armed force; they retain control of taxation; and in that they retain a right of unilateral withdrawal from the Union under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. In addition, the principle of subsidiarity requires that only those matters that need to be determined collectively are so determined. The European Union has seven principal decision-making bodies, its Institutions of the European Union, institutions: the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank and the European Court of Auditors. Competence in scrutinising and amending legislation is shared between the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament, while executive tasks are performed by the European Commission and in a limited capacity by the European Council (not to be confused with the aforementioned Council of the European Union). The monetary policy of the eurozone is determined by the European Central Bank. The interpretation and the application of EU law and the treaties are ensured by the Court of Justice of the European Union. The EU budget is scrutinised by the European Court of Auditors. There are also a number of ancillary bodies which advise the EU or operate in a specific area. EU policy is in general promulgated by Directive (European Union), EU directives, which are then implemented in the Sovereignty, domestic legislation of its Member state of the European Union, member states, and Regulation (European Union), EU regulations, which are immediately enforceable in all member states. Lobbying#European Union, Lobbying at EU level by special interest groups is regulated to try to balance the aspirations of private initiatives with public interest decision-making process.
European CouncilThe European Council gives political direction to the EU. It convenes at least four times a year and comprises the President of the European Council (Charles Michel), the President of the European Commission and one representative per member state of the European Union, member state (either its head of state or head of government). The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (Josep Borrell) also takes part in its meetings. It has been described by some as the Union's "supreme political authority". It is actively involved in the negotiation of Treaties of the European Union, treaty changes and defines the EU's policy agenda and strategies. The European Council uses its leadership role to sort out disputes between member states and the institutions, and to resolve political crises and disagreements over controversial issues and policies. It acts externally as a "head of state, collective head of state" and ratification, ratifies important documents (for example, international agreements and treaties). Tasks for the President of the European Council are ensuring the external representation of the EU, driving consensus and resolving divergences among member states, both during meetings of the European Council and over the periods between them. The European Council should not be mistaken for the Council of Europe, an international organisation independent of the EU based in Strasbourg.
European CommissionThe European Commission acts both as the EU's executive (government), executive arm, responsible for the day-to-day running of the EU, and also the Right of initiative (legislative), legislative initiator, with the sole power to propose laws for debate. The commission is 'guardian of the Treaties' and is responsible for their efficient operation and policing. It operates ''de facto'' as a Cabinet (government), cabinet government, with 27 European Commissioner, Commissioners for different areas of policy, one from each member state, though Commissioners are bound to represent the interests of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 27 is the President of the European Commission (Ursula von der Leyen for 20192024), President of the European Commission#Appointment, appointed by the European Council, subject to the Parliament's approval. After the President, the most prominent Commissioner is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, who is ''ex-officio'' a Vice-President of the European Commission, Vice-President of the Commission and is also chosen by the European Council. The other 26 Commissioners are subsequently appointed by the Council of the European Union in agreement with the nominated President. The 27 Commissioners as a single body are subject to approval (or otherwise) by vote of the European Parliament.
Council of the European UnionThe Council of the European Union (also called the Council and the "Council of Ministers", its former title) forms one half of the EU's legislature. It consists of a minister (government), government minister from each member state and meets in Council of the European Union#Configurations, different compositions depending on the policy area being addressed. Notwithstanding its different configurations, it is considered to be one single body. In addition to its legislative functions, the council also exercises executive functions in relations to the Common Foreign and Security Policy. In some policies, there are several member states that ally with strategic partners within the Union. Examples of such alliances include the Visegrad Group, Benelux, the Baltic Assembly, the New Hanseatic League, the Weimar Triangle, the Lublin Triangle, EU Med Group and the Craiova Group.
European ParliamentThe European Parliament is one of three Legislature of the European Union, legislative institutions of the EU, which together with the Council of the European Union is tasked with amending and approving the European Commission, Commission's proposals. The 705 Member of the European Parliament, Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are directly Elections in the European Union, elected by Citizenship of the European Union, EU citizens every five years on the basis of proportional representation. MEPs are elected on a national basis and they sit according to Political groups of the European Parliament, political groups rather than their nationality. Each country has a set number of seats and is divided into European Parliament constituency, sub-national constituencies where this does not affect the proportional nature of the voting system. In the ordinary legislative procedure, the European Commission proposes legislation, which requires the joint approval of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union to pass. This process applies to nearly all areas, including the budget of the European Union, EU budget. The Parliament is the final body to approve or reject the proposed membership of the commission, and can attempt motions of censure on the commission by appeal to the European Court of Justice, Court of Justice. The President of the European Parliament (David Sassoli) carries out the role of speaker in Parliament and represents it externally. The President and Vice President of the European Parliament, Vice-Presidents are elected by MEPs every two and a half years.
