''Dred Scott v. Sandford'', 60 U.S. (19 How.) 393 (1857), often referred to as the Dred Scott decision, was a landmark decision
of the US Supreme Court
in which the Court held that the US Constitution
was not meant to include American citizenship
for black people
, regardless of whether they were enslaved or free, and so the rights and privileges that the Constitution confers upon American citizens could not apply to them.
The decision was made in the case of Dred Scott
, an enslaved black man whose owners had taken him from Missouri
, which was a slave-holding state, into Illinois
and the Wisconsin Territory
, which were free areas where slavery was illegal. When his owners later brought him back to Missouri, Scott sued in court for his freedom and claimed that because he had been taken into "free" U.S. territory, he had automatically been freed and was legally no longer a slave. Scott sued first in Missouri state court, which ruled that he was still a slave under its law. He then sued in US federal court
, which ruled against him by deciding that it had to apply Missouri law to the case. He then appealed to the US Supreme Court.
In March 1857, the Supreme Court issued a 7–2 decision against Dred Scott. In an opinion written by Chief Justice Roger Taney
, the Court ruled that black people "are not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word 'citizens' in the Constitution, and can therefore claim none of the rights and privileges which that instrument provides for and secures to citizens of the United States." Taney supported his ruling with an extended survey of American state and local laws from the time of the Constitution's drafting in 1787 that purported to show that a "perpetual and impassable barrier was intended to be erected between the white race and the one which they had reduced to slavery." Because the Court ruled that Scott was not an American citizen, he was also not a citizen of any state and, accordingly, could never establish the "diversity of citizenship
" that Article III of the US Constitution
requires for a US federal court to be able to exercise jurisdiction over a case. After ruling on those issues surrounding Scott, Taney continued further and struck down the entire Missouri Compromise
as a limitation on slavery that exceeded the US Congress
's constitutional powers.
Although Taney and several of the other justices hoped that the decision would permanently settle the slavery controversy, which was increasingly dividing the American public, the decision's effect was the complete opposite. Taney's majority opinion suited the slaveholding states, but was intensely decried in all the other states. The decision inflamed the national debate over slavery and deepened the divide that led ultimately to the Civil War
. In 1865, after the Union won the Civil War, the Dred Scott ruling was voided by the Thirteenth Amendment
to the US Constitution, which abolished slavery except as punishment for a crime, and the Fourteenth Amendment
, which guaranteed citizenship for "all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof."
The Supreme Court's decision has been widely denounced ever since, both for how overtly racist the decision was and its crucial role in the near destruction of the United States
four years later. Bernard Schwartz said that it "stands first in any list of the worst Supreme Court decisions—Chief Justice Hughes
called it the Court's greatest self-inflicted wound." Junius P. Rodriguez
said that it is "universally condemned as the U.S. Supreme Court's worst decision". Historian David Thomas Konig said that it was "unquestionably, our court's worst decision ever."
In the late 1810s, a major political dispute arose over the creation of new American states from the vast territory the United States had acquired from France in 1803 through the Louisiana Purchase
. The dispute centered on whether the new states would be "free" states like the existing Northern states, in which slavery would be illegal, or whether they would be "slave" states like the existing Southern states, in which slavery would be legal. The Southern states wanted the new states to be slave states in order to enhance their own political and economic power, but the Northern states opposed this for their own political and economic reasons, as well as their moral concerns over allowing the institution of slavery to expand.
In 1820, the U.S. Congress
passed an agreement known as the "Missouri Compromise
" that was intended to resolve the dispute. The Compromise first admitted Maine
into the Union as a free state, then created Missouri
out of a portion of the Louisiana Purchase territory and admitted it as a slave state, but at the same time prohibited slavery in the area north of the Parallel 36°30′ north
, where most of the territory lay. The legal effects of a slaveowner taking his slaves from Missouri into the free territory north of the 36°30′ north parallel, as well as the constitutionality of the Missouri Compromise itself, eventually came to a head in the ''Dred Scott'' case.
