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Dogri (Dogra: , Devanagari: डोगरी; Nasta'liq: ; pronunciation: ) is a Northern Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir. It is also spoken in the state of Himachal Pradesh, and in northern Punjab region, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere. Dogri speakers are called Dogras, and the Dogri-speaking region is the Jammu region. Dogri is now considered to be a member of the Western Pahari group of languages. Unusually for an Indo-European language, Dogri is tonal, a trait it shares with other Western Pahari languages and Punjabi. Dogri has several varieties, all with greater than 80% lexical similarity (within Jammu and Kashmir). Dogri is one of the 22 official languages of India. It was added in the 8th schedule of the constitution in 2003.

Script

Dogri was originally written in Dogra Akkhar script which is an adaptation of Takri Script. It is now more commonly written in Devanagari in India, and in the Nastaʿliq form of Perso-Arabic in Pakistan and Pakistani-administered Kashmir. The Dogra Script was standardised from Chambeali Takri Script during the Dogra rule. This script was then called "''Namme Dogra Akkhar'' " (Dogra: ).


Phonology





Consonants


* Gemination occurs in all consonants except the consonants //. *Retroflex consonants // rarely occur in word initial position. *// only occur from Perso-Arabic loan words, and // is also heard as an allophone of an aspirated //. *// can also marginally be heard as trilled [] in some speech. * In some words, // can become more weakly pronounced, or even eliminated and replaced by a glottal fricative sound []. *A palatal nasal sound [] typically occurs when a dental nasal precedes a post-alveolar affricate consonant, rarely occurring in words word-initially or medially. * A velar nasal sound [] typically occurs when a dental nasal precedes a velar plosive consonant, and rarely occurs word-initially or medially.


Vowels


* There are nasalized variations of the following vowels []. *Vowel sounds are often nasalized when occurring before a word-medial or word-final //, except when // occurs before a word-final vowel. *// can have a marginal upgliding allophone [] when occurring before a // vowel sound. A word-final // can also be realized as drifting toward a centralized [] sound.


Some common words





Tone Rules


These are rules of writing tones in Dogri using Devanagari Script. They are as follows:- * Just like Punjabi, Dogri also uses the letters घ(gʱə), झ(d͡ʒʱə), ढ(ɖʱə), ध(d̪ʱə), भ(bʱə) and ढ़(ɽʱə) for tonal uses. When at the beginning of the word, it has a high-falling tone; ie:- घ(kə́), झ(t͡ʃə́), ढ(ʈə́), ध(t̪ə́), भ(pə́) and ढ़(ɽə́).When in the middle and final position of the word, the preceding vowel has a low-rising tone; ie:- अघ(ə̀ɡ), अझ(ə̀d͡ʒ), अढ(ə̀ɖ), अध(ə̀d̪), अभ(ə̀b) and अढ़(ə̀ɽ). Examples:- घड़ी(kə́ɽɪ)- clock, and औषध(ɔʃə̀d̪), * Unlike Punjabi, there is no ह(hə) sound and it is tonal in all positions. So, it is having high-falling tone in the beginning position and in the middle positions when as a consonant conjuct; ie:- हत्थ (ə́t̪ʰː)- hand; and a low-rising tone elsewhere; ie:- फतूही (pʰətuːì)- shirt. * To indicate a low-rising tone in the middle of words, Dogri uses ह् (ह with a halant) to indicate it when the preceding vowel is long; ie:- आ(ɑ), ई(i), ऊ(u), ए(e), ऐ(ɛ), ओ(o) and औ(ɔ). Example:- साह्ब(sɑ̀b)- sahab. When the preceding vowel is small; ie:- अ(ə), इ(ɪ) and उ(ʊ); an apostrophe mark (') is used. Example:- ल'त्त(lə̀tː). *The alphabets mentioned in the first point can also be used to indicate high-falling tone in the middle of the words when between a short vowel and a long vowel. Some common examples are shown below.

Historical references

The Greek astrologer Pulomi, accompanying Alexander in his 323 B.C. campaign into the Indian subcontinent, referred to some inhabitants of Duggar as "a brave Dogra family living in the mountain ranges of Shivalik." In the year 1317, Amir Khusro, the famous Urdu and Persian poet, referred to Duger (Dogri) while describing the languages and dialects of India as follows: ''"Sindhi-o-Lahori-o-Kashmiri-o-Duger."''

