Nils Daniel Carl Bildt (born 15 July 1949) is a Swedish politician and diplomat who was Prime Minister of Sweden from 1991 to 1994. He was the leader of the Moderate Party from 1986 to 1999. Bildt served as Sweden's Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2014. Since 2021, he has been the
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. The WHO Constitution, which establishes the agency's governing st ...
's Special Envoy for the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT Accelerator). Bildt had been noted internationally as a mediator in the Yugoslav wars, serving as the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ...
's Special Envoy to the Former Yugoslavia from June 1995, co-chairman of the Dayton Peace Conference in November 1995 and High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina from December 1995 to June 1997, immediately after the Bosnian War. From 1999 to 2001, he served as the
United Nations Secretary-General The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or SG) is the chief administrative officer of the United Nations and head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the United Nations System#Six principal organs, six principal organs of the Uni ...
's Special Envoy for the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather ...

Early life and education

Bildt was born on 15 July 1949 in Halmstad,
Halland Halland () is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (''landskap''), on the western coast of Sweden. It borders Västergötland, Småland, Skåne, Scania and the sea of Kattegat. Until 1645 and the Second Treaty of Brömsebro (1645), Second ...
, to an old Danish-Norwegian-Swedish noble family traditionally domiciled in Bohus county. His grandfather's grandfather,
Gillis Bildt
Gillis Bildt
, was a Conservative politician and diplomat, long-time Ambassador to the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people. The term "'" literally d ...
and Prime Minister of Sweden 1888–1889, mainly remembered for his Protectionism, protectionist trade policies. Bildt's father Daniel Bildt (1920–2010) was a former major in the reserves of the now defunct Halland Regiment and a former bureau director in the now defunct Civil Defense Board's Education Bureau. Daniel Bildt married Kerstin Andersson-Alwå in 1947. Carl Bildt's brother, Nils, was born in 1952. Bildt was married to Kerstin Zetterberg from 1974–75; to Mia Bohman (daughter of former Moderate party leader and Minister of Economy, Gösta Bohman) from 1984–97; and, since 1998, to Anna Maria Corazza Bildt, Anna Maria Corazza. Bildt has three children; two from his second marriage and one from his third marriage. Bildt attended Stockholm University.

Early career

In May 1968 Bildt opposed the occupation of the Student Union Building by leftist political forces and co-founded the Borgerliga Studenter – Opposition '68 group which went on to win the Student Union elections in Stockholm for a number of years. He served as chairman of the FMSF Confederation of Swedish Conservative and Liberal Students, a centre-right student organisation, in the early 1970s, and also chaired European Democrat Students, bringing together like-minded centre-right student organisations from across Europe. When the non-socialist formed government in 1976, Bildt served as the head of the Policy Coordinating Office in the Ministry of Economic Affairs and close collaborator to the party leader and Minister of Economy Gösta Bohman. Bildt became a Parliament of Sweden, Member of Parliament in 1979, although he served instead as State Secretary for Policy Coordination in the reformed non-socialist government after that election. As an MP in the early eighties, he became noted as an incisive and combative debater on foreign affairs. He was a member of the Submarine Defence Commission investigating the 1982 Swedish submarine incidents, incursions of foreign submarines in the Stockholm archipelago and naval base areas, and often found himself pitted against prime minister Olof Palme. Bildt was elected leader of the Moderate Party in 1986, succeeding Ulf Adelsohn. In 1991 Swedish general election, 1991, the Social Democrats were defeated by a four-party coalition led by Bildt's Moderate Party.