Dred Scott and John Emerson
was born a slave in Virginia in around 1799. Little is known of his early years. His owner, Peter Blow, moved to Alabama
in 1818, taking his six slaves along to work a farm near Huntsville
. In 1830, Blow gave up farming and settled in St. Louis, Missouri, where he sold Scott to U.S. Army surgeon Dr. John Emerson.
After purchasing Scott, Emerson took him to Fort Armstrong
in Illinois. A free state
, Illinois had been free as a territory under the Northwest Ordinance
of 1787, and had prohibited slavery in its constitution in 1819 when it was admitted as a state.
In 1836, Emerson moved with Scott from Illinois to Fort Snelling
in the Wisconsin territory
in what has become the state of Minnesota. Slavery in the Wisconsin Territory (some of which, including Fort Snelling, was part of the Louisiana Purchase) was prohibited by the United States Congress under the Missouri Compromise. During his stay at Fort Snelling, Scott married Harriet Robinson
in a civil ceremony by Harriet's owner, Major Lawrence Taliaferro, a justice of the peace who was also an Indian agent
. The ceremony would have been unnecessary had Dred Scott been a slave, as slave marriages had no recognition in the law.
In 1837, the army ordered Emerson to Jefferson Barracks Military Post
, south of St. Louis, Missouri
. Emerson left Scott and his wife at Fort Snelling, where he leased their services out for profit. By hiring Scott out in a free state, Emerson was effectively bringing the institution of slavery into a free state, which was a direct violation of the Missouri Compromise, the Northwest Ordinance, and the Wisconsin Enabling Act.
Before the end of the year, the army reassigned Emerson to Fort Jesup
in Louisiana, where Emerson married Eliza Irene Sanford in February 1838. Emerson sent for Scott and Harriet, who proceeded to Louisiana to serve their master and his wife. While en route to Louisiana, Scott's daughter Eliza was born on a steamboat underway on the Mississippi River between Illinois and what would become Iowa. Because Eliza was born in free territory, she was technically born as a free person under both federal and state laws. Upon entering Louisiana, the Scotts could have sued for their freedom, but did not. One scholar suggests that, in all likelihood, the Scotts would have been granted their freedom by a Louisiana court, as it had respected laws of free states that slaveholders forfeited their right to slaves if they brought them in for extended periods. This had been the holding in Louisiana state courts for more than 20 years.
Toward the end of 1838, the army reassigned Emerson to Fort Snelling. By 1840, Emerson's wife Irene returned to St. Louis with their slaves, while Dr. Emerson served in the Seminole War
. While in St. Louis, she hired them out. In 1842, Emerson left the army. After he died in the Iowa Territory in 1843, his widow Irene inherited his estate, including the Scotts. For three years after John Emerson's death, she continued to lease out the Scotts as hired slaves. In 1846, Scott attempted to purchase his and his family's freedom, but Irene Emerson refused, prompting Scott to resort to legal recourse.
[Don E. Fehrenbacher, ''The Dred Scott Case: Its Significance in American Law and Politics'' (2001)]
Having been unsuccessful in his attempt to purchase freedom for his family and himself, Scott, with the help of abolitionist
legal advisers, sued Emerson for his freedom in a Missouri court in 1846. Scott received financial assistance for his case from the family of his previous owner, Peter Blow. Blow's daughter Charlotte
was married to Joseph Charless, an officer at the Bank of Missouri. Charless signed the legal documents as security for Dred Scott and secured the services of the bank's attorney, Samuel Mansfield Bay, for the trial.
Scott based his legal argument on precedents such as ''Somersett v. Stewart
'', ''Winny v. Whitesides
'', and ''Rachel v. Walker
'', claiming his presence and residence in free territories required his emancipation. Scott's lawyers argued the same for Scott's wife and claimed that Eliza Scott's birth on a steamboat between a free state and a free territory had made her free upon birth.
It was expected that the Scotts would win their freedom with relative ease since Missouri courts had heard more than ten other cases in which they had freed slaves who had been taken into free territory. Furthermore, the case had been assigned to Judge Alexander Hamilton, who was known to be sympathetic to slave freedom suits.