BudgetThe EU had an agreed budget of billion for the year 2007 and billion for the period 2007–2013, representing 1.10% and 1.05% of the EU-27's Gross national income, GNI forecast for the respective periods. In 1960, the budget of the then European Economic Community was 0.03% of GDP. In the 2010 budget of billion, the largest single expenditure item is "''Structural Funds and Cohesion Fund, cohesion & competitiveness''" with around 45% of the total budget. Next comes "'' ''" with approximately 31% of the total. "''Rural development, environment and ''" takes up around 11%. "''Administration''" accounts for around 6%. The "''EU as a global partner''" and "''citizenship, freedom, security and justice''" bring up the rear with approximately 6% and 1% respectively. The Court of Auditors is legally obliged to provide the Parliament and the council (specifically, the Economic and Financial Affairs Council) with "a statement of assurance as to the reliability of the accounts and the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions". The Court also gives opinions and proposals on financial legislation and anti-fraud actions. The Parliament uses this to decide whether to approve the commission's handling of the budget. The European Court of Auditors has signed off the European Union accounts every year since 2007 and, while making it clear that the European Commission has more work to do, has highlighted that most of the errors take place at national level.>> In their report on 2009 the auditors found that five areas of Union expenditure, and the Structural Funds and Cohesion Fund, cohesion fund, were materially affected by error. The European Commission estimated in 2009 that the financial effect of irregularities was million. In November 2020, members of the Union, Hungary and Poland, blocked approval to the EU's budget at a meeting in the Committee of Permanent Representatives (Coreper), citing a proposal that linked funding with adherence to the rule of law. The budget included a COVID-19 pandemic, covid recovery fund of billion. The budget may still be approved if Hungary and Poland withdraw their vetos after further negotiations in the Council and the European Council.
CompetencesEU member states retain all powers not explicitly handed to the European Union. In some areas the EU enjoys exclusive competence. These are areas in which member states have renounced any capacity to enact legislation. In other areas the EU and its member states share the competence to legislate. While both can legislate, member states can only legislate to the extent to which the EU has not. In other policy areas the EU can only co-ordinate, support and supplement member state action but cannot enact legislation with the aim of harmonising national laws. That a particular policy area falls into a certain category of competence is not necessarily indicative of what Legislature of the European Union, legislative procedure is used for enacting legislation within that policy area. Different legislative procedures are used within the same category of competence, and even with the same policy area. The distribution of competences in various policy areas between Member States and the Union is divided in the following three categories:
Legal system and justiceThe EU is based on a series of Treaties of the European Union, treaties. These first established the European Community and the EU, and then made amendments to those founding treaties. These are power-giving treaties which set broad policy goals and establish institutions with the necessary legal powers to implement those goals. These legal powers include the ability to enact legislationSee Article 288 (ex Article 249 TEC) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, o
Court of Justice of the European UnionThe judiciary, judicial branch of the EU—formally called the Court of Justice of the European Union—consists of two courts: the European Court of Justice, Court of Justice and the General Court (European Union), General Court. The Court of Justice primarily deals with cases taken by member states, the institutions, and Preliminary ruling, cases referred to it by the courts of member states. Because of the doctrines of direct effect and supremacy, many judgments of the Court of Justice are automatically applicable within the internal legal orders of the member states. The General Court mainly deals with cases taken by individuals and companies directly before the EU's courts, and the European Union Civil Service Tribunal adjudicates in disputes between the European Union and European Civil Service, its civil service. Decisions from the General Court can be appealed to the Court of Justice but only on a point of law.
