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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the
University of Cambridge#REDIRECT University of Cambridge#REDIRECT University of Cambridge {{R from other capitalization ...
{{R from other capitalization ...
. Granted
letters patent upLetters patent transferring a predecessor of the Nancy in 1768">Nancy, France">Nancy in 1768 Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a mon ...
by
King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for his six marriages, and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon) annulled. His disag ...
in 1534, it is the oldest
university press200px, The Pitt Building in Cambridge, which used to be the headquarters of Cambridge University Press, and now serves as a conference centre for the Press. A university press is an academic publishing house specializing in monographs and scholarly jo ...
in the world. It is also the
Queen's Printer The Queen's Printer (known as King's Printer during the reign of a male monarch) is typically a bureau of the national, state, or provincial government responsible for producing official documents issued by the Queen-in-Council, ministers of the C ...
. Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational
publisher Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works, such as books, newspapers, and mag ...
. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40
countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign state or part of a larger state, as a non-sovereig ...
, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries. Its publishing includes more than 380
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion ...
s,
monograph A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works) or exhibition on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, often by a single author or artist, and usually on a scholarly subject. In library cataloging, ''monograph' ...
s,
reference work A reference work is a work such as a book or periodical (or its electronic equivalent) to which one can refer for information. The information is intended to be found quickly when needed. Reference works are usually ''referred'' to for particula ...
s,
school and university textbook
school and university textbook
s, and
English language English is a West Germanic language first spoken in early medieval England, which has eventually become the leading language of international discourse in the 21st century. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples tha ...

English language
teaching and learning publications. It also publishes Bibles, runs a bookshop in Cambridge, sells through
Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons, a tribe of woman warriors in Greek mythology * Amazon rainforest, a rainforest covering most of the Amazon basin * Amazon River, in South America * Amazon (company), an American multinational technology company ...
, and has a conference venues business in Cambridge at the Pitt Building and the Sir Geoffrey Cass Sports and Social Centre. Being part of the University of Cambridge gives CUP a non-profit status. CUP transfers a minimum of 30% of any annual surplus back to the University of Cambridge.


History

Cambridge University Press is the oldest university press in the world. It originated from
letters patent upLetters patent transferring a predecessor of the Nancy in 1768">Nancy, France">Nancy in 1768 Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a mon ...
granted to the
University of Cambridge#REDIRECT University of Cambridge#REDIRECT University of Cambridge {{R from other capitalization ...
{{R from other capitalization ...
by
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for his six marriages, and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon) annulled. His disag ...
in 1534. Cambridge is one of the two
privileged pressesIn the United Kingdom, the privileged presses are Cambridge University Press and Oxford University Press. They are called this because, under letters patent issued by the Crown defining their charters, only they have the right to print and publish t ...
(the other being
Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of University of Oxford. It is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is govern ...
). Authors published by Cambridge have included
John Milton John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet and intellectual who served as a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious shifts ...
,
William Harvey William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made influential contributions in anatomy and physiology. He was the first known physician to describe completely, and in detail, the systemic circulation and properti ...
,
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author (described in his time as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the greatest math ...

Isaac Newton
,
Bertrand Russell Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British polymath, philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.Stanford Encyclopedia of ...
, and
Stephen Hawking Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his dea ...
. University
printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabonidus. The ear ...
began in Cambridge when the first practicing University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house in 1584. In July 1697 the
Duke of Somerset Duke of Somerset, from the county of Somerset, is a title that has been created five times in the peerage of England. It is particularly associated with two families: the Beauforts, who held the title from the creation of 1448, and the Seymours, f ...

Duke of Somerset
made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and press" and James Halman,
RegistraryThe Registrary is the senior administrative officer of the University of Cambridge. The term is unique to Cambridge, and uses an archaic spelling. Most universities in the United Kingdom and in North America have administrative offices entitled "regi ...
of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose. The press began using steam-powered machine presses by the 1850s. It was in this period that the Press turned down what later became the
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive res ...
– a proposal for which was brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. In 1975 the Press launched its English language teaching publishing business. In 1981 the Press built a new purpose-built building named The Edinburgh Building with its adjoining warehouse to accommodate the Press's expansion. This site was sold to
Cambridge Assessment Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, the population of the Cambridge built-up area (which is larger than the remit ...
in 2015 for the construction of The Triangle Building. In 1986 the Press acquired the long-established Bible and prayer book publisher Eyre & Spottiswoode, which gave the Press the ancient and unique title of 'The Queen's Printer'. In 1992 the Press opened a bookshop at 1 . It the oldest known bookshop site in Britain. In 2008 the shop expanded into 27 Market Hill where its specialist Education and English Language Teaching shop opened the following year. The Press bookshop showcases Press books as well as selling a wide selection of gifts, including mugs, diaries, bags, postcards, maps, and other Cambridge souvenirs. In 2012 the Press sold its printing operation to MPG Books Group and CUP now uses third parties around the world to provide its print publications.