Prime Minister

On 4 October 1991, Bildt became the first conservative prime minister in Sweden in 61 years, leading a four-party coalition government. The policies of his government aimed at giving Sweden a "new start" in the middle of a rapidly mounting economic crisis caused by a speculation bubble in housing, focusing on privatising and de-regulating the economy in order to improve the conditions for big businesses. Long a champion of European integration and Sweden's participation in this, negotiating membership in the European Union was a priority for the Bildt premiership. The preceding Social Democratic government had, as part of an emergency economic crisis package in the autumn of 1990, done a sudden U-turn, abandoned its previous opposition and in the summer of 1991 submitted a formal application for membership in the EU. Benefiting also from his close links with German Chancellor of Germany, Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Bildt was able to initiate and conclude membership negotiations with the EU in record time, signing the 1995 enlargement of the European Union, Treaty of Accession at the List of European Council meetings, EU summit in Corfu on 23 June 1994. The accession was supported by a 1994 Swedish European Union membership referendum, referendum in November, and Sweden entered the EU as full member on 1 January 1995, thus fulfilling a key part of the platform of the Bildt government. By that time his governing coalition had lost its majority in the 1994 Swedish general election, September 1994 elections, in spite of his Moderate party making slight gains. The economic program of the government was focused primarily on a series of structural reforms aiming at improving competitiveness and improving growth. Economic reforms were enacted, including School voucher, voucher schools, liberalizing markets for telecommunications and energy, privatizing publicly owned companies and health care, contributing to substantially liberalizing the Swedish economy. These reforms were highly controversial at the time, and the government also had to deal with a rapid increase in unemployment as well as public deficits during 1991 and 1992. The period was marked by a severe economic crisis. These problems were reinforced by the economic crisis in other European countries and the crisis within the European Exchange Rate Mechanism in 1992. As a result, Sweden in November 1992 was forced to abandon its policy of a fixed exchange rate and allow the Swedish crown to float freely. As part of the effort to handle the economic crisis, the government was able to conclude an agreement with the Social Democratic opposition on some of its expenditure-cutting measures. By 1994 the economy was registering strong growth, and the deficits were declining, although unemployment was still at levels higher than in 1991. Prior to becoming Prime Minister, Bildt had been severely anti-Soviet union and a strong supporter of the three Baltic nations, and during his period as PM devoted considerable efforts to trying to assist the three now again independent Baltic states in handling their immediate challenges in form of withdrawal of ex-Soviet forces and strategic installations, as well as deciding on sensitive issues of citizenship. In this he worked closely together with the leaders of the three countries as well as with Russia Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev. His government also had to handle a large increase in refugee flows from primarily the war in Bosnia, defending a liberal approach against the anti-immigration New Democracy (Sweden), New Democracy party that had entered parliament in 1991. Bildt was an early champion of the internet and information technologies. He led the first IT Commission in 1994, and in that year also had the first exchange of emails between two heads of government with US President Bill Clinton. The government's effectiveness was sometimes hampered by in-fighting, most memorably over the construction of the Øresund Bridge, which led to the departure of the leader of the Center Party Olof Johansson from the government, paving the way for the government taking the decision to approve the construction of the link. Bildt continued to serve as leader of the Moderate party, and thus of the opposition until 1999, when he was succeeded as party leader by Bo Lundgren.

Balkan conflict

After his term as prime minister, Bildt was active as a mediator in the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather ...
conflict, serving as the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ...
Special Envoy to Former Yugoslavia from June 1995, co-chairman of the Dayton Peace Conference that led to the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Peace Accords in November 1995, and High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina from December 1995 to June 1997 immediately after the Bosnian War. From 1999 to 2001, he served as the United Nations Secretary General's Special Envoy for the Balkans. Kosovo unilaterally 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence, declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008, without the approval of the UN Security Council, and Sweden International recognition of Kosovo, recognised it on 4 March 2008. On 8 March 2008, Carl Bildt became the first foreign minister to officially visit Kosovo after it declared its independence.

Minister for Foreign Affairs

On 6 October 2006, Bildt was appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs (Sweden), Minister of Foreign Affairs in the newly formed cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt. This was seen by many as a surprising move. Not only had Bildt already served both as prime minister and as leader of the Moderate Party, but he and Reinfeldt had previously not got along very well. He retained this post following the 2010 Swedish general election, 2010 general election. During his time in office, Bildt was widely credited with steering efforts to set up the EU’s Eastern Partnership in 2008. When Sweden held the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2009, he chaired the sessions of the EU's General Affairs and External Relations Council. For several years, he was widely seen as a candidate to become the first High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy under the new rules established by the Treaty of Lisbon; instead, the role went to Catherine Ashton. Bildt later supported the 2011 military intervention in Libya. On 29 March, the government approved the deployment of JAS 39 Gripen multirole jet fighters to Libya to enforce the no-fly zone. Following the 2014 European Parliament election, 2014 European elections, the ''Financial Times'' and other news media considered Bildt as a potential candidate to succeed Ashton as High Representative; this time, the position went to Federica Mogherini. Bildt lost his post after the 2014 Swedish general election, 2014 general election, and moved on to become a board member of the International Crisis Group.


