Pre-launchChannel 5 Broadcasting Limited was licensed by the UK's then independent statutory regulator the Independent Television Commission (ITC) in 1995 after a bidding process that started in 1993 and lasted throughout 1994. The initial round of bidders, which included a network of city-TV stations planned by Thames Television and the Italian politician and media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi (who founded Mediaset, which owns Canale 5 and formerly owned La Cinq, which ceased operations in 1992; he retired his offer a few months later), was rejected outright and the ITC contemplated not awarding the licence at all. The difficulty with the project lay in use of television broadcast frequencies that had been allocated to RF outputs from domestic videocassette recorders. To achieve national coverage, large numbers of domestic video recorders (which output at a nearby frequency) had to be retuned or fitted with a filter, at the bidding company's expense. The project was revived in mid-1994 when the ITC re-advertised the franchise. Tom McGrath (media executive), Tom McGrath, then-president of Time Warner International Broadcasting, put together a revised frequency plan with Arqiva, NTL and consulting engineer Ellis Griffiths, involving less retuning and greater signal coverage. Clive Hollick, Baron Hollick, Lord Hollick, then chief executive of ITV Meridian, Meridian Broadcasting (later United News & Media, and UBM) took up the project as lead investor as UK law prohibited Time Warner from owning more than 25%. Pearson Television, who by now owned original licence bidders Thames Television, also came on board. When McGrath left to become President of Paramount, Time Warner dropped out of the project and was replaced by RTL Group, CLT (known in the UK for Radio Luxembourg (English), Radio Luxembourg). Other bidders for the licence included UKTV (led by Canwest and Select TV, who bid £36m for the licence), New Century Television (owned by Sky plc, BSkyB and ITV Granada, Granada, who bid £2m), Virgin TV (backed by Virgin Group, Virgin Communications) and Associated Newspapers (who bid £22m, the same as Channel 5 Broadcasting who won the licence). Wolf Olins and Saatchi & Saatchi were the main companies behind the pre-launch advertising campaign: "Give Me 5". The channel would be both modern and mainstream. A logo (a numeric "5" within a circle) and visual motif (a "candy stripe" bar of colours, reminiscent of TV test cards) were used, and an attempt was made to establish a collection of Channel 5 faces; through the spring of 1997, billboards of Jack Docherty were displayed, along with other unknown characters. A series of pre-launch screens were displayed on the frequencies Channel 5 would begin broadcasting on in the months before launch as well, including a trailer for the channel and information screens. After re-tuning, around 65% of the population's televisions could view the channel on launch night.
The launchThe channel's launch on Easter Sunday (30 March) 1997 at 6pm featured the Spice Girls singing a re-written version of Manfred Mann's hit "5-4-3-2-1" as "1-2-3-4-5". Presenters Tim Vine and Julia Bradbury introduced the nation to the UK's fifth (sixth including S4C) terrestrial channel with half-an-hour of previews. The rest of the Channel 5 launch night schedule, along with the official viewing figures, was as follows: Overall, an estimated 2,490,000 tuned in to see Britain's fifth free channel launch, a figure higher than that achieved by launch of Channel 4, fourteen and a half years earlier.
Re-brand as Five (2002)On 16 September 2002, Channel 5 re-branded to Five, in a multimillion-pound project directed by Trevor Beattie. The channel's director of marketing at the time, David Pullen, said: On 27 February 2004, it was reported that Five and Channel 4 were discussing a possible merger. Channel 4 and Five announced in November of that year that merger plans were being called off. Early in 2009, rumours started re-surfacing about Five, Channel 4 and ITV (TV network), ITV conducting a three-way merger. Pearson Television and CLT later merged, becoming RTL Group who became part of Bertelsmann and, control the channel, after buying UBM's 35.4% stake for £247.6 million on 20 July 2005. The acquisition was approved on 26 August 2005. After Holleck became involved, he and McGrath brought on board Greg Dyke (later Director-General of the BBC) as interim CEO during the application and launch phase of the project. On 18 November 2005, it was announced that Five had bought a stake in Digital terrestrial television, DTT's pay-TV operator, Top Up TV. It was said that the investment may lead to the development of new free and pay services on DTT, and other platforms. Following this, Five launched two new digital TV channels in autumn 2006 on Freeview (UK), Freeview, Sky UK, Sky and Virgin Media: * 5Star, 5 STAR launched as Five Life on 15 October 2006, providing dramas, films, soap operas and popular factual and lifestyle shows. The channel previously aired pre-school shows under the ''Milkshake!'' banner. It was renamed Fiver in 2008, 5* in 2011 and eventually its current name in 2016. * 5USA, 5 USA launched as Five US on 16 October 2006, offering drama, films, sport, comedy and youth programming from the USA. It was renamed Five USA in 2009 and 5 USA in 2011.
