Māori settlementsArchaeological evidence shows the first human (Māori) occupation of New Zealand occurred between 1250–1300 AD, with population concentrated along the southeast coast. A camp site at Kaikai Beach, near Long Beach, New Zealand, Long Beach to the north of the present-day city of Dunedin, has been dated from about that time. There are numerous archaic (moa-hunter) sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied, particularly in the 14th century. The population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic Māori culture which saw the building of several Pā (Māori), pā, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at (Taiaroa Head), about 1650. There was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin (Ōtepoti), occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826. There were also Maori settlements at Whareakeake (Murdering Beach), Pūrākaunui, Mapoutahi (Goat Island Peninsula) and Huriawa (Karitane Peninsula) to the north, and at Taieri Mouth and Otokia (Henley, New Zealand, Henley) to the south, all inside the present boundaries of Dunedin. Māori mythology, Māori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area, then Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary but considered to be historical. The next arrivals were Waitaha (South Island iwi), Waitaha, followed by Kāti Māmoe late in the 16th century and then Ngāi Tahu, Kai Tahu (''Ngāi Tahu'' in modern standard Māori language, Māori) who arrived in the mid-17th century. European accounts have often represented these successive influxes as "invasions", but modern scholarship has cast doubt on that view. They were probably migrations - like those of the Europeans - which incidentally resulted in bloodshed. The sealer John Boultbee (explorer), John Boultbee recorded in the late 1820s that the 'Kaika Otargo' (settlements around and near Otago Harbour) were the oldest and largest in the south.
European settlementLieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between 25 February 1770 and 5 March 1770, naming Cape Saunders (on the Otago Peninsula) and Saddle Hill. He reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led Seal hunting, sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. The early years of sealing saw a feud between sealers and local Māori from 1810 to 1823, the "Sealers' War" sparked by an incident on Otago Harbour, but William Tucker (settler), William Tucker became the first European to settle in the area in 1815. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831, when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, on the Otago Harbour. Epidemics badly reduced the Māori population. By the late 1830s the Harbour had become an international whaling port. Wright & Richards started a whaling station at Karitane in 1837 and Johnny Jones (pioneer), Johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Island's first, at Waikouaiti in 1840. The settlements at Karitane and Waikouaiti have endured, making modern Dunedin one of the longest European settled territories in New Zealand. In 1844, the ''Deborah'', captained by Thomas Wing and carrying (among others) his wife Lucy and a representative of the New Zealand Company, Frederick Tuckett, sailed south to determine the location of a planned Free Church of Scotland (1843–1900), Free Church settlement. After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, Tuckett selected the site which would become known as Dunedin. (Tuckett turned down the site which would become , as he felt the ground around the Avon River (Canterbury), Avon river was swampy.) The Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland, through a company called the Otago Association, founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its special settlement. The name Dunedin comes from ''Dùn Èideann'', the name for , the capital of . Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the characteristics of Edinburgh, produced a striking, "Romantic" design. There resulted both grand and quirky streets as the builders struggled and sometimes failed to construct his bold vision across the challenging landscape. Captain William Cargill (New Zealand politician), William Cargill, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, served as the secular leader of the new colony. The Reverend Thomas Burns (minister, born 1796), Thomas Burns, a nephew of the poet Robert Burns, provided spiritual guidance. By the end of the 1850s, around 12,000 Scots had emigrated to Dunedin, many from the industrial Scottish Lowlands, lowlands.