Bildt was as foreign minister in 2007 an active supporter for Turkey to join the EU. He called Istanbul a "true center of European history" and called Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Kemal Atatürk "undoubtedly the most significant European revolutionary of the last century" in 2004. Bildt's campaign for Turkey's EU membership was controversial in central Europe. EU membership of Turkey was hindered by its government not recognizing Cyprus, an EU member along with reservations from the president of France, Nicolas Sarkozy. In November 2014 Bildt was criticised for having written an opinion piece in ''Dagens industri'' newspaper where Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was described as being "on the right track" despite the persecution of Kurds and political opponents and jailed journalists in Turkey.

South Ossetian conflict

After the 2008 South Ossetia war, Bildt wrote on his blog that the Russian rationale for its intervention, concern for the welfare of its expatriates in the Near abroad, Near Abroad, had similarities with the rationale for the annexation of Sudetenland. Bildt called South Ossetian independence "a joke", and said it would be supported only by a "miserable" lot of countries.


Throughout his career, Bildt has frequently been reported by his critics to the Constitutional Committee of the Parliament, but in all cases acquitted of the accusations made.

Work in private sector

After leaving his position as leader of the Moderate Party in 1999, other than engaging in international issues, Bildt took positions in the private sector and positions with international think tanks. His positions in think tanks included serving as the first non-US member on the Board of Trustees of the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California, and on the Advisory Board of the Centre for European Reform in London. He was a member of the board of the European Policy Centre in Brussels, the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London, and the International Advisory Board of the Council on Foreign Affairs in New York. Bildt served as non-executive director of the Baltimore-based US assets management company Legg Mason, Inc. He served as chairman of the board of Teleopti and chairman of the public affairs consultancy Kreab AB, and board member of the IT consultancy HiQ AB. He was chairman of Nordic Venture Network, which brought Nordic high-tech VC firms together in an informal network. In 2000, Bildt joined the Lundin Petroleum, Lundin Group's board of directors, a company with oil interests in Ethiopia and Sudan - the seven years with the Lundin Group that followed made Bildt a wealthy man. From March to November 2000, Bildt was part of an independent panel – together with Jean Peyrelevade and Lothar Späth – to advise the European Space Agency's Director General Antonio Rodotà on the organization's future. In 2002, Bildt joined the board of directors of Vostok Nafta, a financial company primarily with holdings in Gazprom. He left his positions on all these boards upon becoming Foreign Minister in October 2006

Bosnian war mediator criticisms

Though decorated for his services in the Bosnian conflict and its immediate aftermath by Great Britain, France, and Germany, his mediation of the conflict and aftermath was castigated as well as celebrated. Bildt opposed any military intervention and criticized the former British prime minister Margaret Thatcher in 1993 for calling NATO to intervene against the Bosnian Serb forces, which led to the ''Sunday Times'' describing Bildt and other EU leaders as "robotic political pygmies" and their acceptance of the ongoing genocide as "shameful". Following Bildt's appointment as the EU special envoy to Yugoslavia, Tom Warrick from the Coalition for International Justice described Bildt as "dangerously misinformed about his own job description" and largely ignorant about the region.. ''The New York Times'' criticized Bildt for a nonchalant attitude towards the Srebrenica massacre when over 8,000 Bosniaks were killed, and described him as being burdened with a reputation for accepting Bosnian Serb claims of good behavior at face value and overlooking evidence of atrocities against civilians.

Middle East

Bildt has been questioned for his role as a member of the International Advisory Council of the Committee for the Liberation of Iraq, a group with ties to the George W. Bush administration, Bush administration pushing for an Iraq War, invasion of Iraq in 2003. On 8 April 2008, during his visit in Israel and Palestinian Authority, Bildt gave an interview to Swedish state radio, where he responded to a question on whether it would be possible to strike a peace deal without the involvement of the Palestinian group Hamas, which remained under international boycott. He responded that the Palestinian Fatah-backed government could deal with Israel, in the same way that it was possible for the Israeli government to make peace with Fatah over the objections of the former Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who, similarly to Hamas opposed a two-state deal. Israeli officials issued very strongly worded condemnations of this, describing it as "horrible and stupid" and an example of "chutzpah" and "complete ignorance of the Middle East", on the grounds that they saw it as comparing Hamas and Netanyahu as equals. In 2012, Bildt said he saw no problem with exporting List of major arms industry corporations by country, Swedish weapons to Saudi Arabia. According to Bildt, "Would the situation in the world be better if they had bought French manufactured ones instead?" Bildt called friendly Saudi Arabia as a "family business" and said that he sees Saudi Prince Turki bin Faisal Al Saud "quite regularly". In 2015, Bildt criticized Sweden's foreign minister Margot Wallström for damaging Saudi-Swedish relations. Wallström tweeted criticism of Saudi Arabia's flogging of Saudi blogger and activist Raif Badawi.