Fundamental rightsThe treaties declare that the EU itself is "founded on the values of respect for human dignity, liberty, freedom, democracy, equality before the law, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minority group, minorities ... in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between women and men prevail." In 2009, the Lisbon Treaty gave legal effect to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The charter is a codified catalogue of fundamental rights against which the EU's legal acts can be judged. It consolidates many rights which were previously recognised by the Court of Justice and derived from the "constitutional traditions common to the member states." The Court of Justice has long recognised fundamental rights and has, on occasion, invalidated EU legislation based on its failure to adhere to those fundamental rights. Signing the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is a condition for EU membership.and is effectively treated as one of the Copenhagen criteri
ActsThe main legal acts of the EU come in three forms: Regulation (European Union), regulations, Directive (European Union), directives, and Decision (European Union), decisions. Regulations become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures,See: Case 34/73, ''Variola v. Amministrazione delle Finanze'
European OmbudsmanThe European Ombudsman was established by the . The ombudsman is elected by the European Parliament for the length of the Parliament's term, and the position is renewable. Any EU citizen or entity may appeal to the ombudsman to investigate an EU institution on the grounds of maladministration (administrative irregularities, unfairness, discrimination, abuse of power, failure to reply, refusal of information or unnecessary delay). Emily O'Reilly is the ombudsman since 2013.
Home affairs and migrationSince the creation of the EU in 1993, it has developed its competencies in the area of justice and home affairs; initially at an intergovernmental level and later by supranationalism. Accordingly, the Union has legislated in areas such as European Arrest Warrant, extradition, family law, asylum law, and criminal justice. Prohibitions against sexual and nationality discrimination have a long standing in the treaties.See Articles 157 (ex Article 141) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, o
Foreign relationsForeign policy co-operation between member states dates from the establishment of the Community in 1957, when member states negotiated as a bloc in international trade negotiations under the EU's common commercial policy. Steps for a more wide-ranging co-ordination in foreign relations began in 1970 with the establishment of European Political Cooperation which created an informal consultation process between member states with the aim of forming common foreign policies. In 1987 the European Political Cooperation was introduced on a formal basis by the Single European Act. EPC was renamed as the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) by the . The aims of the CFSP are to promote both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole, including the furtherance of international co-operation, respect for human rights, democracy, and the rule of law.Article 21 of the Maastricht Treaty, Treaty on European Union (as inserted by the Treaty of Lisbon), o
Security and defenceThe predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defence purposes. 21 EU members are members of NATO while the remaining member states follow policies of Neutrality (international relations), neutrality. The Western European Union, a military alliance with a mutual defence clause, was disbanded in 2010 as its role had been transferred to the EU. Since the withdrawal of the United Kingdom, France is the only member officially recognised as a List of states with nuclear weapons, nuclear weapon state and the sole holder of a Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. Possessing the List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, EU's largest armed forces and the largest national defence budget of the bloc, France is also the only EU country that has Power projection, power projection capabilities outside of Europe. Most EU member states opposed the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Weapon Ban Treaty. Following the Kosovo War in 1999, the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO". To that end, a number of efforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the Helsinki Headline Goal process. After much discussion, the most concrete result was the EU Battlegroups initiative, each of which is planned to be able to deploy quickly about 1500 personnel. EUFOR, EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from middle and northern Africa to the western Balkans and western Asia. EU military operations are supported by a number of bodies, including the European Defence Agency, European Union Satellite Centre and the European Union Military Staff. Frontex is an Agencies of the European Union, agency of the EU established to manage the cooperation between national border guards securing its external borders. It aims to detect and stop illegal immigration, human trafficking and terrorist infiltration. In 2015 the European Commission presented its proposal for a new European Border and Coast Guard Agency having a stronger role and mandate along with national authorities for border management. In an EU consisting of 27 members, substantial security and defence co-operation is increasingly relying on collaboration among all member states.
Humanitarian aidThe ECHO (European Commission), European Commission's Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department, or "ECHO", provides humanitarian aid from the EU to developing country, developing countries. In 2012, its budget amounted to million, 51% of the budget went to Africa and 20% to Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and Pacific, and 20% to the Middle East and Mediterranean. Humanitarian aid is financed directly by the budget (70%) as part of the financial instruments for external action and also by the European Development Fund (30%).Mikaela Gavas 2010
International cooperation and development partnershipsThe EU uses foreign relations instruments like the European Neighbourhood Policy which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union. These countries, primarily developing countries, include some who seek to one day become either a member state of the European Union, or more closely integrated with the European Union. The EU offers financial assistance to countries within the European Neighbourhood, so long as they meet the strict conditions of government reform, economic reform and other issues surrounding positive transformation. This process is normally underpinned by an Action Plan, as agreed by both Brussels and the target country. International recognition of sustainable development as a key element is growing steadily. Its role was recognized in three major UN summits on sustainable development: the 1992 Earth Summit, UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg, South Africa; and the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) in Rio de Janeiro. Other key global agreements are the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals, 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (United Nations, 2015). The SDGs recognize that all countries must stimulate action in the following key areas – people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnership – in order to tackle the global challenges that are crucial for the survival of humanity. EU development action is based on the European Consensus on Development, which was endorsed on 20 December 2005 by EU Member States, the council, the European Parliament and the commission. It is applied from the principles of Capability approach and Rights-based approach to development. Partnership and cooperation agreements are bilateral agreements with non-member nations.