Gold rush eraIn 1852, Dunedin became the capital of the Otago Province, the whole of New Zealand from the Waitaki River, Waitaki south. In 1861 the discovery of gold at Gabriel's Gully, to the south-west, led to a rapid influx of people and saw Dunedin become New Zealand's first city by growth of population in 1865. The new arrivals included many Irish, but also Italians, Lebanese, French, Germans, Jews and Chinese. The Dunedin Southern Cemetery was established in 1858, the Dunedin Northern Cemetery in 1872. The London-owned Bank of Otago opened its doors in Dunedin in 1863, opened 12 branches throughout its region then in 1873 merged with the new National Bank of New Zealand also based in London and also operated from Dunedin but, true to its name, it rapidly expanded throughout New Zealand.Notice. ''Otago Daily Times''
Early modern eraBy 1900, Dunedin was no longer the country's biggest city. Influence and activity moved north to the other centres ("the drift north"), a trend which continued for much of the following century. Despite this, the university continued to expand, and a student quarter became established. At the same time people started to notice Dunedin's mellowing, the ageing of its grand old buildings, with writers like E. H. McCormick pointing out its atmospheric charm. In the 1930s and early 1940s a new generation of artists such as Toss Woollaston, M. T. (Toss) Woollaston, Doris Lusk, Anne Hamblett, Colin McCahon and Patrick Hayman once again represented the best of the country's talent. The Second World War saw the dispersal of these painters, but not before McCahon had met a very youthful poet, James K. Baxter, in a central city studio. Numerous large companies had been established in Dunedin, many of which became national leaders. Late among them was Fletcher Construction, founded by Sir James Fletcher (industrialist), James Fletcher in the early 20th century. Kempthorne Prosser, established in 1879 in Stafford Street, was the largest fertiliser and drug manufacturer in the country for over 100 years. Methven (company), G. Methven, a metalworking and tap manufacturer based in South Dunedin, was also a leading firm, as was Henry Ely Shacklock, H. E. Shacklock, an iron founder and appliance manufacturer later taken over by the Auckland concern Fisher and Paykel. The Mosgiel Woollens was another Victorian Dunedin foundation. Hallensteins was the colloquial name of a menswear manufacturer and national retail chain while the DIC and Arthur Barnett (department store), Arthur Barnett were department stores, the former a nationwide concern. Coulls, Somerville Wilkie—later part of the Whitcoulls group—had its origins in Dunedin in the 19th century. There were also the National Mortgage and Agency Company of New Zealand, Wright Stephenson, Wright Stephensons Limited, the Union Steamship Company and the National Insurance Company and the Standard Insurance Company among many others, which survived into the 20th century.
Post-war developmentsAfter the World War II, Second World War prosperity and population growth revived, although Dunedin trailed as the fourth 'main centre'. A generation reacting against Victorian architecture, Victorianism started demolishing its buildings and many were lost, notably William Mason (architect), William Mason's Stock exchange in 1969. (Princes Street, Dunedin, Dunedin Stock Exchange building) Although the university continued to expand, the city's population contracted, notably from 1976 to 1981. This was, however, a culturally vibrant time with the university's new privately endowed arts fellowships bringing such luminaries as James K. Baxter, James K Baxter, Ralph Hotere, Janet Frame and Hone Tuwhare to the city. During the 1980s Dunedin's popular music scene blossomed, with many acts, such as The Chills, The Clean, The Verlaines and Straitjacket Fits, gaining national and international recognition. The term "The Dunedin sound" was coined to describe the 1960s-influenced, guitar-led music which flourished at the time. Bands and musicians are still playing and recording in many styles. By 1990, population decline had steadied and slow growth has occurred since and Dunedin re-invented itself as a 'heritage city' with its main streets refurbished in Victorian style.Dunedin City council page
GeographyDunedin City has a land area of , slightly larger than the American state of Rhode Island or the English county of Cambridgeshire, and a little smaller than Cornwall. It was the largest city in land area in New Zealand until the formation of the Auckland Council on 1 November 2010. The Dunedin City Council boundaries since 1989 have extended to Middlemarch, New Zealand, Middlemarch in the west, Waikouaiti in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and south-east, and the Waipori/Taieri River and the township of Henley, New Zealand, Henley in the south-west. Dunedin is situated at the head of Otago Harbour, a narrow inlet extending south-westward for some 15 miles. The harbour is a recent creation formed by the flooding of two river valleys. From the time of its foundation in 1848, the city has spread slowly over the low-lying flat (landform), flats and nearby hills and across the isthmus to the slopes of the Otago Peninsula.