Crisis in Ukraine

Bildt, together with Polish Foreign Minister Radosław Sikorski, is one of the main architects of the Eastern Partnership, Eastern policy of the EU. During the 2014 unrest in Ukraine, Carl Bildt has been criticized in Swedish media for ignoring and downplaying the issues with the Ukrainian Svoboda (political party), Svoboda party. Johan Croneman at ''Dagens Nyheter'' has also condemned Bildt for pushing Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt to rephrase himself after having expressed understanding of the Russians' concerns about the situation. In a public message on Twitter, Bildt compared Viktor Yanukovych to Vidkun Quisling, writing that he was "sitting on foreign soil begging a foreign army to give his country to him". This has been described as "undiplomatic" by Christer Jönsson, professor in Political Science at the Lund University. Norwegian politician Anniken Huitfeldt also criticized Bildt's statement, saying that it showed "ignorance of history" and that it "does not contribute to solving the conflict". Torsten Kälvemark from ''Aftonbladet'' has criticized Bildt's statement as well. "Our Foreign Minister is ignorant, because it was actually Norway's legal head of state, Haakon VII of Norway, Haakon VII, that during the war sat on foreign soil and hoped that he would with help from the British get back his country", he remarked. The culture editorial of the ''Aftonbladet'' newspaper where Torsten Kälvemark works has repeatedly been criticized since for being a tool of Russian propaganda in Sweden. Stefan Hedlund, professor at Uppsala University, stated that "Carl Bildt's threatening rhetoric should in this context be regarded as extremely destructive", in an article about the Ukrainian crisis. Hedlund also suggested that Bildt should take a "time-out", and that progress can only be made through dialogue with Russia. In a radio interview with channel Sveriges Radio, SR P1 on March 15, Bildt stated that he considers the 2014 Crimean referendum, Crimean referendum illegal, and "invalid, no matter which way people vote". He continued his refusal to answer questions about Svoboda, saying that he "won't describe what that party is". His overall comment on the new regime in Kyiv was that it's a "reasonable and democratic government" and that he does not want to "play along with Russian propaganda". In early 2015, a study made at the Swedish Defence Research Agency stated that Bildt had been a target of information warfare and that he was "regularly smeared in Russian state-controlled media". The reason was described to be Bildt's involvement in the Eastern Partnership program and that the project was perceived as a threat by the Russian government. In September 2015 Bildt visited Kyiv, where he argued that the EU should provide more financial support to Ukraine.

Internet activities

Bildt was an early pioneer among politicians of using the Internet for communicating. On 4 February 1994, he sent an email message to US president Bill Clinton, which was the first publicly known electronic message sent between two Head of government, heads of government. In the message he praised Clinton's decision to end the United States–Vietnam trade relations#The normalization process .281975- 2000.29, trade embargo on Vietnam. In the same year, he also started a weekly Electronic mailing list, electronic newsletter which was active until 2005. He is an active blogger, starting his first blog in February 2005. His current blog, started in January 2007, is one of the most widely read political blogs in Sweden. On 30 May 2007, Bildt officially opened a "Swedish embassy" in the virtual world ''Second Life''. The embassy, called "Second House of Sweden", is a virtual replica of House of Sweden, the Swedish embassy building in Washington, D.C.. During Bildt's time as Foreign Minister, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has opened a channel on YouTube which has been active since early 2008. He maintains a personal Twitter feed in English with approximately 660,000 subscribed followers. By 2013, an annual Burson Marsteller survey showed him as the best connected world leader. As of 2014, Bildt has served as Chair of the Global Commission on Internet Governance.

Life after politics

Bildt served as Chair of the Global Commission on Internet Governance that concluded its two-year work and produced its report in June 2016. In 2016, he joined international law firm Covington & Burling, Covington as a Senior Policy Advisor in the firm’s global Public Policy and Government Affairs practice. Bildt also writes monthly columns for international syndication organizatio
Project Syndicate