Scott was represented by three lawyers during the course of the case because it was over a year from the time of the original petition filing to the trial. His first lawyer was Francis B. Murdoch, who was replaced by Charles D. Drake. When Drake left St. Louis in 1847, Samuel M. Bay
took over as Scott's lawyer. In June 1847, Scott lost his case by a technicality since he had not proven that he was actually enslaved by Irene Emerson. At the trial, the grocer Samuel Russell had testified that he was leasing Scott from Irene Emerson, but on cross-examination, he admitted that the leasing arrangements had actually been made by his wife, Adeline. Thus, Russell's testimony was ruled hearsay
, and the jury returned a verdict for Emerson.
''Scott v. Emerson''
In December 1847, Judge Hamilton granted Scott a new trial. Emerson appealed this decision to the Supreme Court of Missouri
, which affirmed the trial court's order in 1848. A major fire, a cholera
epidemic, and two continuance
s delayed the new trial until January 1850. While the case awaited trial, Scott and his family were placed in the custody of the St. Louis County
Sheriff, who continued to lease out the services of Scott and his family. The proceeds were placed in escrow
, to be paid to Scott's owner or to himself upon resolution of the case.
In the 1850 trial, Scott was represented by Alexander P. Field and David N. Hall, both of whom had previously shared offices with Charles Edmund LaBeaume, the brother of Peter Blow's daughter-in-law. The hearsay problem was surmounted by a deposition from Adeline Russell that stated that she had leased the Scotts from Emerson. The jury found in favor of Scott and his family. Unwilling to accept the loss of four slaves and a substantial escrow account, Emerson appealed to the Supreme Court of Missouri, but she had moved to Massachusetts
and transferred ownership of Scott to her brother, John F. A. Sanford
In November 1852, the Missouri Supreme Court reversed the trial court's decision and held that the Scotts were still legally slaves and that they should have sued for freedom while they lived in a free state. Chief Justice William Scott
''Scott v. Sanford''
The case looked hopeless, and the Blow family decided that it could no longer pay for Scott's legal costs. Scott also lost both of his lawyers, as Alexander Field had moved to Louisiana and David Hall had died. The case was now undertaken ''pro bono
'' by Roswell Field, whose office employed Dred Scott as a janitor. Field also discussed the case with LaBeaume, who had taken over the lease on the Scotts in 1851.
After the Missouri Supreme Court decision, Judge Hamilton turned down a request by Emerson's lawyers to release the rent payments from escrow and to deliver the slaves into their owner's custody.
In 1853, Dred Scott again sued his current owner, John Sanford,
but this time in federal court. Sanford had returned to New York and so the federal courts now had diversity jurisdiction
under Article III, Section 2 of the US Constitution. In addition to the existing complaints, Scott also alleged that Sanford had assaulted his family and held them captive for six hours on January 1, 1853.
At trial in 1854, Judge Robert William Wells
directed the jury to rely on Missouri law to settle the question of Scott's freedom. Since the Missouri Supreme Court had held that Scott remained a slave, the jury found in favor of Sanford. Scott then appealed to the US Supreme Court, where the case was recorded as ''Dred Scott'' v. ''Sandford'' and entered history with that title. Scott was represented before the Supreme Court by Montgomery Blair
and George Ticknor Curtis
, whose brother Benjamin
was a Supreme Court Justice. Sanford was represented by Reverdy Johnson
and Henry S. Geyer
Sanford as defendant
When the case was filed, the two sides agreed on a statement of facts
that claimed Scott had been sold by Dr. Emerson to John Sanford. However, that was a legal fiction
. Dr. Emerson had died in 1843, and Dred Scott had filed his 1847 suit against Irene Emerson. There is no record of Dred Scott's transfer to Sanford or of his transfer back to Irene Chaffee. John Sanford died shortly before Scott's manumission, but Scott was not listed in the probate records of Sanford's estate.
Also, Sanford was not acting as Dr. Emerson's executor, as he was never appointed by a probate court, and the Emerson estate had already been settled when the federal case was filed.