Inner cityThe central region of Dunedin is known as The Octagon, Dunedin, the Octagon. It was once a gully, filled in the mid nineteenth century to create the present plaza. The initial settlement of the city took place to the south on the other side of Bell Hill, New Zealand, Bell Hill, a large outcrop which had to be reduced to provide easy access between the two parts of the settlement. The central city stretches away from this point in a largely northeast-southwest direction, with the main streets of George Street, Dunedin, George Street and Princes Street meeting at The Octagon. Here they are joined by Stuart Street, Dunedin, Stuart Street, which runs orthogonally to them, from the Dunedin Railway Station in the southeast, and steeply up to the suburb of Roslyn, Dunedin, Roslyn in the northwest. Many of the city's notable old buildings are located in the southern part of this area and on the inner ring of lower hills which surround the central city (most of these hills, such as Maori Hill, Pine Hill, and Maryhill, rise to some above the plain). The head of the harbour includes a large area of reclaimed land ("The Southern Endowment"), much of which is used for light industry and warehousing. A large area of flat land, simply known colloquially as "The Flat" lies to the south and southwest of the city centre, and includes several larger and older suburbs, notably South Dunedin and St Kilda, New Zealand, St Kilda. These are protected from the Pacific Ocean by a long line of dunes which run east-west along the city's southern coastline and separate residential areas from Ocean Beach, Otago, Ocean Beach, which is traditionally divided into St. Clair Beach at the western end and Ocean Beach, Otago, St Kilda Beach to the east. Dunedin is home to Baldwin Street, which, according to the ''Guinness World Records, Guinness Book of Records'', is the steepest street in the world. Its gradient is 1 in 2.9. The long-since-abandoned Maryhill Cable car (railway), Cablecar route had a similar gradient close to its Mornington depot. Beyond the inner range of hills lie Dunedin's outer suburbs, notably to the northwest, beyond Roslyn. This direction contains Taieri Road and Three Mile Hill, which between them formed the original road route to the Taieri Plains. The modern New Zealand State Highway 1, State Highway 1 follows a different route, passing through Caversham, New Zealand, Caversham in the west and out past Saddle Hill. Lying between Saddle Hill and Caversham are the outer suburbs of Green Island, New Zealand, Green Island and Abbotsford. Between Green Island and Roslyn lies the steep-sided valley of the Kaikorai Stream, which is today a residential and light industrial area. Suburban settlements—mostly regarded as separate townships—also lie along both edges of the Otago Harbour. Notable among these are Portobello, New Zealand, Portobello and Macandrew Bay, on the Otago Peninsula coast, and Port Chalmers on the opposite side of the harbour. Port Chalmers provides Dunedin's main deep-water port, including the city's container port. The Dunedin skyline is dominated by a ring of (traditionally seven) hills which form the remnants of a volcanic crater. Notable among them are Mount Cargill (), Flagstaff, Otago, Flagstaff (), Saddle Hill, New Zealand, Saddle Hill (), Signal Hill, New Zealand, Signal Hill (), and Harbour Cone ().
HinterlandDunedin's hinterland encompasses a variety of different landforms. To the southwest lie the Taieri Plains, the broad, fertile lowland floodplains of the Taieri River and its major tributary the Waipori River, Waipori. These are moderately heavily settled, and contain the towns of Mosgiel, and Allanton, New Zealand, Allanton. They are separated from the coast by a range of low hills rising to some . Inland from the Taieri Plain is rough hill country. Close to the plain, much of this is forested, notably around Berwick, New Zealand, Berwick and Lake Mahinerangi, and also around the Silverpeaks Range which lies northwest of the Dunedin urban area. Beyond this, the land becomes drier and opens out into grass and tussock grass, tussock-covered land. A high, broad valley, the Strath-Taieri lies in Dunedin's far northwest, containing the town of Middlemarch, New Zealand, Middlemarch, one of the area's few concentrations of population. To the north of the city's urban area is undulating hill country containing several small, mainly coastal, settlements, including Waitati, Warrington, New Zealand, Warrington, Seacliff, and Waikouaiti. New Zealand State Highway 1, State Highway 1 winds steeply through a series of hills here, notably The Kilmog. These hills can be considered a coastal extension of the Silverpeaks Range.
Environment and EcotourismTo the east of Dunedin lies the entirety of the Otago Peninsula, a long finger of land that formed the southeastern rim of the Dunedin Volcano. The peninsula is lightly settled, almost entirely along the harbour coast, and much of it is maintained as a Habitat, natural habitat by the Otago Peninsula Trust. The peninsula contains several fine beaches, and is home to a considerable number of rare species including Yellow-eyed penguin, Yellow-eyed and Little penguin, Little penguins, pinniped, seals, and Cormorant, shags. Taiaroa Head on the peninsula's northeastern point is a site of global ecological significance as it is home to the world's only mainland breeding colony of southern royal albatross, royal albatross.
List of suburbs;Inner suburbs ''(clockwise from the city centre, starting at due north)''
Towns within city limits''(clockwise from the city centre, starting at due north)''
ClimateThe climate of Dunedin in general is temperate; however, the city is recognised as having a large number of microclimates and the weather conditions often vary between suburbs mostly due to the city's topographical layout. Under the Köppen climate classification, Dunedin features an oceanic climate. The city's climate is also influenced by its proximity to the ocean. This leads to mild summers and coolish winters. Winter is not particularly frosty with around 49 frosts per year, lower than most other South Island locations, but sunny. Snowfall is not particularly common but significant snowfall is uncommon (perhaps every two or three years), except in the inland hill suburbs such as Halfway Bush and Wakari, which tend to receive a few days of snowfall each year. Spring can feature "four seasons in a day" weather, but from November to April it is generally settled and mild. Temperatures during summer can reach . Due to its maritime influence, Dunedin's mild summers and mild winters both stand out considering its latitude. Dunedin has relatively low rainfall in comparison to many of New Zealand's cities, with usually only between 600 and recorded per year. Despite this fact it is sometimes misguidedly regarded as a damp city, probably due to its rainfall occurring in drizzle or light rain (heavy rain is relatively rare). Dunedin is one of the cloudiest major centres in the country, recording approximately 1,850 hours of bright sunshine per annum. Prevailing wind in the city is mainly a sometimes cool southwesterly and during late spring will alternate with northeasterlies. Warmer, dry northwest winds are also characteristic Nor'west arch, Foehn winds from the northwest. The circle of hills surrounding the inner city shelters the inner city from much of the prevailing weather, while hills just to the west of the city can often push inclement weather around to the west of the city. Inland, beyond the heart of the city and into inland Otago the climate is sub-continental: winters are quite cold and dry, summers warm and dry. Thick freezing ground fogs are common in winter in the upper reaches of the Taieri River's course around Middlemarch, New Zealand, Middlemarch, and in summer the temperature occasionally reaches .
