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200px, Prince-Bishop_of_Augsburg_in_Bavaria,_1591–1598,_carrying_a_crosier.html" ;"title="Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg">Prince-Bishop of Augsburg in Bavaria, 1591–1598, carrying a crosier">Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg">Prince-Bishop of Augsburg in Bavaria, 1591–1598, carrying a crosier and wearing a
mitre The mitre (British English) (; Greek: μίτρα, "headband" or "turban") or miter (American English; see spelling differences), is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial headdress of bishops and certain abbots in traditio ...
and pluviale. In the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international ...

Catholic Church
, a
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian, Anglican, Old Catholic a ...
is an Holy Orders, ordained Minister (Catholic Church), minister who holds the fullness of the
sacrament A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance. There are various views on the existence and meaning of such rites. Many Christians consider the sacraments to be a visible symbol of the reality of God, a ...
of Holy orders in the Catholic Church, holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church. Catholics trace the origins of the office of
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian, Anglican, Old Catholic a ...
to the
apostles upright=1.35, Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Chi_Rho">Chi-Rho_symbol_☧,_Catacombs_of_Domitilla,_Rome.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Catacombs of Domitilla">Chi Rho">Chi-Rho symbol ☧, C ...

apostles
, who it is believed were endowed with a special
charism A spiritual gift or charism (plural: charisms or charismata; in Greek singular: χάρισμα ''charism'', plural: χαρίσματα ''charismata'') is a concept in Christianity that refers to an endowment or extraordinary power given by the Hol ...
by the
Holy Spirit In Abrahamic religions, the Holy Spirit is an aspect or agent of God, by means of which God communicates with people or acts on them. In Judaism, it refers to the divine force, quality, and influence of God over the universe or over his creatur ...
at
Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is a moveable feast, which is celebrated on the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday. It commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ while they w ...
. Catholics believe this special charism has been transmitted through an unbroken succession of bishops by the
laying on of hands The laying on of hands is a religious practice. In Judaism ''semikhah'' ( he, סמיכה, "leaning f the hands) accompanies the conferring of a blessing or authority. In Christian churches, this practice is used as both a symbolic and formal method ...

laying on of hands
in the sacrament of holy orders.
Diocesan bishopA diocesan bishop, within various Christian traditions, is a bishop or archbishop in pastoral charge of a diocese or archdiocese. In relation to other bishops, a diocesan bishop may be a suffragan, a metropolitan (if an archbishop) or a primate. Th ...
s—known as
eparch Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word (), authentically Latinized as ''eparchia'', which can be loosely translated as the rule or jurisdiction over something, such as a province, prefecture, or territory. It has specific meanings both in politics, hi ...
s in the
Eastern Catholic Churches The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches and in some historical cases referred to as ''Uniates'', are twenty-three East ...
—are assigned to govern local regions within the Catholic Church known as
diocese In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated i ...
s in the
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint John Late ...
and
eparchies Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word (), authentically Latinized as ''eparchia'', which can be loosely translated as the rule or jurisdiction over something, such as a province, prefecture, or territory. It has specific meanings both in politics, hi ...
in the Eastern Churches. Bishops are collectively known as the
College of Bishops College of Bishops, also known as the Ordo of Bishops, is a term used in the Catholic Church to denote the collection of those bishops who are in communion with the Pope. Under Canon Law, a college is a collection (Latin collegium) of persons united ...
and can hold such additional titles as
archbishop In many Christian Denominations, an archbishop (, via Latin ''archiepiscopus'', from Greek , from -, 'chief', and 'over'+ 'seer') is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Church of England ...
,
cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardinal ...
,
patriarch The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also ''popes'' – such as the Pope of Rome or ...
, or
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state or sovereign of the V ...

pope
. As of 2020 there were approximately 5,600 living bishops total in the Latin and Eastern churches of the Catholic Church. Bishops are always men. In addition, Canon 378 § 1 requires that a candidate for the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language ...
episcopacy should be: #outstanding in solid faith, good morals, piety, zeal for souls, wisdom, prudence, and human virtues, and endowed with other qualities which make him suitable to fulfill the office in question; #of good reputation; #at least thirty-five years old; #ordained to the
presbyterate Presbyterium is a modern term used in the Catholic Church and Eastern Catholic Churches after the Second Vatican Council in reference to a college of priests, in active ministry, of an individual particular church such as a diocese or eparchy. Th ...
for at least five years; #in possession of a
doctorate The cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine">Claude_Bernard.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="thesis presented by Claude Bernard">thesis presented by Claude Bernard to o ...
or at least a licentiate in
sacred scripture Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or discussion of beliefs, mythologies, ritual practices, commandments or laws, ethical conduct, spiritual aspirations, and for crea ...
,
theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities and seminaries. It occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supe ...
, or
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. It is the i ...
from an institute of higher studies approved by the Apostolic See, or at least truly expert in the same disciplines.