Because of the murky circumstances surrounding ownership, the parties to ''Dred Scott'' v. ''Sandford'' have been suggested to have contrived to create a test case
Mrs. Emerson's remarriage to an abolitionist US Representative seemed suspicious to contemporaries, and Sanford seemed to be a front and to have allowed himself to be sued, despite not actually being Scott's owner. However, Sanford had been involved in the case since 1847, before his sister married Chaffee. He had secured counsel for his sister in the state case, and he engaged the same lawyer for his own defense in the federal case.
Sanford also consented to be represented by genuine pro-slavery advocates before the Supreme Court, rather than to put up a token defense.
Influence of President Buchanan
Historians discovered that after the Supreme Court had heard arguments in the case but before it had issued a ruling, President-elect James Buchanan
wrote to his friend, US Supreme Court Associate Justice John Catron
, to ask whether the case would be decided by the Supreme Court before his inauguration in March 1857.
Buchanan hoped that the decision would quell unrest in the country over the slavery issue by issuing a ruling that put the future of slavery beyond the realm of political debate.
Buchanan later successfully pressured Associate Justice Robert Cooper Grier
, a Northerner, to join the Southern majority in ''Dred Scott'' to prevent the appearance that the decision was made along sectional lines.
By today's standards and even by the time's more lenient standards, Buchanan's applying of such political pressure to a member of a sitting court would be regarded as highly improper. Republicans fueled speculation as to Buchanan's influence by publicizing that Taney had secretly informed Buchanan of the decision. Buchanan declared in his inaugural address that the slavery question would "be speedily and finally settled" by the Supreme Court.
Supreme Court decision
On March 6, 1857, the Supreme Court ruled against Dred Scott in a 7–2 decision that spans over 200 pages in the ''United States Reports
''. The decision contains opinions from all nine justices, but the opinion of the Courtthe "majority opinion"has always been the focus of the controversy.
Opinion of the Court
Seven justices formed the majority and joined an opinion written by Chief Justice Roger Taney
. Taney began with what he saw as the core issue in the case: whether or not black people could possess federal U.S. citizenship under the Constitution.
In answer, the Court ruled that they could not. It held that black people could not be American citizens, and therefore a lawsuit to which they were a party could never qualify for the "diversity of citizenship
" that Article III of the United States Constitution
requires for American federal courts to be able to exercise jurisdiction over cases that do not involve federal questions
Taney's primary rationale was his assertion that black African slaves and their descendants were never intended to be part of the American social and political landscape.
Taney then spent many pages reviewing laws from the original American states that involved the status of black Americans at the time of the Constitution's drafting in 1787. He concluded that these laws showed that a "perpetual and impassable barrier was intended to be erected between the white race and the one which they had reduced to slavery." Thus, he concluded, black people were not American citizens, and could not sue as citizens in federal courts. This meant that U.S. states lacked the power to alter the legal status of black people by granting them state citizenship.
This holding normally would have ended the decision, since it disposed of Dred Scott's case. But Taney did not conclude the matter before the Court, as per usual procedure. Taney continued on to assess the constitutionality of the Missouri Compromise itself. He wrote that the Compromise's legal provisions would free slaves who were living north of the 36°N latitude line in the western territories. However, in the Court's judgment, this would constitute the government depriving slaveowners of their propertysince slaves were legally the property of their ownerswithout due process of law, which is forbidden under the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution
. Taney also reasoned that the Constitution and the Bill of Rights
implicitly precluded any possibility of constitutional rights for black African slaves and their descendants. Thus, Taney concluded:
Taney held that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, marking the first time since the 1803 case ''Marbury v. Madison
'' that the Supreme Court had struck down a federal law, though the Missouri Compromise had already been effectively overridden by the Kansas–Nebraska Act
. Because the Compromise exceeded the scope of Congress
powers and was unconstitutional, Taney wrote, Dred Scott was still a slave regardless of his time spent in the parts of the Northwest Territory that were north of 36°N and did not allow slavery. Therefore, he was still a slave under Missouri law, and the Court had to follow Missouri law in the matter. For all these reasons, the Court concluded, Dred Scott could not bring suit in U.S. federal court.
Justices Benjamin Robbins Curtis
and John McLean
were the only two dissenters from the Court's decision, and they both wrote dissenting opinions.