DemographicsThe city has a population of Compared to New Zealand as a whole, Dunedin's demographics tend to show traits of the New Zealand education sector, largely caused by the city's high tertiary student population. These traits include a higher female population compared to males, a lower-than-average median age, a high proportion of people under 25 years, a higher proportion of people of European and Asian ethnicity and a lower proportion of Māori and Pacific Islanders, Pacific Island ethnicities, higher unemployment, lower median income, and a higher proportion of those with school and post-school qualifications. Dunedin City had a population of 126,255 at the 2018 New Zealand census, an increase of 6,006 people (5.0%) since the 2013 New Zealand census, 2013 census, and an increase of 7,572 people (6.4%) since the 2006 New Zealand census, 2006 census. There were 48,336 households. There were 60,762 males and 65,490 females, giving a sex ratio of 0.93 males per female. Of the total population, 19,914 people (15.8%) were aged up to 15 years, 33,549 (26.6%) were 15 to 29, 52,509 (41.6%) were 30 to 64, and 20,289 (16.1%) were 65 or older. Figures may not add up to the total due to rounding. Ethnicities were 86.6% European/Pākehā, 9.3% Māori, 3.2% Pacific peoples, 7.8% Asian, and 2.9% other ethnicities. People may identify with more than one ethnicity. The percentage of people born overseas was 19.7, compared with 27.1% nationally. Although some people objected to giving their religion, 56.0% had no religion, 32.5% were Christian, and 5.2% had other religions. Of those at least 15 years old, 26,910 (25.3%) people had a bachelor or higher degree, and 16,749 (15.8%) people had no formal qualifications. The median income was $25,500. The employment status of those at least 15 was that 45,888 (43.2%) people were employed full-time, 17,940 (16.9%) were part-time, and 4,596 (4.3%) were unemployed.
LiteratureIn December 2014 Dunedin was designated as a City of Literature, UNESCO Creative City of Literature. Mayor of Dunedin Dave Cull said at the time "This announcement puts our city on the world map as a first-class literary city. We keep honourable company; other cities bestowed with City of Literature status include Edinburgh, Dublin, Iowa City, Melbourne, Reykjavík, Norwich and Kraków." Dunedin's application was driven by a steering committee and an advisory board of writers, librarians and academics from a range of Dunedin institutions. The bid highlighted the quality of the city's considerable literary heritage, its diverse combination of literary events, businesses, institutions and organisations, plus its thriving community of writers, playwrights and lyricists. UNESCO established the Creative Cities Network to develop international co-operation among cities and encourage them to drive joint development partnerships in line with UNESCO's global priorities of 'culture and development' and 'sustainable development'. Each city in the network reflects one of UNESCO's seven Creative City themes: folk art, gastronomy, literature, design, film or music. Dunedin is New Zealand's first city to be appointed to the Creative City network. Paul Theroux described Dunedin as "cold and frugal with its shabby streets and mock-gothic university". The university students he described as "ignorant, assertive and dirty". Billy Connolly described Dunedin as "a dreary town. It's got that Scottish Presbyterian feel about it". Michael Palin in Full Circle with Michael Palin, Full Circle says of Dunedin "at first glance it is a dour, damp, chilly place, its buildings heavy with ponderous Presbyterian pride...but beneath a grey and sober heart there lurks a wild heart."