Diocesan bishops or eparchs

The traditional role of a bishop is to act as head of a diocese or eparchy. Dioceses vary considerably in geographical size and population. A wide variety of dioceses around the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east ...
which received the Christian faith early are rather compact in size, while those in areas more recently evangelized, as in some parts of
Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically and ethnoculturally, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all African countries and territories that are fully or partially so ...
,
South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It can also be described as a southern subcontinent of the Americas. The ref ...
and the
Far East The Far East is a geographical region that includes East and Southeast Asia as well as the Russian Far East. South Asia is sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons. The term "Far East" came into use in European geopolitical disco ...
, tend to be much larger and more populous. Within his own diocese a Latin Church bishop may use pontifical vestments and regalia, but may not do so in another diocese without, at least, the presumed consent of the appropriate ordinary.


Appointment

:''See:
Appointment of Catholic bishops The appointment of bishops in the Catholic Church is a complicated process. Outgoing bishops, neighbouring bishops, the faithful, the apostolic nuncio, various members of the Roman Curia, and the pope all have a role in the selection. The exact pro ...
''


Resignation at 75

Since the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. The Council, through the Holy See, was formally opened without invoking infallibility under the ponti ...
of 1965 diocesan bishops and their equals "who have become less capable of fulfilling their duties properly because of the increasing burden of age or some other serious reason, are earnestly requested to offer their resignation from office either at their own initiative or upon the invitation of the competent authority." The age of 75 was suggested, and pope
John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 until his death ...
had these provisions incorporated in the
1983 Code of Canon Law The 1983 Code of Canon Law (abbreviated 1983 CIC from its Latin title ''Codex Iuris Canonici''), also called the Johanno-Pauline Code, is the "fundamental body of ecclesiastical laws for the Latin Church". It is the second and current comprehensi ...
. Article 401.1 of the Latin-Rite 1983 Code of Canon Law states that "A diocesan Bishop who has completed his seventy-fifth year of age is requested to offer his resignation from office to the
Supreme Pontiff The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state or sovereign of the V ...
, who, taking all the circumstances into account, will make provision accordingly". A ''
motu proprio In law, ''motu proprio'' (Latin for: "on his own impulse") describes an official act taken without a formal request from another party. Some jurisdictions use the term ''sua sponte'' for the same concept. In Catholic canon law, it refers to a do ...
'' issued by Pope Francis on 15 February 2018 titled '' Imparare a congedarsi'' established the same rule for non-cardinal bishops serving in the
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the pope's name and with his ...
, who had previously lost their positions automatically at 75.


Roles

A "diocesan bishop" is entrusted with the care of a
local Church A church (or local church) is a religious organization or congregation or community that meets in a particular location. Many are formally organized, with constitutions and by-laws, maintain offices, are served by clergy or lay leaders, and, in ...
(
diocese In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated i ...
). He is responsible for teaching, governing, and sanctifying the faithful of his diocese, sharing these duties with the priests and deacons who serve under him. To "teach, sanctify and govern" means that he must (1) oversee preaching of the Gospel and Catholic education in all its forms; (2) oversee and provide for the administration of the sacraments; and (3) legislate, administer and act as judge for canon-law matters within his diocese. He serves as the "chief
shepherd A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep. ''Shepherd'' derives from Old English ''sceaphierde (''sceap'' 'sheep' + ''hierde'' 'herder'). ''Shepherding is one of the world's oldest occupations, a ...
" (spiritual leader) of the diocese and has responsibility for the pastoral care of all Catholics living within his ecclesiastical and
ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious community. Rit ...
jurisdiction. He is obliged to celebrate
Mass Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (rate of change of velocity with respect to time) when a net force is applied. An object's mass also determines the strength of its gravitational attra ...
every Sunday and
Holy Day of Obligation#REDIRECT Holy day of obligation {{R from other capitalisation ...
with the intention of praying for those in his care, assign clergy to their posts in various institutions and oversee finances. A bishop is to have a special concern for priests, listening to them, using them as counsellors, ensuring that they are adequately provided for in every way, and defending their rights set forth in the ''Code of Canon Law''. Latin Catholic bishops also must make regular '' ad limina'' visits to the Holy See every five years. Because of their function as teachers of the faith, it is customary in some English-speaking countries, to add to the names of bishops the postnominal title of "D.D." (
Doctor of Divinity Aquatint of a Doctor of Divinity at the University of Oxford, in the scarlet and black academic robes corresponding to his position. (The doctor appears here in his convocation habit, rather than his full ceremonial dress.) Doctor of Divinity ( ...
) and to refer to them with the title "Doctor". Only a bishop has authority to confer the
sacrament A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance. There are various views on the existence and meaning of such rites. Many Christians consider the sacraments to be a visible symbol of the reality of God, a ...
of holy orders. In the Latin Church the
minor orders Minor orders are ranks of church ministry lower than major orders. In the Catholic Church, the predominating Latin Church traditionally distinguished between the major holy orders of priest (including both bishop and simple priest), deacon and subd ...
were abolished after the Second Vatican Council. In Eastern Catholic Churches, a monastic
archimandrite The title archimandrite ( gr, ἀρχιμανδρίτης, archimandritēs), primarily used in the Eastern Orthodox and the Eastern Catholic churches, originally referred to a superior abbot (''hegumenos'', gr, ἡγούμενος, present participl ...

