DescriptionMany current cultural historians claim it to be a new approach, but cultural history was referred to by nineteenth-century historians such as the Swiss scholar of Renaissance history Jacob Burckhardt. Cultural history overlaps in its approaches with the French movements of '' histoire des mentalités'' (Philippe Poirrier, 2004) and the so-called new history, and in the U.S. it is closely associated with the field of . As originally conceived and practiced by 19th Century Swiss historian Jakob Burckhardt with regard to the , cultural history was oriented to the study of a particular historical period in its entirety, with regard not only for its painting, sculpture and architecture, but for the economic basis underpinning society, and the social institutions of its daily life as well. Echoes of Burkhardt's approach in the 20th century can be seen in Johan Huizinga's ''The Autumn of the Middle Ages, The Waning of the Middle Ages'' (1919). Most often the focus is on phenomena shared by non-elite groups in a society, such as: carnival, festival, and public rituals; performance traditions of Narrative, tale, Epic poetry, epic, and other verbal forms; cultural evolutions in human relations (ideas, sciences, arts, techniques); and cultural expressions of social movements such as nationalism. Also examines main historical concepts as power (sociology), power, ideology, Social class, class, culture, cultural identity, attitude (psychology), attitude, Race (classification of human beings), race, perception and new historical methods as narration of body. Many studies consider adaptations of traditional culture to mass media (television, radio, newspapers, magazines, posters, etc.), from Printing, print to film and, now, to the Internet (culture of capitalism). Its modern approaches come from art history, Annales School, Annales, Marxist school, microhistory and new cultural history.What Became of Cultural Historicism in the French Reclamation of Strasbourg After World War One? French History and Civilization 5, 2014, 1-15 Common theoretical touchstone (metaphor), touchstones for recent cultural history have included: Jürgen Habermas's formulation of the public sphere in ''The Structural Transformation of the Bourgeois Public Sphere''; Clifford Geertz's notion of 'thick description' (expounded in, for example, ''The Interpretation of Cultures''); and the idea of memory as a cultural-historical category, as discussed in Paul Connerton's ''How Societies Remember''.
Historiography and the French RevolutionThe area where new-style cultural history is often pointed to as being almost a paradigm is the 'Historical revisionism, revisionist' history of the French Revolution, dated somewhere since François Furet's massively influential 1978 essay ''Interpreting the French Revolution''. The 'revisionist interpretation' is often characterised as replacing the allegedly dominant, allegedly Marxist, 'social interpretation' which locates the causes of the Revolution in class dynamics. The revisionist approach has tended to put more emphasis on 'political culture'. Reading ideas of political culture through Habermas' conception of the public sphere, historians of the Revolution in the past few decades have looked at the role and position of cultural themes such as gender, ritual, and ideology in the context of pre-revolutionary French political culture. Historians who might be grouped under this umbrella are Roger Chartier, Robert Darnton, Patrice Higonnet, Lynn Hunt, Keith Baker, Joan Landes, Mona Ozouf and Sarah Maza. Of course, these scholars all pursue fairly diverse interests, and perhaps too much emphasis has been placed on the paradigmatic nature of the new history of the French Revolution. Colin Jones, for example, is no stranger to cultural history, Jürgen Habermas, Habermas, or Marxism, and has persistently argued that the Marxist interpretation is not dead, but can be revivified; after all, Habermas' logic was heavily indebted to a Marxist understanding. Meanwhile, Rebecca Spang has also recently argued that for all its emphasis on difference and newness, the 'revisionist' approach retains the idea of the French Revolution as a watershed in the history of (so-called) modernity, and that the problematic notion of 'modernity' has itself attracted scant attention.
Cultural studies''Cultural studies'' is an academic discipline popular among a diverse group of scholars. It combines political economy, geography, sociology, social theory, literary theory, film theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology, philosophy, and art history/art criticism, criticism to study culture, cultural phenomena in various societies. Cultural studies researchers often concentrate on how a particular phenomenon relates to matters of ideology, nationality, ethnicity, social class, and/or gender. The term was coined by Richard Hoggart in 1964 when he founded the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. It has since become strongly associated with Stuart Hall (cultural theorist), Stuart Hall, who succeeded Hoggart as Director.
Cultural history in popular cultureThe BBC has produced and broadcast a number of educational television programmes on different aspects of human cultural history: in 1969 ''Civilisation (TV series), Civilisation'', in 1973 ''The Ascent of Man'', in 1985 ''The Triumph of the West'' and in 2012 ''Andrew Marr's History of the World''.
See also* Collective unconscious * Ethnohistory * History of mentalities * Human history
Further reading* Arcangeli, Alessandro. (2011) ''Cultural History: A Concise Introduction'' (Routledge, 2011) * Peter Burke (historian), Burke, Peter. (2004). ''What is Cultural History?''. Cambridge: Polity Press. * Cook, James W., et al. ''The Cultural Turn in U. S. History: Past, Present, and Future'' (2009