ChoirsDunedin is home to many choirs. These include the following: * The 140-member City of Dunedin Choir is Dunedin's leading performer of large-scale choral works. * The Southern Consort of Voices is a smaller choir regularly performing Choral Works. * The Royal Dunedin Male Choir, conducted by Richard Madden, performs two concerts a year * The Dunedin RSA Choir regularly performs concerts and has played an important and valued role in Dunedin City's commemorative celebrations of significant historical events. ANZAC, of course, is one such occasion, and the ANZAC Revue held on the evening of every ANZAC Day, occupies a special place of honour in the choir's calendar. * The all-female Dunedin Harmony Chorus are an important part of the Dunedin culture. * The Southern Children's Choir, based in Marama Hall in the university, is Dunedin's main children's choir. Most schools in Dunedin have choirs, many having more than one. * The Southern Youth Choir is a concert-based youth choir. * The is home to three official choirs: the two chapel choirs (Knox and Selwyn), and the travelling Cantores choir. * Several Dunedin Churches and Cathedrals hold choirs. Among these are St. Joseph's Cathedral, Dunedin, St. Joseph's Catholic Cathedral, home to two choirs: the Cathedral Choir and the Gabrieli Singers; Knox Church, Dunedin, Knox Church's large mixed gender choir for adults and children, the Knox Church Choir; All Saints' Church, Dunedin, has choral scholars from Selwyn College, Otago, St. John's Church, Roslyn's small mixed-gender parish choir; and St. Paul's Cathedral, Dunedin, St. Paul's Anglican Cathedral's mixed-gender adult choir. * The Dunedin Red Cross Choir (of New Zealand Red Cross), conducted by Eleanor Moyle, is one of only three Red Cross choirs globally. Established in 1942, this choir performs regularly in Dunedin at various Rest Homes and holds an annual concert at the Kings and Queens Performing Arts Centre.
Instrumental classical and jazz ensemblesThe Dunedin Symphony Orchestra is a semi-professional orchestra based in Dunedin. Other instrumental ensembles include the Rare Byrds early music ensemble, the Collegiate Orchestra, and the Dunedin Youth Orchestra. Many schools also hold school orchestras and bands. There are also three brass bands in Dunedin: St. Kilda Brass, Kaikorai Brass, and Mosgiel Brass. The Otago Symphonic Band and City of Dunedin Pipe Band (New Zealand), City of Dunedin Pipe Band are also important Dunedin musical ensembles.
Popular musicDunedin lends its name to the Dunedin sound, a form of indie rock music which was created in the city in the 1980s. Some Dunedin bands recorded on the Flying Nun Records label, based in Christchurch. Among the bands with Dunedin connections were The Chills, The Clean, The Verlaines, The Bats (New Zealand band), The Bats, Sneaky Feelings, The Dead C and Straitjacket Fits, all of which had significant followings throughout New Zealand and on the college radio circuit in the United States and Europe. Dunedin has been home to bands since the end of the Dunedin sound era. Six60, Nadia Reid and Julian Temple Band are Dunedin artists.
Major teams* Highlanders (rugby), Highlanders – Super Rugby rugby union team who are the Super Rugby champions of 2015 (represents Otago, Southland and North Otago Rugby Unions) * Otago Rugby Football Union – Mitre 10 Cup rugby union team * Otago Volts and Otago Sparks – men's and women's cricket teams * Southern Steel – ANZ Championship netball team (represents Otago & Southland Netball – Based in Invercargill) * Southern United – association football team in the New Zealand Football Championship * Otago Nuggets – National Basketball League (New Zealand), National Basketball League team * Dunedin Thunder – New Zealand Ice Hockey League team
Grounds and stadiums* Caledonian Ground * Carisbrook (now defunct) * Dunedin Ice Stadium * The Edgar Centre * Forbury Park Raceway * Forsyth Barr Stadium at University Plaza * Logan Park, Dunedin, Logan Park * Moana Pool * Tonga Park * University Oval, Dunedin, University Oval – Notable for being the southernmost venue on the planet that hosts Test Cricket.
TheatreThe city hosts a large theatre venue, the Regent Theatre, Dunedin, Regent Theatre in the Octagon. Dunedin hosted the world's southernmost professional theatre company, the Fortune Theatre, Dunedin, Fortune Theatre, until it closed in 2018. Smaller theatres in Dunedin include the Globe Theatre, Dunedin, Globe Theatre, the Mayfair Theatre, Dunedin, Mayfair Theatre, the New Athenaeum Theatre, and the Playhouse Theatre.
Visual artsDunedin has a substantial public art gallery, the Dunedin Public Art Gallery, in the Octagon. The city contains numerous other galleries, including over a dozen dealer galleries, many of which are found south of the Octagon along Princes Street, Dunedin, Princes Street, Moray Place, Dunedin, Moray Place and Dowling Street. There are also several more experimental art spaces, notably the Blue Oyster Art Project Space, Blue Oyster in Dowling Street. Many notable artists have strong links with Dunedin, among them Ralph Hotere, Frances Hodgkins, Grahame Sydney, and Jeffrey Harris (artist), Jeffrey Harris.
