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Council house
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A council house is a form of British public housing built by
local authorities Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geograp ...
. A council estate is a building complex containing a number of council houses and other amenities like schools and shops. Construction took place mainly from 1919 after the Housing Act 1919 to the 1980s, with much less council housing built since then. There were local design variations, but they all adhered to local authority building standards.


History

House design in the United Kingdom is defined by a series of Housing Acts, and public housing house design is defined by government directives and central governments' relationship with local authorities. From the first interventions in the Public Health Act 1875, council houses could be general housing for the working class, general housing, part of slum clearance programmes or just homes provided for the most needy. They could be funded directly by local councils, through central government incentive or by revenue obtained when other houses were sold. Increasingly, they have been transferred through the instrument of
housing association In Ireland and the United Kingdom, housing associations are private, non-profit making organisations that provide low-cost " social housing" for people in need of a home. Any budget surplus is used to maintain existing housing and to help finance ...
s into the private sector.


First World War housing

Woolwich Borough Council was responsible for the Well Hall Estate designed for workers at the munition factories at Woolwich Arsenal. The estate and the house were built to the garden suburb philosophy: houses were all different. The estate received the royal seal of approval when, on Friday 24 March 1916, Queen Mary made an unannounced visit.


Interwar housing

A programme of council house building started after the First World War following on from the
David Lloyd George David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a Welsh statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1916 to 1922. He was the final Liberal to hold the post of prime ministe ...

David Lloyd George
’s government’s Housing Act of 1919. The 'Addison Act' brought in subsidies for council house building and aimed to provide 500,000 "homes fit for heroes" within a three-year period although less than half of this target was met. The housing built comprised three-bedroom dwellings with parlour and scullery: larger properties also include a living room. The standards are based on the Tudor Walters Report of 1919, and the Design Manual written according to the 1913 building standards. In 1923 the Chamberlain Act withdrew subsidies for council houses except for private builders and houses for sale. Councils could undertake to build houses and offer these for sale but also to sell off some of their existing properties. This was essentially reversed by the incoming Labour Party (UK), Labour government of 1924. The Housing (Financial Provisions) Act 1924, Wheatley Act (1924) passed by the new Labour Government introduced higher subsidies for council housing and also allowed for a contribution to be made from the rates. The housing revenue account was always separated from the general account. This was a major period of council house construction. The Housing Act 1930 stimulated slum clearance, i.e., the destruction of inadequate houses in the inner cities that had been built before the 1875 Act. This released land for housing and the need for smaller two bedroomed houses to replace the two-up two-down houses that had been demolished. Smaller three bedroom properties were also built. The Housing Act 1935 led to a continuation of this policy , but the Second World War, war stopped all construction, and enemy action reduced the usable housing stock.


Post-World War II housing

;Prefabs The Housing (Temporary Accommodation) Act 1944 led to the building of Prefabs in the UK, prefab bungalows with a design life of ten years. Innovative steel-framed properties were also tried in an attempt to speed up construction. A number survive well into the 21st century, a testament to the durability of a series of housing designs and construction methods only envisaged to last 10 years. The Burt Committee, formed in 1942 by the wartime government of Winston Churchill, proposed to address the need for an anticipated 200,000 shortfall in post-war housing stock, by building 500,000 prefabricated houses, with a planned life of up to 10 years within five years of the end of the World War II, Second World War. The eventual bill, under the Attlee ministry, post-war Labour government of Prime Minister Clement Attlee, agreed to deliver 300,000 units within 10 years, within a budget of £150m. Of 1.2 million new houses built from 1945 to 1951 when the programme officially ended, 156,623 prefab houses were constructed. ;New Towns Act housing Mainly during the immediate post-war years, and well into the 1950s, council house provision was shaped by the New Towns Act 1946 and the Town and Country Planning Act 1947 of the 1945–51 Labour government. At the same time this government introduced housing legislation that removed wikt:explicit, explicit references to housing for the working class and introduced the concept of "general needs" construction (i.e., that council housing should aim to fill the needs for a wide range of society). In particular, Aneurin Bevan, the Secretary of State for Health, Minister for Health and Housing, promoted a vision of new estates where "the working man, the doctor and the clergyman will live in close proximity to each other".


Design


Addison Act housing (1918–1923)

The Housing, Town Planning, &c. Act 1919, Addison Act 1919 houses were usually three-bedroom houses with a living room and scullery, sometimes also with a parlour. Some had two, four, or even five bedrooms, as well as generously-sized back gardens intended for vegetable growing. At most, they were built at 3,000/km2. They were generally built to the recommendations of the Tudor Walters Report. Examples are found in Downham, Watling Estate, and Becontree.


Tudor Walters Committee recommendations

{, class="wikitable" , +Tudor Walters Committee recommendations !House without a parlour !Area m2 !Volume m3 ! !House with a parlour !Area m2 !Volume m3 , - , , , ! , Parlour , , , - , Living room , , ! , Living room , , , - , Scullery , , ! , Scullery , , , - , Larder , , – ! , Larder , , – , - , Bedroom No. 1 , , ! , Bedroom No. 1 , , , - , Bedroom No. 2 , , ! , Bedroom No. 2 , , , - , Bedroom No. 3 , , ! , Bedroom No. 3 , , , - , Total , , ! , , , , - , colspan="7" , Desirable minimum sizes, Tudor Walters Committee


Labour government homes (1924–1930)

The Addison Act 1919, and the severe housing shortage in the early 1920s created the first generation of houses to feature electricity, running water, bathrooms, indoor toilets and front/rear gardens. However, until well into the 1930s, some were built with outdoor toilets. Some did not feature an actual bathroom; the bath could often be found in the kitchen with a design which allowed it to double as a work surface. The Housing, &c. Act 1923, Chamberlain Act 1923 reduced the expected standards. The Housing (Financial Provisions) Act 1924, Wheatley Act 1924 attempted to restore some of them. Under the Addison Act, a house would be but after 1924 it would be . This was a major period of council house construction.