TradeThe European Union is the largest exporter in the world and as of 2008 the largest importer of goods and services. Internal trade between the member states is aided by the removal of barriers to trade such as tariffs and border controls. In the eurozone, trade is helped by not having any currency differences to deal with amongst most members. The European Union Association Agreement does something similar for a much larger range of countries, partly as a so-called soft approach ('a carrot instead of a stick') to influence the politics in those countries. The European Union represents all its members at the World Trade Organization (WTO), and acts on behalf of member states in any disputes. When the EU negotiates trade related agreement outside the WTO framework, the subsequent agreement must be approved by each individual EU member state government. The European Union has concluded European Union free trade agreements, free trade agreements (FTAs) and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others.
EconomyAs a political entity the European Union is represented in the World Trade Organization (WTO). EU member states own the estimated second largest after the United States (trillion) net wealth in the world, equal to around 20% (~trillion) of the trillion (~trillion) global wealth. 19 member states have joined a monetary union known as the eurozone, which uses the euro as a single currency. The currency union represents 342million EU citizens. The euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. Of the top Fortune Global 500, 500 largest corporations in the world measured by revenue in 2010, 161 had their headquarters in the EU. In 2016, unemployment in the EU stood at 8.9% while inflation was at 2.2%, and the account balance at −0.9% of GDP. The average annual net earnings in the European Union was around () in 2015. There is a significant variation in Nominal GDP per capita within individual EU states. The difference between the richest and poorest regions (281 NUTS-2 regions of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) ranged, in 2017, from 31% (Severozapaden, Bulgaria) of the EU28 average () to 253% (Luxembourg), or from to .
Internal marketTwo of the original core objectives of the European Economic Community were the development of a common market, subsequently becoming a single market, and a European Union Customs Union, customs union between its member states. The single market involves Internal market, the free circulation of goods, capital, people, and services within the EU, and the customs union involves the application of a common external tariff on all goods entering the market. Once goods have been admitted into the market they cannot be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or import quotas, as they travel internally. The non-EU member states of Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland participate in the single market but not in the customs union. Half the trade in the EU is covered by legislation harmonised by the EU. Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries. Until the drive towards economic and monetary union the development of the capital provisions had been slow. Post-Maastricht there has been a rapidly developing corpus of ECJ judgements regarding this initially neglected freedom. The free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non-member states. The free movement of persons means that Citizenship of the European Union, EU citizens can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country. This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states. The free movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member states to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis. While services account for 60–70% of GDP, legislation in the area is not as developed as in other areas. This lacuna has been addressed by the recently passed Directive on services in the internal market which aims to liberalise the cross border provision of services. According to the Treaty the provision of services is a residual freedom that only applies if no other freedom is being exercised.
Monetary union and financial servicesThe creation of a European Currency Unit, European single currency became an official objective of the European Economic Community in 1969. In 1992, having negotiated the structure and procedures of a currency union, the member states signed the and were legally bound to fulfil the agreed-on rules including the Euro convergence criteria, convergence criteria if they wanted to join the Currency union, monetary union. The states wanting to participate had first to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. In 1999, the currency union started, first as an accounting currency with History of the euro, eleven member states joining. In 2002, the currency was fully put into place, when euro banknotes, euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of 12 member states. The eurozone (constituted by the EU member states which have adopted the euro) has since grown to 19 countries. The euro, and the monetary policies of those who have adopted it in agreement with the EU, are under the control of the European Central Bank (ECB). The ECB is the central bank for the eurozone, and thus controls monetary policy in that area with an agenda to maintain price stability. It is at the centre of the European System of Central Banks, which comprehends all EU national central banks and is controlled by its General Council, consisting of the President of the European Central Bank, President of the ECB, who is appointed by the European Council, the Vice-President of the ECB, and the governors of the national central banks of all 27 EU member states. The European System of Financial Supervision is an institutional architecture of the EU's framework of financial supervision composed by three authorities: the European Banking Authority, the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and the European Securities and Markets Authority. To complement this framework, there is also a European Systemic Risk Board under the responsibility of the European Central Bank, ECB. The aim of this financial control system is to ensure the economic stability of the EU. To prevent the joining states from getting into financial trouble or crisis after entering the monetary union, they were obliged in the Maastricht treaty to fulfil important financial obligations and procedures, especially to show budgetary discipline and a high degree of sustainable economic convergence, as well as to avoid excessive government deficits and limit the government debt to a sustainable level.