Curtis's 67-page dissent described the historical and legal baselessness of Taney's arguments that black people could not possess federal U.S. citizenship. Curtis pointed out that at the Constitution's ratification in 1789, black men could vote in five of the 13 U.S. states. That made them citizens of their states and also of the United States. He cited many state statutes and state court decisions supporting his position, such as ''Marie Louise v. Marot
'', an 1835 case in which the Louisiana Supreme Court
ruled that for an enslaved Louisianan woman, "being free for one moment in France, it was not in the power of her former owner to reduce her again to slavery."
Curtis's dissent was extremely persuasive, and prompted Taney to spend several weeks adding 18 additional pages to the draft of his opinion in an attempt to rebut some of Curtis's arguments.
McLean's dissent deemed the argument that black people could not be citizens "more a matter of taste than of law." He attacked much of the Supreme Court's decision as ''obiter dicta
'' that was not legally authoritative on the ground that once the court determined that it did not have jurisdiction to hear Scott's case, it should have simply dismissed the action, rather than passing judgment on the merits of the claims. The dissenting opinions by Curtis and McLean also attacked the Court's overturning of the Missouri Compromise on its merits. They noted that it was not necessary to decide the question and that none of the authors of the Constitution had ever objected on constitutional grounds to the Congress's adoption of the antislavery provisions of the Northwest Ordinance
passed by the Continental Congress or the subsequent acts that barred slavery north of 36°30' N
Chief Justice Taney's majority opinion in ''Dred Scott'' was "greeted with unmitigated wrath from every segment of the United States except the slave holding states." Taney and the other justices of the majority did not foresee the extreme public reaction against the decision. The American political historian Robert G. McCloskey
wrote of the ''Dred Scott'' decision:
Many Republicans, including Abraham Lincoln
, who was rapidly becoming the leading Republican in Illinois, regarded the decision as part of a plot to expand and eventually impose the legalization of slavery throughout all of the states. Some southern extremists admitted that they wanted all states to recognize slavery as a constitutional right. At the same time, Southern Democrats characterized Republicans as lawless rebels, provoking disunion by their unwillingness to accept the Supreme Court's decision as the law of the land. Many northern opponents of slavery offered a legalistic argument for refusing to recognize the ''Dred Scott'' decision as binding. As they noted, the Supreme Court's decision began with the proposition that the federal courts did not have jurisdiction to hear Scott's case because he was not a citizen of Missouri. Therefore, the opponents argued, the remainder of the decision concerning the Missouri Compromise was unnecessary and beyond the Supreme Court's power to decide and so was a passing remark rather than an authoritative interpretation of the law (''obiter dictum
''). Douglas attacked that position in the Lincoln–Douglas debates
Democrats had refused to accept the court's interpretation of the US Constitution as permanently binding. During the Andrew Jackson administration
, Taney, then Attorney General, had written:
, a prominent black abolitionist
who considered the decision to be unconstitutional and Taney's reasoning contrary to the Founding Fathers' vision, predicted that political conflict could not be avoided:
According to Jefferson Davis
, then a US Senator from Mississippi
, and later the first and only President of the Confederate States of America
, the case merely “presented the question whether Cuffee should be kept in his normal condition or not . . . nd
whether the Congress of the United States could decide what might or might not be property in a Territory–the case being that of an officer of the army sent into a Territory to perform his public duty, having taken with him his negro slave."
Fate of the Scott Family
Irene Emerson had moved to Massachusetts in 1850 and married Calvin C. Chaffee
, a doctor and abolitionist who was elected to Congress on the Know Nothing
tickets. Following the Supreme Court ruling, pro-slavery newspapers attacked Chaffee as a hypocrite. Chaffee protested that Dred Scott belonged to his brother-in-law and that he had nothing to do with Scott's enslavement.
Nevertheless, the Chaffees executed a deed transferring the Scott family to Henry Taylor Blow
, the son of Scott's former owner, Peter Blow. Field suggested the transfer to Chaffee as the most convenient way of freeing Scott since Missouri law required manumitters to appear in person before the court.