Smaller houses (1931–1939)

With the Housing Act 1930, Housing Act of 1930, otherwise known as the Arthur Greenwood, Greenwood Act, the government signalled a change of priority, slum clearance. Pre-regulation terraced houses in the United Kingdom, Pre-regulation terraced housing was to be cleared and the residents rehoused in new council houses. There was a cut in funding and the housing density on the peripheral estates was increased leading to a poorer build quality. The former tenants of the inner city properties were displaced far from their workplaces unable to afford the higher rents (though reduced from the 1919 levels) or the cost of transport. Stable communities were broken up, and with it support networks.


Temporary prefabs (1941–1950)

All prefab units approved by the Ministry of Works had to have a minimum floor space size of , and the sections should be less than 7' 6" (2.3 m) wide. These "service units" had to include a combined back-to-back prefabricated kitchen that backed onto a prebuilt bathroom, so water pipes, waste pipes and electrical distribution were all in the same place, and hence easy to install. The house retained a coal-fire, with a back boiler to create both central heating and a constant supply of hot water. Thus it had a bathroom included a flushing toilet and man-sized bath with hot running water. In the kitchen were a built-in oven, refrigerator and baxi water heater. All prefabs under the housing act came pre-decorated in Magnolia (color), magnolia, with gloss-green on all additional wood, including the door trimmings and skirting boards.


Pre-cast reinforced concrete

These were built by prefabrication techniques but had an expected design life of 60 years. They included various kinds such as Airey, Cornish, Wates, Unity, Reema, Tarran, Woolaway and Parkinson types. The city of Leeds led the way with the highest number of PRCs.


Parker Morris homes

The Parker Morris Committee drew up an influential 1961 report on housing space standards in public housing#United Kingdom, public housing in the United Kingdom titled ''Homes for Today and Tomorrow''. The report concluded that the quality of social housing needed to be improved to match the rise in living standards. Out of the report came the Parker Morris Standards. In 1963 these were set out in the Ministry of Housing's "Design Bulletin 6 – Space in the Home". They became mandatory for all council houses from 1967 until 1980. Among the Parker Morris Committee, Parker Morris standards were the requirements saying that: *In one-, two- and three-bedroom dwellings, one flushing toilet is required, and it may be in the bathroom. *A semi-detached or end-of-terrace house for four people should have a net floor area of 72 m2. *A dwelling for three or more people should have enclosed storage space for the kitchen of 2.3 cubic metres. *Dwellings should be fitted with heating systems that maintain the kitchen and circulation space at 13 °C, and the living and dining spaces at 18 °C, when the external temperature is -1 °C.


Radburn Style Estates 1970s

The Radburn housing layout that aimed to separate cars from housing was used extensively in new towns. As a result, the houses are accessible to the front only by footpaths. This has created areas with poor surveillance, particularly over car parking at the rear, which have become the focus of crime. In Skelmersdale, tenants are calling for their Radburn style housing to be remodelled so that defensible space is created with parking close to their homes and a reduction in general use areas which give rise to anti-social behaviour.


Historical statistics on housing construction

Dwellings completed by local authorities, New Towns, and the Scottish Special Housing Association, Scottish Housing Association, 1945–80 (thousands) {, class="wikitable collapsible collapsed" , +Dwellings completed 1945–80 , - ! Year !! England and Wales !! Scotland , - , 1945–50 (annual average) , , 96.3 , , 14.3 , - , 1951–55 (annual average) , , 188.1 , , 30.9 , - , 1956–60 (annual average) , , 124.4 , , 25.9 , - , 1961 , , 98.5 , , 20.1 , - , 1962 , , 111.7 , , 19.0 , - , 1963 , , 102.4 , , 21.6 , - , 1964 , , 126.1 , , 29.5 , - , 1965 , , 140.9 , , 27.6 , - , 1966 , , 142.4 , , 28.2 , - , 1967 , , 159.3 , , 34.0 , - , 1968 , , 148.0 , , 33.3 , - , 1969 , , 139.9 , , 34.3 , - , 1970 , , 134.9 , , 34.4 , - , 1971 , , 117.2 , , 28.6 , - , 1972 , , 93.6 , , 19.6 , - , 1973 , , 79.3 , , 17.3 , - , 1974 , , 99.4 , , 16.2 , - , 1975 , , 122.9 , , 22.8 , - , 1976 , , 124.2 , , 21.2 , - , 1977 , , 121.2 , , 14.3 , - , 1978 , , 96.8 , , 9.9 , - , 1979 , , 75.0 , , 7.9 , - , 1980 , , 77.1 , , 7.0


See also

*List of large council estates in the UK *Public housing *Public housing in the United Kingdom *Affordable housing *Subsidized housing *Housing estate *Residential area *Subdivision (land) *Tract housing *Social welfare *Welfare state *New Towns Act 1946, New Towns in the United Kingdom


References

;Bibliography * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


BBC NEWS: "Council home for sale at £895,000".

Website of the campaign to "Defend Council Housing" against privatisation.

Social Housing Law Association.


Describing how mutual exchange schemes operate.

Recollections of former and current residents of the Harold Hill council estate. {{DEFAULTSORT:Council House House types Public housing in the United Kingdom Housing in the United Kingdom Housing estates in London