Non-profit organizations

* Global Leadership Foundation, Member (since 2016) * Historians without Borders, Member of the Coordinating Committee (since 2016) * Berggruen Institute, Member of the Berggruen Network * Club de Madrid, Member * European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR), Co-Chair * Friends of Europe, Member of the Board of Trustees * Globsec, GLOBSEC, Member of the International Advisory Board * International Crisis Group (ICG), Member of the Board of Trustees * International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), Member of the Council * Middle East Investment Initiative (MEII), Member of the Board of Directors * Munich Security Conference (MSC), Member of the Advisory Council * RAND Corporation, Member of the Board of Trustees * Stockholm Resilience Centre (SRC), Member of the International Advisory Board * Trilateral Commission, Deputy Chair of the European Group * Wallenberg Foundations, Senior Adviser * Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies, Member of the Honorary Board * Yalta European Strategy (YES), Member of the Board

Advisor of Ukraine's President and LetterOne group

In mid-May 2015 Bildt was appointed to Ukraine's International Advisory Council on Reforms. The group consisting of several foreign advisors to President Petro Poroshenko, aims to improve security and economy in the country which has been ravaged by armed conflict in its Eastern part. On 14 May 2015, Bildt was also appointed as an advisor to Russian-controlled investment group LetterOne. The Luxembourg-based group, led by Russian oligarch Mikhail Fridman, was founded in 2013 and specialises in the energy and technology sectors. Whereas Bildt is a vocal critic of Russian President Vladimir Putin and the country's involvement in the Ukraine conflict, Fridman seeks distance to Russia's policy by contacts to prominent Western politicians. Fridman, the billionaire chairman of Russia's Alfa Group, said in a statement that Bildt's appointment is part of the company's efforts to build "a team of world-class advisers to contribute to our thinking and growth as an international business,"


On 9 April 2021, the anniversary of the German occupation of Norway, Bildt tweeted that the Swedish defence forces were stronger than Norway and Denmark. His tweet provoked severe backlash, both from the public, and politcians, notably from Norwegian Minister of Culture Abid Raja, saying that he "had hoped our closest neighbour would be more symphatic towards who this day is reflected by Norwegians and Norwegian jews". Bildt stated that his intention was to commemorate the events of the occupation, and that what he tweeted was historically correct. He also added that people have read an assumption between the lines.


*  H. M. The King's Medal,12th size on chain (Sweden). *  Legion of Honour, Commander (France). *  Order of St Michael and St George, Honorary Knight Commander (UK). *  Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Grand Cross (Germany). *  Order of the Oak Crown, Grand Cross (Luxembourg). *  Order of the Phoenix (Greece), Order of the Phoenix, Grand Cross (Greece). *  Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, Order of Merit, Grand Cross (Italy). *  Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland, Order of Merit, Grand Cross (Poland). *  Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas, Order of Grand Duke Gediminas, Grand Cross (Lithuania). *  Order of the Three Stars, Commander Grand Cross (Latvia). *  Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, Grand Cross (Estonia). *  Royal Norwegian Order of Merit, Royal Order of Merit, Grand Cross (Norway). *  Order of the White Rose of Finland, Order of the White Rose, Grand Cross (Finland). *  Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, Second Class (Ukraine). *Bildt has an honorary doctorate from the University of St Andrews. *Bildt is an honorary member of the Institute for Information on the Crimes of Communism, and contributes to its publications. *Knight of Freedom Award (2015)


* * * * Bildt, Carl. (Stockholm 1998) Peace Journey. The Struggle for Peace in Bosnia. (in English) London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson.


External links

Alla Dessa Dagar
Bildt's Swedish-language blog
Bildt's English-language micro blog
official website (inactive)
Bildt Comments
– Bildt's English-language blog (inactive) * .
Sweden navigates complex waters of EU foreign policy
''The Local''
"Assuring Peace and a European Future in Bosnia and Hercegovina, Open Letter to Carl Bildt in the light of the "Dayton-2"-negotiations at Butmir, Bosnia and Hercegovina, by Lord Paddy Ashdown, Wolfgang Petritsch und Christian Schwarz-Schilling, 18. Oktober 2009
, - , - , - , - {{DEFAULTSORT:Bildt, Carl 1949 births Commandeurs of the Légion d'honneur High Representatives for Bosnia and Herzegovina Honorary Knights Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George Leaders of the Moderate Party Living people Members of the Riksdag People from Halmstad Prime Ministers of Sweden Recipients of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, 1st Class Recipients of the Cross of Recognition Swedish anti-communists Swedish bloggers Swedish diplomats Swedish Ministers for Foreign Affairs Swedish nobility Swedish people of Danish descent Swedish people of Norwegian descent Grand Crosses 1st class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Recipients of the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, 2nd class Swedish officials of the European Union Recipients of the Order of the White Star, 1st Class