Taylor Blow filed the manumission
papers with Judge Hamilton on May 26, 1857. The emancipation of Dred Scott and his family was national news and was celebrated in northern cities. Scott worked as a porter in a hotel in St. Louis, where he was a minor celebrity. His wife took in laundry
Dred Scott died of tuberculosis
only 18 months after attaining freedom, on November 7, 1858. Harriet died on June 17, 1876.
The economist Charles Calomiris
and the historian Larry Schweikart
discovered that uncertainty about whether the entire West would suddenly become slave territory or engulfed in combat like
" gripped the markets immediately. The east–west railroads collapsed immediately (although north–south lines were unaffected), causing, in turn, the near-collapse of several large banks and the runs that ensued. What followed the runs has been called the Panic of 1857
The effects of the Panic of 1857, unlike the Panic of 1837
, were almost exclusively confined to the North, a fact that Calomiris and Schweikart attribute to the South's system of branch banking, as opposed to the North's system of unit banking. In the South's branch banking system information moved reliably among the branch banks and transmission of the panic was minor. Northern unit banks, in contrast, were competitors and seldom shared such vital information.
The decision was hailed in southern slaveholding society as a proper interpretation of the US Constitution. According to Jefferson Davis
, then a US Senator from Mississippi
who later became the President of the Confederate States
, the ''Dred Scott'' case was merely a question of "whether Cuffee should be kept in his normal condition or not." ("Cuffee" was a common slave name and was also used to refer to a black person, since slavery was a racial caste
Before ''Dred Scott'', Democratic Party politicians had sought repeal of the Missouri Compromise and were finally successful in 1854 with the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act
. It allowed each newly-admitted state south of the 40th parallel to vote as to whether to be a slave state or free state. With ''Dred Scott'', Taney's Supreme Court permitted the unhindered expansion of slavery into all the territories.
Thus, ''Dred Scott'' decision represented a culmination of what many at that time considered a push to expand slavery. Southerners, who had grown uncomfortable with the Kansas-Nebraska Act, argued that they had a constitutional right to bring slaves into the territories, regardless of any decision by a territorial legislature on the subject. The ''Dred Scott'' decision seemed to endorse that view. The expansion of slavery into the territories and resulting admission of new states would mean a loss of northern political power, as many of the new states would be admitted as slave states. Counting three fifths
of the slave population for apportionment would add to the slaveholding states' political representation in Congress.
Although Taney believed that the decision represented a compromise that would be a final settlement of the slavery question by transforming a contested political issue into a matter of settled law, the decision produced the opposite result. It strengthened Northern opposition to slavery, divided the Democratic Party on sectional lines, encouraged secessionist elements among Southern supporters of slavery to make bolder demands, and strengthened the Republican Party
In 1859, when defending John Anthony Copeland
and Shields Green
from the charge of treason
, following their participation in John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry
, their attorney, George Sennott
, cited the Dred Scott decision
in arguing successfully that since they were not citizens according to that Supreme Court ruling, they could not commit treason.
The charge of treason was dropped, but they were found guilty and executed on other charges.
Justice John Marshall Harlan
was the lone dissenting vote in ''Plessy v. Ferguson
'' (1896), which declared racial segregation constitutional and created the concept of "separate but equal
". In his dissent, Harlan wrote that the majority's opinion would "prove to be quite as pernicious as the decision made by this tribunal in the ''Dred Scott'' case."
Charles Evans Hughes
, writing in 1927 on the Supreme Court's history, described ''Dred Scott v. Sandford'' as a "self-inflicted wound" from which the court would not recover for many years.
In a memo to Justice Robert H. Jackson
in 1952, for whom he was clerking
, on the subject of ''Brown v. Board of Education
'', the future Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist
wrote that "''Scott v. Sandford'' was the result of Taney's effort to protect slaveholders from legislative interference."
Justice Antonin Scalia
made the comparison between ''Planned Parenthood v. Casey
'' (1992) and ''Dred Scott'' in an effort to see ''Roe v. Wade
''Dred Scott'' ... rested upon the concept of "substantive due process" that the Court praises and employs today. Indeed, ''Dred Scott'' was very possibly the first application of substantive due process in the Supreme Court, the original precedent for... ''Roe v. Wade''.