Industry and digital economyThe European Commission working sectors are: Aeronautics, automotive, biotechnology, chemicals, construction, cosmetics, defense, electronics, firearms, food and drink, gambling, healthcare, maritime, mechanics, medical, postal, raw materials, space, textile, tourism, toys and Social economy (Societas cooperativa Europaea).
EnergyIn 2006, the Treaty of Accession 2005, EU-27 had a gross inland energy consumption of 1,825 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe). Around 46% of the energy consumed was produced within the member states while 54% was imported. In these statistics, nuclear energy is treated as primary energy produced in the EU, regardless of the source of the uranium, of which less than 3% is produced in the EU.
InfrastructureThe EU is working to improve cross-border infrastructure within the EU, for example through the Trans-European Networks (TEN). Projects under TEN include the Channel Tunnel, LGV Est, the Fréjus Rail Tunnel, the Øresund Bridge, Öresund Bridge, the Brenner Base Tunnel and the Strait of Messina Bridge. In 2010 the estimated network covers: of roads; of railways; 330 airports; 270 maritime harbours; and 210 internal harbours. Rail transport in Europe is being synchronised with the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), an initiative to greatly enhance safety, increase efficiency of trains and enhance cross-border interoperability of rail transport in Europe by replacing signalling equipment with digitised mostly wireless versions and by creating a single Europe-wide standard for train control and command systems. The developing European transport policies will increase the pressure on the environment in many regions by the increased transport network. In the pre-2004 EU members, the major problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution. After the recent enlargement, the new states that joined since 2004 added the problem of solving accessibility to the transport agenda. The Highways in Poland, Polish road network was upgraded such as the A4 autostrada (Poland), A4 autostrada.
Telecommunications and spaceThe Galileo (satellite navigation), Galileo positioning system is another EU infrastructure project. Galileo is a proposed Satellite navigation system, to be built by the EU and launched by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Galileo project was launched partly to reduce the EU's dependency on the US-operated Global Positioning System, but also to give more complete global coverage and allow for greater accuracy, given the aged nature of the GPS system.
Agriculture and fisheriesThe Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the long lasting policies of the European Community. The policy has the objectives of increasing agricultural production, providing certainty in food supplies, ensuring a high quality of life for farmers, stabilising markets, and ensuring reasonable prices for consumers.Article 39 (ex Article 33) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, o
CompetitionThe EU operates a European Union competition law, competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market.Article 3(1)(g) of the Treaty of Rome The European Commissioner for Competition, Competition Commissioner, Margrethe Vestager, is one of the most powerful positions in the commission, notable for the ability to affect the commercial interests of trans-national corporations. For example, in 2001 the commission for the first time prevented a merger between two companies based in the United States (General Electric, GE and Honeywell) which had already been approved by their national authority. Another high-profile case European Union Microsoft competition case, against Microsoft, resulted in the Commission fining Microsoft over million following nine years of legal action.
Labour marketThe EU seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 6.7% in September 2018. The euro area unemployment rate was 8.1%. Among the member states, the lowest unemployment rates were recorded in the Czech Republic (2.3%), Germany and Poland (both 3.4%), and the highest in Spain (14.9%) and Greece (19.0 in July 2018).