Desmond takeover (2011)Five was taken over by Richard Desmond's publishing group Northern & Shell on 23 July 2010 for £103.5 million. Desmond pledged to top up the broadcaster's total budget to about £1.5bn over the next five years, including new investment of £50m to £100m a year to boost programming and the equivalent of £20m promoting the channel and its shows in a marketing campaign in Northern & Shell publications. The takeover was partly motivated by the opportunities for cross-promotion of Five from Desmond's newspapers (''Daily Express'' and ''Daily Star (United Kingdom), Daily Star'') and magazines (including ''OK!''). One commentator warned that "readers will be bombarded with references to Five. The opportunity for cross-promotion between his publications and TV channel are enormous." Upon completing his takeover of Five on 23 July 2010, Richard Desmond remarked; "I prefer Channel 5 to Five, but... we haven't met with the team yet to discuss these sorts of details". The day after, Desmond's ''Daily Express'' newspaper noted that the channel's name was to change: "From today the rather vague 'Five' (Five what? Days of the week? Fingers?) reverts to the much more informative Channel 5". On 11 August 2010, Desmond confirmed the restoration of the original name used from 1997–2002. The restoration was revealed onscreen on 14 February 2011. The relaunch also saw investment in a range of new programming with the debut of the (now-cancelled) nightly entertainment show ''OK! TV''.Richard Desmond's Channel 5 to air reality show set in lesbian bar
Sale to Viacom (2014)In January 2014, it was reported that Richard Desmond was looking at selling Channel 5 for up to £700 million. BT Group, BT, ITV plc, ITV, Channel 4, NBCUniversal, Endemol, WarnerMedia, Time Warner, Viacom (2005–present), Viacom, Scripps Network Interactive, Saban Capital Group, and a joint bid of Sky Group, BSkyB and Discovery Communications were all bidders reportedly interested in acquiring Channel 5. On 1 May 2014, Desmond agreed to sell Channel 5 to Viacom (2005–present), Viacom for £450 million (US$759 million). The deal was approved on 10 September 2014 and at the same time it was announced that it was to co-commission programmes with its pay channels such as Nickelodeon (UK and Ireland), Nickelodeon and MTV (UK and Ireland), MTV. On 15 April 2015, Channel 5 launched a British version of the American cable channel Spike (which would become rebranded as 5Spike, before taking on the Paramount Network (British TV channel), Paramount Network name). On 1 August 2015, Channel 5's five advertising regions: London, South/Central England and Wales, Northern England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland were closed with Viacom considering them financially unviable. The closure of the advertising regions allowed Channel 5 HD for Sky HD viewers to swap with the standard-definition version of Channel 5 on the EPG. Under Viacom, the channel planned to increase its original programming output, increasing its budget by 10%. On 11 February 2016, Channel 5 also unveiled an overhauled brand, meant to reflect a new remit of "Spirited TV with an Emotional Heart". In December 2019, Viacom re-merged with CBS Corporation, forming ViacomCBS and making Channel 5 a sister to CBS in the United States and Network 10 in Australia. Since January 2020, the channels operate under the ViacomCBS Networks UK & Australia subsidiary (with the British CBS channels and Horror being part of a joint-venture with AMC Networks International, AMC). Channel 5 received Channel of the Year honours from the Royal Television Society and Broadcast Awards in 2020, with judges for both recognising the network's expansion under ViacomCBS.