Relationship with the University of Cambridge

CUP is a non-teaching department of the University of Cambridge. The Press has, since 1698, been governed by the Press 'Syndics' (originally known as the 'Curators'), 18 senior members of the University of Cambridge who, along with other non-executive directors, bring a range of subject and business expertise. The Chair of the Syndicate is currently Professor
Stephen Toope Stephen John Toope (born February 14, 1958) is a Canadian legal scholar, academic administrator and a scholar specializing in human rights, public international law and international relations. In April 2013 he announced he was stepping down as U ...
(Vice-Chancellor of the
University of Cambridge#REDIRECT University of Cambridge#REDIRECT University of Cambridge {{R from other capitalization ...
{{R from other capitalization ...
). The Syndicate has delegated its powers to a Press & Assessment Board; and to an Academic Publishing Committee and an English Language Teaching & Education Publishing Committee. The Press & Assessment Board is responsible for setting overarching strategic direction. The Publishing Committees provide quality assurance and formal approval of the publishing strategy. The operational responsibility of the Press is delegated by the Syndics to the Secretary of the Syndicate and Chief Executive.


Organisational structure

Cambridge University Press comprises three publishing groups and a shared services group. These are:


Academic Publishing

This group publishes research books and journals in science, technology, medicine, humanities, and the social sciences. It also publishes advanced learning materials and reference content as well as 380 journals, of which 43 are ‘Gold’ Open Access. Open Access articles now account for 15 per cent of articles. The group also publishes Bibles, and the Press is one of only two publishers entitled to publish the
Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for recording information in the form of writing or images, typically composed of many pages (made of papyrus, parchment, vellum, or paper) bound together and protected by a cover. The technical term for this physical arrange ...
and the
King James Version of the Bible The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB), sometimes as the English version of 1611, or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, commissioned in 1604 an ...
in England.


English Language Teaching

ELT publishes English language teaching courses and resources for learners of all ages around the world. It offers a suite of integrated learning and assessment tools underpinned by the Cambridge Curriculum, a systematic approach to learning and evaluating proficiency in English. It works closely with Cambridge Assessment through the joint initiative Cambridge Exams Publishing.


Education

The Education group delivers educational products, services and software for primary, secondary and international schools. It collaborates with Cambridge Assessment and the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education to help countries such as Kazakhstan and Oman to improve their education systems. It also works with Cambridge Assessment to reach more schools and develop new products and services that improve teaching and learning.


Shared Services

Shared services functions include Customer Services, Finance, Technology, Operations, HR and Legal.


Partnerships and acquisitions

* In 2011, Cambridge University Press formed a partnership with Cambridge Assessment to publish official Cambridge preparation materials for Cambridge English and IELTS examinations. * In 2015, Cambridge University Press formed a strategic content and technology partnership with Edmodo, the world's most extensive e-learning platform for primary and secondary teachers and pupils, to bring premier educational content and technology to schools in the United Kingdom. * In 2017, the University of Cambridge announced that Cambridge University Press and Cambridge Assessment would work more closely in future under governance by the Press & Assessment Board. * In 2019, Cambridge University Press and Cambridge Assessment English acquired the Centre for Evaluation and Monitoring from Durham. CEM provides assessments to measure learner progress and potential, as well as 11 Plus exams for many UK independent and grammar schools. * In 2020, CUP partnered with EDUCATE Ventures, the University College London edtech accelerator, to better understand the challenges and successes of home education during the lockdown. * In 2020, CUP partnered with online library Perlego to offer students access to digital textbooks. * In October 2020, CUP announced it would create a 'new unified organization' by merging with Cambridge Assessment, to launch 1 August 2021.