Theories on name origin

Intellectuals in the court of Maharaja Ranbir Singh s/o Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, described 'Duggar' as a distorted form of the word 'Dwigart,' which means "two troughs," a possible reference to the Mansar and Sruinsar Lakes. The linguist George Grierson connected the term 'Duggar' with the Rajasthani word 'Doonger,' which means 'hill,' and 'Dogra' with 'Dongar.' This opinion has lacked support because of the inconsistency of the ostensible changes from Rajasthani to Dogri (essentially the question of how Doonger became Duggar while Donger became Dogra), and been contradicted by some scholars. Yet another proposal stems from the presence of the word 'Durger' in the Bhuri Singh Museum (in Chamba, Himachal Pradesh). The word Durger means 'invincible' in several Northern Indian languages, and could be an allusion to the ruggedness of the Duggar terrain and the historically militarized and autonomous Dogra societies. In Himachal, Dogri is majorly spoken in Hamirpur, Barsar, Una, Chintpurni, Kangra, and Bilaspur regions. In 1976, the experts attending the Language Session of the 'All India Oriental Conference' held in Dharwad, Karnataka, could not reach consensus on the 'Dwigart' and 'Durger' hypotheses, but did manage agreement on a Doonger-Duggar connection. In a subsequent 'All India Oriental Conference' held at Jaipur in 1982, the linguists agreed that the culture, language and history of Rajasthan and Duggar share some similarities. It was also suggested that the words 'Duggar' and 'Dogra' are common in some parts of Rajasthan. Specifically, it was asserted that areas with many forts are called Duggar, and their inhabitants are accordingly known as Dogras. The land of Duggar also has many forts, which may support the opinion above. An article by Dharam Chand Prashant in the literary magazine Shiraza Dogri suggested that ''"the opinion that the word 'Duggar' is a form of the word 'Duggarh' sounds appropriate."'' The Turkish ''Döğer'' is also the name of a Turkmen Oğuz tribe originating in Central Asia and also found amongst the Kurds. In Turkey one of the towns named after them can be written as Doker, Duger, Döker and Düğer.

Recent history

In modern times, a notable Dogri translation (in the Takri script) of the Sanskrit classic mathematical opus ''Lilavati'', by the noted mathematician Bhaskaracharya (b. 1114 AD), was published by the Vidya Vilas Press, Jammu in 1873. As Sanskrit literacy remained confined to a few, the late Maharaja Ranbir Singh had the ''Lilavati'' translated into Dogri by Jyotshi Bisheshwar, then principal of Jammu Pathshala. Dogri has an established tradition of poetry, fiction and dramatic works. Recent poets range from the 18th-century Dogri poet Kavi Dattu (1725–1780) in Raja Ranjit Dev's court to Professor Ram Nath Shastri and Mrs. Padma Sachdev. Kavi Dattu is highly regarded for his ''Barah Massa'' (Twelve Months), ''Kamal Netra'' (Lotus Eyes), ''Bhup Bijog'' and ''Bir Bilas''. ''Shiraza Dogri'' is a Dogri literary periodical issued by the Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, which is a notable publisher of modern Dogri literary work, another being the ''Dogri Sanstha''. Popular recent songs include ''Pala Shpaiya Dogarya'', ''Manney di Mauj'' and ''Shhori Deya''. The noted Pakistani singer Malika Pukhraj had roots in the Duggar region, and her renditions of several Dogri songs continue to be popular in the region. Some devotional songs, or bhajans, composed by Karan Singh have gained increasing popularity over time, including ''Kaun Kareyaan Teri Aarti''. Dogri programming features regularly on Radio Kashmir (a division of All India Radio), and Doordarshan (Indian state television) broadcasts in Jammu and Kashmir. However, Dogri does not have a dedicated state television channel yet, unlike Kashmiri (which has the Doordarshan Koshur channel, available on cable and satellite television throughout India)
The Straight Line
a digital news portal in Jammu took the initiative o
Dogri news reporting
by creating more than 700 videos in Dogri. Pragya Salhotra, their Dogri head helped in bringing Dogri to the mainstream by reporting on serious issues, doing satire as well as having discussions in Dogri. Her signature style “''Aaun Pragya Salhotra tunda mata mata malaar karni aan”'' was loved and adored by many. Official recognition of the language has been gradual, but progressive. On 2 August 1969, the General Council of the Sahitya Academy, Delhi recognized Dogri as an "independent modern literary language" of India, based on the unanimous recommendation of a panel of linguists. (Indian Express, New Delhi, 3 August 1969). Dogri is one of the state languages of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. On 22 December 2003, in a major milestone for the official status of the language, Dogri was recognized as a national language of India in the Indian constitution. In Pakistan, the language (under the name "Pahari") continues to thrive, but is not known to have received official patronage to date. The Alami Pahari Adabi Sangat (Global Pahari Cultural Association) is a Pakistani organization dedicated to the advancement and progress of the language. In 2005, a collection of over 100 works of prose and poetry in Dogri published over the last 50 years was made accessible online at the Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore. This included works of eminent writer Dhinu Bhai Panth, Professor Madan Mohan Sharma, B.P. Sathai and Ram Nath Shastri.

See also

* Dogri–Kangri languages * List of Sahitya Akademi Award winners for Dogri * Dogri cinema * Languages of India * Languages with official status in India * List of languages by number of native speakers in India

References



Bibliography

* Gopal Haldar (2000). ''Languages of India''. New Delhi: National Book Trust

External links


The Dogri Language
article by Ved Kumari Ghai
Duggar Times.com
for more on Dogri language, literature and writers

"One Hundredth Amendment," news report on the recognition of Dogri as a national language.
Modifications to Devanagri to represent Dogri tones

Pahari.org
Alami Pahari Adabi Sangat (Global Pahari Cultural Association)

The Takri script.
Crulp.org
paper on tonality and intonation in Punjabi.
Dogri computing resources at TDIL (Devanagari Script)
{{DEFAULTSORT:Dogri Language Category:Pahari languages Category:Languages of Punjab, Pakistan Category:Official languages of India Category:Languages of Jammu and Kashmir Category:Jammu Division Category:Arabic alphabets for South Asian languages