archimandrite
may
tonsure Tonsure () is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp as a sign of religious devotion or humility. The term originates from the Latin word ' (meaning "clipping" or "shearing") and referred to a specific practice in m ...
and institute his subjects to minor orders; however, the tonsure and minor orders are not considered to be part of the sacrament of holy orders. The sacrament of
Confirmation A woodcut depicting the confirmation of Lutheran youth In Christian denominations that practice infant baptism, confirmation is seen as the sealing of the covenant created in baptism. It is an affirmation of commitment and belief. Those being co ...
is normally administered by a bishop in the Latin Church, but a bishop may delegate the administration to a priest. In the case of receiving an adult into full communion with the Catholic Church the presiding priest will administer Confirmation. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, Confirmation (called
Chrismation Chrismation consists of the sacrament or mystery in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches, as well as in the Assyrian Church of the East initiation rites. The sacrament is more commonly known in the West as confirma ...
) is normally administered by priests as it is given at the same time as
baptism Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. It may be performed by sprinkling or pouring water on the head, or by imme ...

baptism
. It is only within the power of the diocesan bishop or eparch to bless churches and
altar An altar is a structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes. Altars are found at shrines, temples, churches and other places of worship. They are used particularly in Paganism, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, ...
s, although he may delegate another bishop, or even a priest, to perform the ceremony. On
Holy Thursday Maundy Thursday or Holy Thursday (also known as Great and Holy Thursday, Holy and Great Thursday, Covenant Thursday, Sheer Thursday, and Thursday of Mysteries, among other names) is the day during Holy Week that commemorates the Washing of the F ...
Latin Catholic bishops preside over the
Mass of the Chrism The Chrism Mass is a religious service held in Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Anglicanism. The Chrism Mass is one of the most solemn and important liturgies of the Church year. Holy Thursday is the usual day in which this mass is celebrated i ...
. Though Oil of the Sick for the sacrament of
Anointing of the Sick Anointing of the sick, known also by other names, is a form of religious anointing or "unction" (an older term with the same meaning) for the benefit of a sick person. It is practiced by many Christian churches and denominations. Anointing of the ...
is blessed at this Mass, it may also be blessed by any priest in case of necessity. Only a bishop may consecrate Chrism. In the Eastern Catholic Churches chrism is consecrated solely by heads of churches ''
sui juris ''Sui iuris'', also spelled as ''sui juris'' ( or ), is a Latin phrase that literally means "of one's own right". It is used in both civil law and canon law by the Catholic Church. The term church ''sui iuris'' is used in the Catholic Code of Can ...
'' (patriarchs and metropolitans) and diocesan bishops may not do so. Only a bishop or other ordinary may grant ''
imprimatur An ''imprimatur'' (sometimes abbreviated as ''impr.'', from Latin, "let it be printed") is a declaration authorizing publication of a book. The term is also applied loosely to any mark of approval or endorsement. The imprimatur rule in the Ro ...
s'' for theological books, certifying that they are free from doctrinal or moral error; this is an expression of the teaching authority, and education responsibility of the bishop. Prior to the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. The Council, through the Holy See, was formally opened without invoking infallibility under the ponti ...
, it was also the prerogative of the bishop to consecrate the
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and
chalice A chalice (from Latin ''calix'', mug, borrowed from Greek ''κύλιξ'' (kulix), cup) or goblet is a footed cup intended to hold a drink. In religious practice, a chalice is often used for drinking during a ceremony or may carry a certain symbo ...
that would be used during the Mass. One of the changes implemented since the council, is that a simple blessing is now said and it may be given by any priest.


