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Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo (1868 – 18 October 1913, commonly misspelled Dinizulu) was the
king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen ...
of the Zulu nation from 20 May 1884 until his death in 1913. He succeeded his father
Cetshwayo Cetshwayo kaMpande (; ; 1826 – 8 February 1884) was the king of the Zulu Kingdom The Zulu Kingdom (, ), sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of ...
, who was the last king of the Zulus to be officially recognized as such by the British. Zululand had been broken up into 13 smaller territories by the British after the
Anglo-Zulu War The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Following the Constitution Act of 1867 for the federation in Canada, by Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon, Lord Carnarvon, it was thought that similar po ...
, and
Cetshwayo Cetshwayo kaMpande (; ; 1826 – 8 February 1884) was the king of the Zulu Kingdom The Zulu Kingdom (, ), sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of ...
, and subsequently Dinuzulu, administered one of them. The British later realized the futility of breaking up Zululand into the territories and restored Cetshwayo as paramount leader of the territories. However, they left one of Cetshwayo's relatives, Usibepu (Zibhebhu), alone with his lands intact. On 22 July 1883, Usibepu attacked Cetshwayo's new kraal in Ulundi, wounding the king and causing him to flee.


Dinuzulu's volunteers

To contest the succession, Dinuzulu first appealed to the British, but had no response. He then offered rewards of land to
Boer Boers () ( af , Boere) refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking colonists of the eastern Cape frontier in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent A continent is o ...
farmers of the Vryheid and Utrecht districts, to come and fight on his side and restore the Zulu Kingdom. In 1884 a group of Boer farmers from the districts of Utrecht and Vryheid undertook to help restore order, in return for land for the formation of an independent republic with access to the sea. Led by General
Louis Botha Louis Botha (; 27 September 1862 – 27 August 1919) was a South African politician who was the first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa—the forerunner of the modern South African state. A Boer war hero during the Second Boer War ...

Louis Botha
, they formed Dinuzulu's Volunteers and after several clashes with Zibhebhu, defeated him at the Battle of Ghost Mountain (also known as the Battle of Tshaneni) on 5 June 1884. The
Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
, established in northern Natal on land awarded to Boers by Dinuzulu, was recognized by Germany and Portugal. It was later incorporated on its request by the ZAR because of financial problems, after the British annexed the coastal plains from the Thuhela river (Tugela) northwards in order to prevent the Boers from building a harbor. After considerable dispute in a Natal arbitration court, Britain eventually recognized the New Republic, but reduced in size after annexation of the coastal plains by Britain and deprived of its claims to
St Lucia Saint Lucia (, ; french: Sainte-Lucie) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individ ...
for a harbor. The Niewe Republiek was incorporated on its own request with the Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek in 1888. Stability in the Zulu kingdom continued until the British annexed the Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek in 1899.


Exile

In 1890 Dinuzulu was captured by the British and exiled to the island of Saint Helena for seven years, for leading a Zulu army against the British due to annexation of the coastal plains of Zululand. When Zululand was formally incorporated into Natal in 1897, Dinuzulu was released. The following year he was installed as the British government's InDuna.


Bambatha rebellion

In 1906 the so-called Bambatha rebellion broke out. After the rebellion had been put down, Dinuzulu was accused of giving orders to Bambatha to start the rebellion and was put on trial for treason. Although he steadfastly protested his innocence, he was found guilty and sentenced to four years imprisonment in March, 1908. Two years later an old friend of his, General
Louis Botha Louis Botha (; 27 September 1862 – 27 August 1919) was a South African politician who was the first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa—the forerunner of the modern South African state. A Boer war hero during the Second Boer War ...

Louis Botha
, became Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa. Botha ordered that Dinuzulu be released and transported to the farm ''Uitkyk'' in the Transvaal Province, Transvaal, where he died in 1913 at the age of 44 or 45. He was succeeded by his son Solomon kaDinuzulu.


Statue

A statue of Dinuzulu has been erected next to the statue of General
Louis Botha Louis Botha (; 27 September 1862 – 27 August 1919) was a South African politician who was the first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa—the forerunner of the modern South African state. A Boer war hero during the Second Boer War ...

Louis Botha
, the first prime minister of the Transvaal colony, at the corner of Berea Road and Warwick Avenue in Durban.


Wood Badge beads

Beads from Dinuzulu's necklace—claimed to have been found by Robert Baden-Powell—were later presented to Scouting, Scout leaders following Wood Badge leadership training. Today the Wood Badge beads are replicas of the original beads. To date, there is conflicting evidence as to how Baden-Powell came upon the beads as well as the specific purpose and owner of the beads. Alternative stories include that Baden-Powell took the beads improperly, and that the beads were not war beads but actually belonged to a woman, such as a wife of Dinuzulu.


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Dinuzulu 1868 births, Dinuzulu 1913 deaths, Dinuzulu Scouting Zulu kings 19th-century monarchs in Africa History of KwaZulu-Natal History of South Africa Tax resisters 19th-century Zulu people