Digital developments

In 2011, Cambridge University Press (CUP) adopted
SAP SAP SE () is a German multinational software corporation based in Walldorf, Baden-Württemberg, that develops enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations. The company is especially known for its ERP software. SAP is ...
. In January 2013, the finance and procurement model of SAP was implemented. The sales and distribution model of SAP is now being implemented. Cambridge University Press works closely with IT services firm Tech Mahindra on SAP, and with Cognizant and Wipro on other systems. In 2016, Cambridge Books Online and Cambridge Journals Online were replaced by Cambridge Core which provided significantly enhanced interfaces and upgraded navigation capabilities, as well as article-level and chapter-level content selection. A year after Cambridge Core went live, the Press launched Cambridge Core Share, functionality to allow users to generate and share links with free access to selected journal articles, an early sign of the Press's commitment to open research.


Controversies


Alms for Jihad

In 2007, controversy arose over the Press's decision to destroy all remaining copies of its 2006 book '' Alms for Jihad: Charity and Terrorism in the Islamic World'', by Burr and Collins, as part of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by Saudi billionaire
Khalid bin Mahfouz Khalid bin Mahfouz (December 26, 1949 – August 16, 2009) ( ar, خالد بن محفوظ) was a Saudi Arabian billionaire, banker, businessman, investor and former chairman of the National Commercial Bank (NCB). Khalid is the son of Salem Bin Mahfo ...
. Within hours, ''Alms for Jihad'' became one of the 100 most sought after titles on
Amazon.com Amazon.com, Inc. ( ) is an American multinational technology company based in Seattle, Washington, which focuses on e-commerce, cloud computing, digital streaming, and artificial intelligence. It is one of the Big Five companies in the U.S. inf ...
and
eBay eBay Inc. ( ) is an American multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California, that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website. eBay was founded by Pierre Omidyar in 1995, and became ...
in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...
. The Press sent a letter to libraries asking them to remove copies from circulation. The Press subsequently sent out copies of an "errata" sheet for the book. The
American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world, with more than 57,000 me ...
issued a recommendation to libraries still holding ''Alms for Jihad'': "Given the intense interest in the book, and the desire of readers to learn about the controversy first hand, we recommend that U.S. libraries keep the book available for their users." The publisher's decision did not have the support of the book's authors and was criticized by some who claimed it was incompatible with freedom of speech and with freedom of the press and that it indicated that English libel laws were excessively strict. In a ''
New York Times Book Review ''The New York Times Book Review'' (''NYTBR'') is a weekly paper-magazine supplement to ''The New York Times'' in which current non-fiction and fiction books are reviewed. It is one of the most influential and widely read book review publicati ...
'' (7 October 2007),
United States Congressman The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, with the Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national bicameral legislature of the United States. The House's composition is es ...
Frank R. Wolf described Cambridge's settlement as "basically a book burning". The Press pointed out that, at that time, it had already sold most of its copies of the book. The Press defended its actions, saying it had acted responsibly and that it is a global publisher with a duty to observe the laws of many different countries.


''Cambridge University Press v. Patton''

In this case, originally filed in 2008, final judgment pending, CUP et al. accused
Georgia State University Georgia State University (Georgia State, State, or GSU) is a public research university in Atlanta, Georgia. Founded in 1913, it is one of the University System of Georgia's four research universities. It is also the largest institution of high ...
of infringement of copyright.


''The China Quarterly''

On 18 August 2017, following an "instruction" from a Chinese import agency, Cambridge University Press used the functionality that had been built into Cambridge Core to temporarily delete politically sensitive articles from ''
The China Quarterly ''The China Quarterly'' (CQ) is a British double-blind peer-reviewed academic journal which was established in 1960 and focuses on contemporary China and Taiwan. It is the most important research journal about China in the world and is published by ...
'' on its Chinese website. The articles focused on topics China regards as taboo, including the 1989
Tiananmen massacre The Tiananmen Square protests, known in China as the June Fourth Incident (), were student-led demonstrations held in Tiananmen Square, Beijing during 1989. In what is known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre (), troops armed with assault rifle ...
, Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Chairman Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution, Hong Kong's 2014 Hong Kong protests, fight for democracy and ethnic tensions in Xinjiang and Tibet. On 21 August 2017, in the face of growing international protests, CUP announced it would immediately repost the articles to uphold the principle of academic freedom on which the University's work is founded.