Broadcasting and receptionThe British frequency plan had only allowed for four channels to be transmitted over the whole of the UK using analogue terrestrial transmitters, but the ITC identified that Ultra high frequency, UHF channels 35 and 37 could provide coverage of around 70% of the UK population. These channels were used by many domestic video recorders for RF connection to television sets. Before the channel could launch, the broadcaster had to provide over-the-phone instructions or visit any home that complained to either retune the video recorder or fit a filter to completely block the Channel 5 signal. For many transmitters, channels 35 and 37 were 'out of group', which meant that the roof-top receiving Antenna (radio), aerials were not designed to cover Channel 5's broadcast channels. Many people either could not receive the channel at all, or required a new aerial. The broadcaster progressively added to the transmitters to improve the analogue terrestrial coverage since that time. From 23 April 1997, the channel was also provided on the analogue SES Astra, Astra satellite service, which enabled people outside the terrestrial reception areas to receive it via a dish. Unlike the other four analogue British television channels, the channel could not be received via analogue terrestrial broadcasts in many areas, including some parts of the south coast of England where the signal would otherwise interfere with signals from television stations in France; many areas of North East England, especially around the major Tyne & Wear conurbation; many areas in Scotland; most of Wales, most of Northern Ireland and parts of Cumbria. The channel is available on all digital platforms (Freesat, Sky UK, Sky satellite, IPTV and Freeview (UK), Freeview digital terrestrial, and also most cable operators). On 5 November 2008, the channel launched on digital satellite service Freesat, on the Astra 28.2°E satellites. It was the first analogue channel in the UK to use a permanent digital on-screen graphic, though this was removed in September 2002 – however, the children's programming strands kept the DOG. In October 2007, the channel's logo returned to the screen. Channel 5 is available in Switzerland on Swisscom TV and Cablecom. In the Republic of Ireland, unlike the other UK terrestrial channels, Channel 5 is not available on Cable television in the Republic of Ireland, cable or MMDS, the first such service not to be available there. Its terrestrial signal can be received in areas bordering Northern Ireland, or coastal areas close to Wales, and since going free-to-air on 5 November 2008 to join Freesat, it is now available in Republic of Ireland with a digital satellite receiver, but it is not available on the Sky EPG, along with ITV channels. On 30 September 2009, the channel temporarily ceased broadcasting on Freeview (UK), Freeview from around 9:30am until midday. This was due to changes to the Freeview platform, which meant moving Channel 5 from a commercial multiplex to a public service broadcasting multiplex to increase the coverage of the channel from around 70% to 99% across the country on relay transmitters which only carried the three PSB multiplexes but did not carry the three commercial multiplexes. On 20 September 2019 it was announced that Channel 5 had joined BritBox, a digital video subscription service created by the BBC and ITV plc, ITV.
Channel 5 HDChannel 5 HD is a high-definition television, high-definition simulcast of Channel 5. The channel launched on Sky UK, Sky channel 171 and Virgin Media channel 150 on 13 July 2010. In Summer 2015, Channel 5 and Channel 5 HD switched places, with Channel 5 HD now being located in Channel 5's original space of channel 105. Upon the launch, only the Australian soaps ''Neighbours'' and ''Home and Away'' were shown in HD, with the letters HD placed in the top right hand corner of the screen. Channel 5 HD was due to launch on Freeview (UK), Freeview during 2010 but was unable to reach 'key criteria' to keep its slot. In 2011 Channel 5 HD was the sole applicant for a fifth high-definition channel slot on Freeview, with the aim of launching in spring or early summer 2012. On 15 December 2011, Channel 5 dropped its bid to take the fifth slot after being unable to resolve "issues of commercial importance". Channel 5 said it "remains committed" to having a HD channel on Freeview in the future. In October 2013, Channel 5 HD became a subscription channel on the Sky satellite platform. Previously, it was available as a free-to-view channel, but is now only available to Sky 'Family Bundle' customers or those with the HD pack. On 27 April 2016 Channel 5 HD test transmissions started on Freeview Mux. BBCB (CH105). On 4 May 2016, Channel 5 HD became free-to-air, coinciding with its launch on Freeview (UK), Freeview and Freesat.