Scalia noted that the ''Dred Scott'' decision had been written and championed by Taney and left the justice's reputation irrevocably tarnished. Taney, who was attempting to end the disruptive question of the future of slavery, wrote a decision that "inflamed the national debate over slavery and deepened the divide that led ultimately to the Civil War
Chief Justice John Roberts
compared ''Obergefell v. Hodges
'' (2015) to ''Dred Scott'', as another example of trying to settle a contentious issue through a ruling that went beyond the scope of the Constitution.
*1977: The Scotts' great-grandson, John A. Madison, Jr., an attorney, gave the invocation at the ceremony at the Old Courthouse (St. Louis)
in St. Louis, a National Historic Landmark
, for the dedication of a National Historic Marker commemorating the Scotts' case tried there.
*2000: Harriet and Dred Scott's petition papers in their freedom suit
were displayed at the main branch of the St. Louis Public Library
, following the discovery of more than 300 freedom suits in the archives of the U.S. circuit court.
*2006: A new historic plaque was erected at the Old Courthouse to honor the active roles of both Dred and Harriet Scott in their freedom suit and the case's significance in U.S. history.
[Arenson (2010), ''Dred Scott Case'', p. 39]
*2012: A monument depicting Dred and Harriet Scott was erected at the Old Courthouse's east entrance facing the St. Louis Gateway Arch
* American slave court cases
* Canterbury Female Boarding School
* List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 60
* List of United States Supreme Court cases
* Origins of the American Civil War
* Privileges and Immunities Clause
* Timeline of the civil rights movement
* ''United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind
* ''McCleskey v. Kemp
* ''Gregson v. Gilbert
* United States labor law
* Dennis-Jonathan Mann
& Kai Purnhagen
: ''The Nature of Union Citizenship between Autonomy and Dependency on (Member) State Citizenship – A Comparative Analysis of the Rottmann Ruling, or: How to Avoid a European Dred Scott Decision?'', in''29:3 Wisconsin International Law Journal (WILJ)'', (Fall 2011), pp. 484–533 (PDF)
* Fehenbacher, Don E.
, ''The Dred Scott Case: Its Significance in American Law and Politics
'' New York: Oxford (1978) inner_of_[[Pulitzer_Prize_for_History
.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Pulitzer Prize for History">inner of [[Pulitzer Prize for History">Pulitzer Prize for History">inner of [[Pulitzer Prize for History
* Fehrenbacher, Don E. ''Slavery, Law, and Politics: The Dred Scott Case in Historical Perspective'' (1981) [abridged version of ''The Dred Scott Case''].
* Konig, David Thomas, Paul Finkelman, and Christopher Alan Bracey, eds. ''The "Dred Scott" Case: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Race and Law'' (Ohio University Press; 2010) 272 pages; essays by scholars on the history of the case and its afterlife in American law and society.
* Potter, David M. ''The Impending Crisis, 1848–1861'' (1976) pp 267–96.
* VanderVelde, Lea. '' Mrs. Dred Scott: A Life on Slavery's Frontier'' (Oxford University Press, 2009) 480 pp.
*Listen to: American Pendulum II – http://one.npr.org/i/555247859:555247861
Primary documents and bibliography about the Dred Scott case
from the Library of Congress
"Dred Scott decision"
''Encyclopædia Britannica'' 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 17 December 2006. www.yowebsite.com
History.net, originally in ''Civil War Times Magazine'', March/April 2006
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, National Park Service
Washington University in St. Louis
Report of the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and JusticeDred Scott case articles from William Lloyd Garrison's abolitionist newspaper ''The Liberator''"Supreme Court Landmark Case ''Dred Scott v. Sandford''"
's ''Landmark Cases: Historic Supreme Court Decisions
Report of the Decision of the Supreme Court of the United States and the Opinions of the Judges Thereof, in the Case of Dred Scott Versus John F.A. Sandford. December Term, 1856
via Google Books
Category:1857 in United States case law
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Category:Presidency of James Buchanan
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