Social policy and equalityThe EU has long sought to mitigate the effects of free markets by protecting workers rights and preventing social and environmental dumping. To this end it has adopted laws establishing minimum employment and environmental standards. These included the Working Time Directive and the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive 2011, Environmental Impact Assessment Directive. The EU has also sought to coordinate the social security and health systems of member states to facilitate individuals exercising free movement rights and to ensure they maintain their ability to access social security and health services in other member states. Social security main legislation is found in the Equal Treatment in Occupational Social Security Directive 86/378, the Equal Treatment in Social Security Directive 79/7/EEC, the Social Security Regulation 1408/71/EC and 883/2004/EC and the Directive 2005/36/EC The European Social Charter is the main body that recognizes the social rights of European citizens. A European unemployment insurance has been proposed among others by the commissioner of Jobs Nicolas Schmit. A European Directive about Minimum Wage has also been discussed Since 2019 there is a European Commissioner for Equality; a European Institute for Gender Equality has existed since 2007. In 2020, the first ever European Union Strategy on LGBTIQ equality was approved under Helena Dalli mandate. Housing, youth, childhood, Functional diversity or elderly care are supportive competencies of the European Union and can be financed by the European Social Fund.
Regional and local policyStructural Funds and Cohesion Funds are supporting the development of underdeveloped regions of the EU. Such regions are primarily located in the states of Central Europe, central and southern Europe. Several funds provide emergency aid, support for candidate members to transform their country to conform to the EU's standard (Phare, Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession, ISPA, and Special Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development, SAPARD), and support to the Commonwealth of Independent States (Technical Aid to the Commonwealth of Independent States, TACIS). TACIS has now become part of the worldwide EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EuropeAid programme. Demographic transition to a society of aging population, low fertility-rates and depopulation of non-metropolitan regions is tackled within this policies.
Environment and climateIn 1957, when the EEC was founded, it had no environmental policy. Over the past 50 years, an increasingly dense network of legislation has been created, extending to all areas of environmental protection, including air pollution, water quality, waste management, nature conservation, and the control of chemicals, industrial hazards, and biotechnology. According to the Institute for European Environmental Policy, environmental law comprises over 500 Directives, Regulations and Decisions, making environmental policy a core area of European politics.Institute for European Environmental Policy (2012) Manual of European Environmental Policy, Earthscan, London. European policy-makers originally increased the EU's capacity to act on environmental issues by defining it as a trade problem. Trade barriers and competitive distortions in the Common Market could emerge due to the different environmental standards in each member state. In subsequent years, the environment became a formal policy area, with its own policy actors, principles and procedures. The legal basis for EU environmental policy was established with the introduction of the Single European Act in 1987. Initially, EU environmental policy focused on Europe. More recently, the EU has demonstrated leadership in global environmental governance, e.g. the role of the EU in securing the ratification and coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol despite opposition from the United States. This international dimension is reflected in the EU's Sixth Environmental Action Programme, which recognises that its objectives can only be achieved if key international agreements are actively supported and properly implemented both at EU level and worldwide. The Lisbon Treaty further strengthened the leadership ambitions. EU law has played a significant role in improving habitat and species protection in Europe, as well as contributing to improvements in air and water quality and waste management. Mitigating climate change is one of the top priorities of EU environmental policy. In 2007, member states agreed that, in the future, 20% of the energy used across the EU must be renewable energy, renewable, and carbon dioxide emissions have to be lower in 2020 by at least 20% compared to 1990 levels. The EU has adopted an Emissions trading, emissions trading system to incorporate carbon emissions into the economy. The European Green Capital is an annual award given to cities that focuses on the environment, energy efficiency, and quality of life in urban areas to create smart city. In the Elections to the European Parliament in 2019, the green parties increased their power, possibly because of the rise of post materialist values. Proposals to reach a zero carbon economy in the European Union by 2050 were suggested in 2018 – 2019. Almost all member states supported that goal at an EU summit in June 2019. The Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, and Poland disagreed. In 2017, the EU emitted 9.1% of global greenhouse-gas emissions. The EU has a target of zero GHG emission by 2050.
Education and researchBasic education is an area where the EU's role is limited to supporting national governments. In higher education, the policy was developed in the 1980s in programmes supporting exchanges and mobility. The most visible of these has been the Erasmus Programme, a university exchange programme which began in 1987. In its first 20 years, it supported international exchange opportunities for well over 1.5 million university and college students and became a symbol of European student life. There are similar programmes for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education, vocational education and training, and for adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013. These programmes are designed to encourage a wider knowledge of other countries and to spread good practices in the education and training fields across the EU. Through its support of the Bologna Process, the EU is supporting comparable standards and compatible degrees across Europe. Scientific development is facilitated through the EU's Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, Framework Programmes, the first of which started in 1984. The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research. The independent European Research Council allocates EU funds to European or national research projects. EU Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, research and technological framework programmes deal in a number of areas, for example energy where the aim is to develop a diverse mix of renewable energy to help the environment and to reduce dependence on imported fuels.