MaraeDunedin has three ''marae'' (meeting grounds) for Ngāi Tahu, each with its own ''wharenui'' (meeting house). Arai te Uru marae in Wakari includes the Arai te Uru wharenui. Ōtākou Marae in Otakou includes the Tamatea wharenui. Huirapa, Huirapa / Puketeraki marae in Karitāne includes the Huirapa wharenui.
HonorsAsteroid 101461 Dunedin discovered by British astronomer Ian P. Griffin in 1998, was named in honor of the city. The official was published by the Minor Planet Center on 8 November 2019 ().
LocalThe Dunedin City Council (DCC) governs the Dunedin City territorial authority. It is made up of an elected mayor (currently Aaron Hawkins (politician), Aaron Hawkins since 12 October 2019) and fourteen additional councillors elected across three wards, one of whom gets chosen as deputy mayor.
Previous Mayors*William Downie Stewart 1913
Coat of arms and flagThe city's coat of arms, which were granted in 1947 by the Lord Lyon King of Arms, are Blazon, emblazoned as: ''Argent above a Fess Dancette Vert, a Castle Triple-Towered Sable (heraldry), sable on a Rock issuing from the Fess, Masoned Argent, with Windows, Vanes and Portcullis Gules. In the base a Three-Masted Lymphad with Sail Furled Azure, Flagged of , a Ram's Head Affrontee Horned Or (heraldry), Or between Two Garbs of the last''. The supporters are blazoned as: ''On the dexter and sinister, Dexter a Scotsman Habited with Philabeg and Plaid of the Clan Cameron, supporting in His Exterior Hand a Cromach; on the dexter and sinister, Sinister a Maori Chief attired in Māori traditional textiles#Korowai, Korowai, Two Huia Feathers in his hair, an Aurei and a Hei Matau and in His Exterior hand a Taiaha. All Proper.'' The castle is taken from the Coat of arms of Edinburgh, arms of Edinburgh, while the green fess and garb/animals signify regional agriculture and crops. At the base, the lymphad, or ship, alludes to the arrival of Scotland, Scottish immigrants to the Otago region. The supporters represent the original Māori owners of the land and its Scottish purchasers. All of the elements of the arms are crowned with a mural crown, emblematic of local government. Their motto is: ''Maiorum Institutis Utendo'', or in English language, English, ''By following in the steps of our forefathers''. The flag of the city of Dunedin is a banner of arms in white and green and featuring the castle, lymphad, ram's head and wheat sheafs as on the coat of arms.
NationalDunedin is covered by two New Zealand electorates#General electorates, general electorates, Dunedin (New Zealand electorate), Dunedin and Taieri (New Zealand electorate), Taieri, and one Māori electorates, Māori electorate, Te Tai Tonga. The city in general is a stronghold of the New Zealand Labour Party, having won the Dunedin-based electorate seats continuously since the 1978 New Zealand general election, 1978 election. As of the 2020 New Zealand general election, 2020 general election, both general electorates are held by the party, with David Clark (New Zealand politician), David Clark representing Dunedin and Ingrid Leary representing Taieri. Te Tai Tonga (which covers the entire South Island and part of Wellington in the North Island) is currently also held by the Labour Party and represented by Rino Tirikatene. In addition to electorate MPs, Michael Woodhouse of the New Zealand National Party, National Party is a Dunedin-based list MP.
MediaThe major daily newspaper is the ''Otago Daily Times'', which is also the country's oldest daily newspaper and part of the Allied Press group. Weekly and bi-weekly community newspapers include ''The Star'', ''Taieri Herald'', the fortnightly street press ''POINT'', and student magazines ''Critic (magazine), Critic'' (University of Otago) and ''Gyro (magazine), Gyro'' (Otago Polytechnic). The city is served by all major national radio and television stations. The city's main terrestrial television and FM radio transmitter sits atop Mount Cargill, north of the city, while the city's main AM transmitter is located at Highcliff, east of the city centre on the Otago Peninsula. Local radio stations include Radio Dunedin, community station Otago Access Radio (formerly Hills AM, then Toroa Radio), and the university radio station, Radio One (New Zealand), Radio One. The city has one local television station, 39 Dunedin Television, Dunedin Television, part of Allied Press. The city is home to several prominent media-related production companies, notably Natural History New Zealand and Taylormade Media. Dunedin was the location of one of the four television broadcasting installations established in the sixties by the NZBC, operating under the name DNTV2. The city was once home to the head offices of Radio Otago—now called RadioWorks (part of MediaWorks New Zealand, Mediaworks) and based in Auckland. It was also formerly the home to several now-defunct newspapers, prominent among which were the ''Otago Witness'' and the ''Evening Star (Dunedin), Evening Star''.