Channel 5 +1Channel 5 +1 was launched on Freesat, Freeview (UK), Freeview and Sky UK, Sky on 6 December 2011. The channel was also expected to be made available via Virgin Media during 2012, eventually launching on 25 October 2012. As with other similar '+1' services, Channel 5 +1 rebroadcasts Channel 5's entire programming output on a one-hour time-delay, though the 'Supercasino' commercial gaming block is blacked out on the timeshift. The launch of Channel 5 +1 meant all three of the UK's commercial PSB services – ITV/STV/UTV, Channel 4 and Channel 5 – now have one-hour timeshifts.
My5My5 was a channel based on the most popular TV shows that are broadcast across all of the Channel 5 network. It was originally launched as Channel 5 +24, a 24-hour timeshift of the main Channel 5 schedule. The channel was launched on 4 February 2014 and was available on Freeview, Freesat, Sky and Virgin Media. The channel replaced 5* +1 on Freesat, Sky and Virgin Media. The channel was originally announced as 5 Later, but changed shortly before launch. 5* +1 returned on Freesat channel 132 on 16 September 2014, and launched on Sky on 4 November 2014, replacing BET International, BET +1 there. Until 1 February 2016 two versions of Channel 5 +24 were broadcast: evening primetime content was the same on both, but the version carried to Freeview had continuous teleshopping presentations outside the primetime block, whilst the version carried to satellite and cable viewers interspersed teleshopping 'windows' with a three-hour programming block, broadcast at 10am, 4pm and 3am daily, comprising replays of the previous day's Channel 5 ''Neighbours'' and ''Home & Away'' episodes and the matinée movie shown on Channel 5 the previous afternoon – this was to get around restrictions that platform operators place on the amount of continuous teleshopping that can be broadcast on entertainment-category channels. On 10 August 2016 Channel 5 +24 was renamed My5. The channel was no longer a 24-hour timeshift of the Channel 5 schedule but showed a selection of programmes from across the network of channels, similar to 4seven. The renaming brought it in line with Channel 5's online on demand service, also called My5. On 17 December 2017, it was announced that My5 would be replaced by a new channel, 5Prime, with the channel showing critically acclaimed premium content and new commissions such as ''The Secret Life of Owls'' and ''The Yorkshire Vet Casebook''. However, on 3 January 2018 it was confirmed that the launch would not go ahead until at least early spring, with the broadcaster rethinking the new channel's strategy, look and potentially changing the name. The new channel was launched as 5Select on 13 February 2018, with the My5 brand being used for an on-demand service that, by 2019, also included programming from Pluto TV, Together TV, Together and Spark
1997–2002The original Channel 5 logo was a numeric "5" within a circle, sometimes accompanied by "candy stripes" of five colours (an idea based around the colour bars used by vision engineers to monitor picture output). Between 30 March 1997 and 15 September 2002, Channel 5 was the only UK terrestrial channel to display a digital on-screen graphic (DOG) in the top left-hand corner. On some programmes in the channel's early years, commercial breaks were introduced by an "end of part one" sign emerging horizontally from the DOG; when the programme returns after the break, this would become a "part two" sign, which then disappears back into the DOG. On 14 April 1997, Teletext reported that 70% of viewers who took part in a poll were in favour of removing the DOG. Channel 5 refused to remove it though they did state since launch, the DOG had been toned down. Channel 5 explained their reasons for keeping the DOG on screen, in an interview on 30 March 1997, they explained that: On 6 September 1999, Channel 5 launched its new 'celebrity' idents, making the candy stripe more frequently used in idents and graphics, most notably in a hole in the backdrop of the idents. The set of idents were refreshed on 11 September 2000, as well as new idents from 4 March 2002, featuring the logo on coloured backgrounds by going widescreen. These idents were used until a major rebrand on 16 September 2002.