''The Cambridge Handbook of Privatization''

In February 2021, the forthcoming ''Cambridge Handbook of Privatization'' was found to have included a chapter by John Mark Ramseyer in which he described Koreans murdered in the Kantō Massacre as "gangs" that "torched buildings, planted bombs, [and] poisoned water supplies." Editors Avihay Dorfman and Alon Harel acknowledged the historical distortions of the chapter, but gave Ramseyer a chance to revise. Harel described the inclusion of the original chapter as an "innocent and very regrettable" mistake on the part of the editors.


Community work

The Press undertakes substantial community engagement with the local community and around the world where there are Press employees. In 2016, some of the Press's community works included its continued support to Westchester Community College in New York, the installation of hygienic facilities in an Indonesian rural school, raising funds to rehabilitate earthquake-stricken schools in Nepal and guiding students from Coleridge Community College, Cambridge in a CV workshop. On World Book Day 2016, the Press held a digital Shakespeare publishing workshop for students and their teachers. Similarly, their Indian office conducted a workshop for teachers and students in 17 schools in Delhi to learn the whole process of book publishing. The Press donated more than 75,000 books in 2016. Annually, the Press selects their UK Charity of the Year, which has included local charities Centre 33 (2016 and 2017), Rowan Humberstone (2018) and Castle School (2019). An apprenticeship program for people interested in careers in publishing was established in 2016.


Environment

The Press monitors its emissions annually, has converted to energy-saving equipment, minimizes plastic use and ensures that their paper is sourced ethically. In 2019, the World Wildlife Fund awarded its highest score to the Press of Three Trees, based on the Press's timber purchasing policy, performance statement and its responsible sourcing of timber. The Press works hard to minimise the number of books that are sent for pulping each year.


Open access

Cambridge University Press has stated its support for a sustainable transition to open access. It offers a range of open access publishing options under the heading of Cambridge Open, allowing authors to comply with the Gold Open Access and Green Open Access requirements of major research funders. It publishes Gold Open Access journals and books and works with publishing partners such as learned societies to develop Open Access for different communities. It supports Green Open Access (also called Green archiving) across its journals and monographs, allowing authors to deposit content in institutional and subject-specific repositories. It also supports sharing on commercial sharing sites through its Cambridge Core Share service. In recent years it has entered into several Read & Publish Open Access agreements with university libraries and consortia in several countries, including a landmark agreement with the University of California. In its 2019 Annual Report, Cambridge University Press stated that it saw such agreements "as an important stepping stone in the transition to Open Access." In 2019, the Press joined with the
University of Cambridge#REDIRECT University of Cambridge#REDIRECT University of Cambridge {{R from other capitalization ...
{{R from other capitalization ...
's research and teaching departments to give a unified response to Plan S, which calls for all publications resulting from publicly-funded research to be published in compliant open access journals or platforms from 2020. The response emphasized Cambridge's commitment to an open access goal which works effectively for all academic disciplines, is financially sustainable for institutions and high-quality peer review, and which leads to an orderly transition. The Press is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association and the International Association of STM Publishers.


Publications

In 2019, the Press released a new concept in scholarly publishing through Cambridge Elements where authors whose works are either too short to be printed as a book or too long to qualify as a journal article can have them published within 12 weeks.


References


Citations


Sources

* Anonymous; ''The Student's Guide to the University of Cambridge. Third Edition, Revised and Partly Re-written''; Deighton Bell, 1874 (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009; ) * Anonymous; ''War Record of the Cambridge University Press 1914–1919''; Cambridge University Press, 1920; (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009; ) * ''A History of Cambridge University Press, Volume 1: Printing and the Book Trade in Cambridge, 1534–1698''; McKitterick, David; 1992; * ''A History of Cambridge University Press, Volume 2: Scholarship and Commerce, 1698–1872''; McKitterick, David; 1998; * ''A History of Cambridge University Press, Volume 3: New Worlds for Learning, 1873–1972''; McKitterick, David; 1998; * ''A Short History of Cambridge University Press''; Black, Michael; 2000; * ''Cambridge University Press 1584–1984''; Black, Michael, Foreword by Gordon Johnson; 2000; , Hardback


External links


A Brief History of Cambridge University Press
{{coord, 52.1882, 0.1320, type:landmark_region:GB, display=title Cambridge University Press, 1534 establishments in England Institutions of the University of Cambridge, Press Book publishing companies of the United Kingdom University presses of the United Kingdom Companies based in Cambridge Shops in Cambridge Organizations established in the 1530s Publishing companies established in the 16th century