SecondaryDunedin is home to 12 secondary schools: eight state and four state-integrated school, state-integrated. The oldest secondary school is state-run Otago Boys' High School, founded in 1863. Its sister school, Otago Girls' High School (1871) is the oldest state girls' secondary school in New Zealand, even though it preceded the state education system by six years. Other state schools include Bayfield High School, Dunedin, Bayfield High School, Kaikorai Valley College and Logan Park High School. King's High School, Dunedin, King's High School and Queen's High School, Dunedin, Queen's High School are single-sex schools based in St Clair, New Zealand, St Clair, and Taieri College in Mosgiel. The four state-integrated schools are Columba College, a Presbyterian girls' school; St. Hilda's Collegiate School, an Anglican girls' school; John McGlashan College, a Presbyterian boys' school; and Kavanagh College, a Catholic coeducational school.
Tertiary* ** University of Otago College of Education, Dunedin College of Education *
Infrastructure and services
Public health and hospitalsPublicly funded primary health and hospital services are provided by the District health board, Southern District Health Board (Southern DHB). Dunedin Public Hospital is the main public hospital in Dunedin. Other hospitals include: * Mercy Hospital - a private non-profit hospital opened in 1936 and relocated to Maori Hill in 1969 * Wakari Hospital The Dunedin Public Hospital and the Wakari Hospital, which are closely related, are operated by Southern DHB. Ambulance services are provided by St John New Zealand.
UtilitiesAurora Energy (New Zealand), Aurora Energy owns and operates the electricity distribution network servicing the city and the Taieri plains, while OtagoNet Joint Venture owns and operates the electricity distribution network in the rural areas north and west of the city. Electricity is primarily supplied from Transpower New Zealand, Transpower's national grid at two substations: Halfway Bush and South Dunedin, with part to the OtagoNet network also supplied from Transpower's Naseby, New Zealand, Naseby substation in central Otago.
RoadThe Dunedin urban area is served by two New Zealand state highway network, state highways, with an additional two state highways and one tourist route serving other parts of the district. The main state highway in Dunedin is New Zealand State Highway 1, State Highway 1, which runs in a north to south-west direction through the middle of the city, connecting Dunedin with Invercargill to the south and Timaru and Christchurch to the north. Between The Oval and Mosgiel, State Highway 1 follows the eleven-kilometre Dunedin Southern Motorway. New Zealand State Highway 88, State Highway 88 connects central Dunedin to the city's port facilities at Port Chalmers. Other State Highways in the city are: New Zealand State Highway 86, State Highway 86 connecting SH 1 at Allanton with Dunedin International Airport, New Zealand State Highway 87, State Highway 87 connecting SH 1 at Kinmont with New Zealand State Highway 85, SH 85 at Kyeburn via Middlemarch, serving the Dunedin city hinterland. Dunedin is the northeastern terminus of the Southern Scenic Route, a tourist highway connecting Dunedin to Te Anau via The Catlins, Invercargill and Fiordland.
BusBuses in Dunedin are organised by the Otago Regional Council. A total of 64 buses operate on 17 weekday routes and 13 weeknight/weekend/holiday routes across the city. Buses are run by two operators, Ritchies Transport with three routes and Go Bus Transport with the remainder. Dunedin City Council-owned operator Citibus (New Zealand), Citibus was a major player until 2011 when Passenger Transport (New Zealand) purchased Citibus from Dunedin City Holdings, and both companies were subsequently bought by Go Bus.
RailDunedin Railway Station, located east of the Octagon, is the city's main railway station. Once the nation's busiest, decline in rail over the years saw the withdrawal of most services. Suburban services ceased in 1982, and the last regular commercial passenger train to serve Dunedin, Southerner (New Zealand train), The Southerner, was cancelled in February 2002. The Taieri Gorge Railway currently operates tourist-oriented services from the station, the most prominent of which is the Taieri Gorge Limited, a popular and famous train operated daily along the former Otago Central Railway through the scenic Taieri Gorge. Taieri Gorge Railway also operates to Palmerston, New Zealand, Palmerston once weekly. The station is also sometimes visited by excursions organised by other heritage railway societies, and by trains chartered by cruise ships docking at Port Chalmers.
AirDunedin International Airport is located southwest of the city, on the Taieri Plains at Momona. The airport operates a single terminal and runway, and is the third-busiest airport in the South Island, after Christchurch and Queenstown. It is primarily used for domestic flights, with regular flights to and from Auckland, , Wellington and charter flights to and from Queenstown, New Zealand, Queenstown, Wanaka, and Invercargill, but it also has international flights arriving from and departing to Brisbane year round. In recent years, a decline in international passengers can be attributed to fewer international flights operating direct to the airport.