2002–2008In 2002, Channel 5 took the decision to drop the word 'Channel' from its name and refer to the channel as 'five'. A new look launched on 16 September 2002 featuring live action footage with the new logo sliding in from the left of the screen. The new idents would sometimes be accompanied by pieces of chart music, such as Children (composition), Children by Robert Miles. The new look made frequent use of the Helvetica typeface. The informal name "Five" was used in early continuity announcements and idents containing a lower case 'five' had been used on the channel from the launch. On 23 May 2006 a new set of idents was launched, based on four letter words such as Hope, Fast and Love. The idents at first did not feature the logo, but the idents were revised on 2 January 2007 to include the word Five again.
2008–2011On 6 October 2008 at 9pm, Five aired a new look, replacing the lower-case "five" logo with an upper-case "FIVE" in a circle occasionally with pink, turquoise and purple light effects. The rebrand was conducted by DixonBaxi, and according to them, the new look was "more vocal, expressive and creative." The relaunch included a mix of live action and CGI idents; some of these included supermarket trolleys, the Food Chain, Invisible Superheroes and Drawings. The look was refreshed in July 2009, making the logo notably larger. As part of the refresh, special idents were made for popular shows such as ''The Mentalist'', ''Paul Merton in Europe'', ''CSI: Crime Scene Investigation'', ''The Gadget Show'' and ''FlashForward'' with the 2008 set being withdrawn except for the 'news safe' CGI idents. In February 2010, an additional ident was introduced, featuring a CGI aurora forming the logo tilted on its side. This was used at closedown and, sometimes, before news bulletins.
2011–2016After the takeover by Richard Desmond's Northern & Shell, major changes and considerable financial investment were promised by the new owners, alongside a return to the 'Channel 5' moniker. In October 2010, Desmond revealed the station's new look and confirmed its official on-screen identity as "Channel 5" during a press launch. Desmond promoted these changes in his tabloid newspapers, the ''Daily Express'' and ''Daily Star (United Kingdom), Daily Star''. There is also cross-promotion between Northern & Shell's newspaper and magazine titles with their websites promoted on the Channel 5 website. In 2010, afternoon movies on Channel 5 were sponsored by the ''Daily Express''. The new logo for Channel 5 replaced the "FIVE" logo on 14 February 2011. The logo is a "5" in a red circle; the extended version of the logo has the word "CHANNEL" in upper case font to its left. The launch DOG revived the "5" motif, originally as a transparent '5' cutout in a bright grey circle. From 18 February 2011, the DOG was modified to a white semi-transparent '5' on a faint grey circle. The DOG was later returned to the transparent '5' cutout in a bright grey circle. On 5 March 2013, the DOG was moved into the 16:9 Safe area (television), safe area, along with the rest of their channels. A range of new idents for Channel 5 were launched in February 2011 incorporating the "5" motif featuring live action and Computer-generated imagery, CGI elements. They echo the predominantly red colour scheme of the channel's new corporate image, each based in a spacious studio with a large screen as the backdrop for the action. "Drums" features a drummer against a backdrop of animated shapes with the "5" appearing on a screen behind. In "Equaliser", a "5" contained in a cube emerges from a graphic equaliser display. "Imagination" features a battle between a toy dinosaur and robot figure with the "5" logo imposed in neon lights (outlined). "VIP" features a model walking on a red carpet formed from the big screen with the logo formed out of the camera flashes. "Car Chase" features a police car chasing another car which eventually crash 'through' the big screen with the logo being on the side of the police car. A generic ident with the Channel 5 logo pulsating on the studio screen was introduced in April 2012. Several special idents have also been used for ''The Hotel Inspector'', ''The Walking Dead (TV series), The Walking Dead'', ''Impossible?'', ''Big Brother (UK), Big Brother'', ''The Bachelor (UK), The Bachelor'', ''Europa League'', ''The Mentalist'', ''Tamara Ecclestone: Billion $$ Girl'', ''It's All About Amy'', ''How to Take Stunning Pictures'', and ''The Gadget Show, The Gadget Show: World Tour'' also based around the same theme of the studio and screen. Programme preview cards feature the font "Gotham" in upper case. Break bumpers featured the "5" logo in the left-hand corner of the screen with a pattern of circles radiating out from the logo in an alternating red and black colour scheme. This logo was retired from use on 10 February 2016; a virtually identical logo would later be used by American Broadcasting Company, ABC affiliate WEWS-TV beginning in September of that year, albeit in a blue colour.