Health care and food safetyThe EU has no major competences in the field of health care and Article 35 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms that "A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities". The European Commission's Directorate-General for Health and Consumers (European Commission), Directorate-General for Health and Consumers seeks to align national laws on the protection of people's health, on the consumers' rights, on the safety of food and other products. All EU and many other European countries offer their citizens a free European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries. A directive on cross-border healthcare aims at promoting co-operation on health care between member states and facilitating access to safe and high-quality cross-border healthcare for European patients. The EU has some of the highest levels of life expectancy in the world, with Spain, Italy, Sweden, France, Malta, Ireland, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Greece all among the world's top 20 countries with the highest life expectancy. In general, life expectancy is lower in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe. In 2018, the EU region with the highest life expectancy was Comunidad de Madrid, Madrid, Spain at 85.2 years, followed by the Spanish regions of La Rioja (Spain), La Rioja and Castilla y León both at 84.3 years, Trentino in Italy at 84.3 years and Île-de-France in France at 84.2 years. The overall life expectancy in the EU in 2018 was 81.0 years, higher than the World average of 72.6 years.
CultureCultural co-operation between member states has been an interest of the EU since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty. Actions taken in the cultural area by the EU include the Culture 2000 seven-year programme, the European Cultural Month event, and orchestras such as the European Union Youth Orchestra. The European Capital of Culture programme selects one or more cities in every year to assist the Sociocultural evolution, cultural development of that city.
SportAssociation football is by far the most popular sport in the European Union by the number of registered players. The other sports with the most participants in clubs are tennis, basketball, swimming, athletics, golf, gymnastics, equestrian sports, handball, volleyball and sailing. Sport is mainly the responsibility of the member states or other international organisations, rather than of the EU. There are some EU policies that have affected sport, such as the free movement of workers, which was at the core of the Bosman ruling that prohibited national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with European citizenship. The Treaty of Lisbon requires any application of economic rules to take into account the specific nature of sport and its structures based on voluntary activity. This followed lobbying by governing organisations such as the International Olympic Committee and FIFA, due to objections over the application of free market principles to sport, which led to an increasing gap between rich and poor clubs. The EU does fund a programme for Israeli, Jordanian, Irish, and British football coaches, as part of the Football 4 Peace project.
SymbolsThe flag used is the Flag of Europe, which consists of a Circle of stars, circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background. Originally designed in 1955 for the Council of Europe, the flag was adopted by the European Communities, the predecessors of the present Union, in 1986. The Council of Europe gave the flag a symbolic description in the following terms, though the official symbolic description adopted by the EU omits the reference to the "Western world":
MediaMedia freedom is a Fundamental rights, fundamental right that applies to all Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Union and its EU citizens, citizens, as defined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as well as the European Convention on Human Rights.Maria Poptcheva
ImpactThe European Union has had a significant positive economic impact on most member states. According to a 2019 study of the member states who joined from 1973 to 2004, "without European integration, per capita incomes would have been, on average, approximately 10% lower in the first ten years after joining the EU." Greece was the exception reported by the study, which analysed up to 2008, "to avoid confounding effects from the global financial crisis". The European Union has contributed to peace in Europe, in particular by pacifying border disputes, and to the spread of democracy, especially by encouraging democratic reforms in aspiring Eastern European member states after the collapse of the USSR. Scholar Thomas Risse wrote in 2009, "there is a consensus in the literature on Eastern Europe that the EU membership perspective had a huge anchoring effects for the new democracies." However, R. Daniel Kelemen argues that the EU has proved beneficial to leaders who are overseeing democratic backsliding, as the EU is reluctant to intervene in domestic politics, gives authoritarian governments funds which they can use to strengthen their regimes, and because freedom of movement within the EU allows dissenting citizens to leave their backsliding countries. At the same time, the union provides an external constraint that prevents soft authoritarian regimes from progressing into hard dictatorships.
See also* Outline of the European Union * Special member state territories and the European Union * List of country groupings * List of multilateral free-trade agreements * Euroscepticism * Pan-European nationalism * Brexit withdrawal agreement * European Union–United Kingdom free trade agreement
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