SeaA ferry operates between Port Chalmers and Portobello, New Zealand, Portobello it started in 2018 and is the first since the early 20th century. Occasional calls have been made to revive them, and a non-profit organisation, Otago Ferries Inc., has been set up to examine the logistics of restoring one of the original ferries and again using it for this route. In 1866, plans were made for a bridge across the Otago Harbour between Port Chalmers and Portobello, but this grand scheme for an 1140-metre structure never eventuated. Plans were also mooted during the 1870s for a canal between the Pacific coast at Tomahawk, New Zealand, Tomahawk and Andersons Bay, close to the head of the harbour. This scheme also never came to fruition.
Annual events* January – Whare Flat Folk Festival ends * February – New Zealand Masters Games (Biennial event) * February – Otago University Students' Association & Otago Polytechnic Student orientation, Orientation Weeks * February – Dunedin Summer Festival * March – Dunedin Fringe Festival * March/April – iD Dunedin Fashion Week * May – Capping week (University of Otago) including the Capping Show run by the Otago University Students' Association * May – International Rally of Otago * May – Dunedin Writers & Readers Festival * May – Regent Theatre, Dunedin, Regent Theatre 24-hour book sale (reputedly the southern hemisphere's largest regularly held Used book, second-hand book sale) * June – Dunedin Midwinter Carnival * June – St. Clair Polar plunge, Polar Plunge * July – Student orientation, University Reorientation * July – New Zealand International Science Festival (every second year) * July – Taste Otago Dunedin Food and Wine Festival * July – New Zealand International Film Festivals#International Film Festival, Dunedin, Dunedin International Film Festival * September – Dunedin City Marathon * September – Dunedin Beer Festival * October – Dunedin Arts Festival – every second year (even numbered years) * October – Dunedin Botanic Garden, Rhododendron Week * December – Samstock Music Festival * December – Santa Parade * December – Whare Flat Folk Festival begins * December – New Year's Eve Party Octagon
Past events* 1865 – New Zealand Exhibition * 1889 – New Zealand and South Seas Exhibition (1889) * 1898 – Otago Jubilee Industrial Exhibition (1898) * 1925 – New Zealand and South Seas International Exhibition (1925)
Main sights* Dunedin Railway Station * Dunedin Town Hall * Larnach Castle * Cargill's Castle * Cadbury World, Dunedin, Cadbury World * List of historic places in Dunedin * Olveston (house), Olveston * Speight's, Speight's Brewery * University of Otago Registry Building * University of Otago Clocktower complex * Regent Theatre, Dunedin, Regent Theatre * Fortune Theatre (New Zealand), Fortune Theatre * Dunedin Public Hospital * The Octagon, Dunedin, The Octagon * Orokonui Ecosanctuary * Royal Albatross Centre * St. Clair Beach * Forsyth Barr Stadium
Museums, art galleries, and libraries* Otago Museum * Toitū Otago Settlers Museum * Dunedin Public Art Gallery * Dunedin Public Libraries * Hocken Collections
Churches* All Saints' Church, Dunedin, All Saints' Church * The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints * Robert Lawson (architect)#First Church, Dunedin 1862, First Church * Hanover Street Baptist Church, Dunedin, Hanover Street Baptist Church * Kaikorai Presbyterian Church * Knox Church, Dunedin, Knox Church * St. Joseph's Cathedral, Dunedin, St. Joseph's Cathedral * St Michael's Antiochian Orthodox Church * St. Matthew's Church, Dunedin, St. Matthew's Church * St. Paul's Cathedral, Dunedin, St. Paul's Cathedral * Trinity Wesleyan Church – now the Fortune Theatre (New Zealand), Fortune Theatre
Parks and gardens* Dunedin Botanic Gardens, Botanic Garden * Dunedin Chinese Garden * Woodhaugh Gardens
Sister citiesDunedin is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with several cities throughout the world. These include: * , Scotland, United Kingdom (1974) * Otaru, Hokkaidō, Otaru, Shiribeshi Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan (1980) * Portsmouth, Virginia, Portsmouth, Virginia, United States of America (1962) * Shanghai, China (1994)
General sources* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Further reading* Fox-Davies, A. C. (1909). '' A Complete Guide to Heraldry''. * Herd, J. & Griffiths, G. J. (1980). ''Discovering Dunedin''. Dunedin: John McIndoe. . * * McCoy, E. & Blackman, J. (1968). ''Victorian City of New Zealand: Photographs of the Earlier Buildings of Dunedin''. Dunedin: John McIndoe. . (E. McCoy was New Zealand architect.) * McFarlane, S. (1970). ''Dunedin, Portrait of a City''. Whitcombe & Tombs. . * * Smallfield, J. & Heenan, B. (2006). ''Above the belt: A history of the suburb of Maori Hill''. Dunedin: Maori Hill History Charitable Trust. .