2016–presentOn 11 February 2016, Channel 5 launched a new logo across all of its properties—a segmented 5 which can be rendered with various designs and animations, alongside a new series of "cinematic" idents, and break bumpers with text messages on them. The new branding was meant to signify a more upmarket and "creative" positioning for the broadcaster; vice-president of marketing Jo Bacon explained that "Our core proposition is Spirited TV, with emotional heart, reflecting the diverse, lively, colourful and creative content that has been the driving force behind our new strategic approach." Critics noted similarities between 5's new logo and that of competitor Channel 4. However, Bacon contrasted Channel 4, explaining that "our content allows millions of normal people access to diverse entertainment with no fuss. We are a playful challenger brand and can appeal to all audiences. The rebrand is a big opportunity to really redefine the DNA of the Channel 5 brand and how it is perceived." 5Star and 5USA also adopted the new logo, while the catch-up service Demand 5 was renamed My5. The idents were replaced on 26 February 2020 with a new set focusing more on the logo on coloured backdrops mainly pink, green, orange, blue, teal and black.
Audience shareBelow are the official audience shares in percent for Channel 5 since its launch in 1997. Data provided by BARB. The channel consistently is the fifth most watched channel in country, usually being beaten by main rivals BBC One, BBC Two, ITV and Channel 4. Audience share rose consistently for the first seven years of broadcast, reaching a peak of 6.6% in 2004. Two years later the audience share had dropped to under 5.0%. In 2012, the audience share rose to 4.5%, the first yearly rise for the channel in audience share since 2009. In July 2013, Channel 5 overtook Channel 4 when taking into account consolidated shares, for the first time. As of September 2013, the channel averages 4.0% of the total audience share.
ProgrammingChannel 5, like all the public service broadcasters, broadcasts a wide variety of programmes. The channel mainly broadcasts entertainment programmes, such as reality television, game shows and imported American dramas. The channel broadcasts some sports events not covered by other broadcasters, but is notable for having been for several years the only terrestrial channel to show cricket, in the shape of highlights of England's summer Test cricket, test matches and One Day International, one-day games. It also broadcasts its own news service, ''5 News'', which is produced by ITN (but was produced between 2005 and 2012 by Sky News). The channel frequently sticks to a regular schedule, which includes the programme Home and Away at 6pm followed by ''5 News'' at 6:30pm. Flagship programmes for the channel include the morning chat show ''Jeremy Vine (TV show), Jeremy Vine'' (which replaced ''The Wright Stuff'' in September 2018), programmes from 3 top US Crime drama franchises (''CSI (franchise), CSI'', ''Law & Order (franchise), Law & Order'' and ''NCIS (franchise), NCIS'') and afternoon Australian soap operas ''Neighbours'' (at 1:45pm) and ''Home and Away'' (at 1:15pm) each weekday. Children's programming begin at 6am every day with ''Milkshake!'' showing children's programmes includes ''Peppa Pig'', ''Thomas and Friends'', ''Fireman Sam'', ''PAW Patrol'', ''Bob the Builder (2015 TV series), Bob the Builder'', ''Ben and Holly's Little Kingdom'', ''Little Princess (TV series), Little Princess'', ''Fifi and the Flowertots'', ''Roary the Racing Car'' and many more. In October 2014 Channel 5 announced it had acquired the broadcast rights to ''NCIS (TV series), NCIS'' and ''CSI (franchise), CSI'' spin-offs, ''NCIS: New Orleans'' and ''CSI: Cyber''.
Most watched programmesThe following is a list of the twelve most watched broadcasts on Channel 5 up to 5 March 2021, based on Live +28 data supplied by BARB.
5 TextFrom 1997 to 2011 Channel 5 operated its own analogue teletext service providing a basic range of programme listings, film summaries and programme previews of Channel 5 content. The service was provided by Sky Text until 2002 when Teletext Ltd. took over as provider of Channel 5 (British TV channel), Channel 5’s teletext service.
See also* List of television stations in the United Kingdom * My5