Canonical authority

In both Western and Eastern Catholic churches, any priest can celebrate the
Mass Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (rate of change of velocity with respect to time) when a net force is applied. An object's mass also determines the strength of its gravitational attra ...
or
Divine Liturgy Icon of Ss. Basil the Great (left) and John Chrysostom">Basil_the_Great.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Icon of Ss. Basil the Great">Icon of Ss. Basil the Great (left) and John Chrysostom, ascribed authors of ...
. In order to offer Mass or Divine Liturgy publicly, however, a priest is required to have permission from the local Ordinary—authority for this permission may be given to pastors of parishes for a limited period, but for long-term permission recourse to the diocesan bishop is usually required. A celebret may be issued to travelling priests so that they can demonstrate to pastors and bishops outside of their own diocese that they are in good standing. However, even if a priest does not possess such a document, he may celebrate the sacraments if the local bishop or pastor judges that the visiting priest is a person of good character. In the East an
antimension 300px, Oradea-Mare (Transylvania">radea.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Romanian Antimins from Oradea">Oradea-Mare (Transylvania), 1890. The Antimins (from the Greek language, Greek , ''Antimension'': "instead ...
signed by the bishop is kept on the altar partly as a reminder of whose altar it is and under whose
omophorion from the 14th century depicting St. Gregory the Illuminator of Armenia wearing a white ''omophorion''. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition, the ''omophorion'' ( grc-gre, ὠμοφόριον, me ...
the priest at a local parish is serving. For priests to validly celebrate the sacrament of
Penance Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession. It also plays a part in confession among Anglicans and Methodists, in which ...
they must have faculties (permission and authority) from the local bishop; however when the penitent is in danger of death, a priest has both the right and obligation to hear the confession no matter where he may be. To preside at matrimony ceremonies, Latin Church priests and deacons must have appropriate jurisdiction or delegation from a competent authority. In the Latin branch of the Catholic Church, the teaching is that it is the couple themselves who administer the graces of the sacrament; thus, although it is normally an ordained person who officiates at a marriage ceremony, a bishop may delegate a lay person to be present for the exchange of vows; this would be done only in extreme cases such as in mission territories. In the Eastern tradition, the clergy not only witness the exchange of vows but must impart a blessing for a valid marriage to have taken place. Unless a particular bishop has forbidden it, any bishop may preach throughout the Catholic Church and any priest or deacon may also preach anywhere (presuming the permission of local pastor) unless his faculty to preach has been restricted or removed. The
cathedral A cathedral is a church that contains the ''cathedra'' () of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are usually specific to those Christian denominations ...

cathedral
of a diocese contains a special chair, called a ''
cathedra in the apse of St. John Lateran, the cathedral of Rome in Los Angeles A ''cathedra'' is the podium, raised throne of a bishop in the early Christian basilica. When used with this meaning, it may also be called the bishop's throne. With time, t ...
'', sometimes referred to as a
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, set aside in the sanctuary for the exclusive use of its Ordinary; it symbolizes his spiritual and ecclesiastical authority.


Additional titles, status and roles

Bishops may fill additional roles in the Catholic Church, including the following:


Bishop-elect

A bishop who has been appointed, but has not yet been consecrated. (Consecration is the ceremony formally elevating the bishop-elect to his new rank.)


Titular bishop

A
titular bishop A titular bishop in various churches is a bishop who is not in charge of a diocese. By definition, a bishop is an "overseer" of a community of the faithful, so when a priest is ordained a bishop, the tradition of the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and O ...
(or titular archbishop) is a bishop who is not bishop of a diocese; unless (since 1970) he is coadjutor or emeritus, he is assigned to a
titular see A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese". The ordinary or hierarch of such a see may be styled a "titular metropolitan" (highest rank), "titular archbishop ...
, which is usually the name of a city or area that used to be the seat of a diocese, but whose episcopal see (diocese) is no longer functioning as such. Titular bishops often serve as
auxiliary bishop#REDIRECT Auxiliary bishop#REDIRECT Auxiliary bishop {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
s, as officials in the
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the pope's name and with his ...
, in the Patriarchal Curias of Eastern Churches, as papal diplomatic envoys (notably
apostolic nuncio An apostolic nuncio (also known as a papal nuncio or simply as a nuncio) is an ecclesiastical diplomat, serving as an envoy or a permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or to an international organization. A nuncio is appo ...
s or
apostolic delegate An apostolic nuncio (also known as a papal nuncio or simply as a nuncio) is an ecclesiastical diplomat, serving as an envoy or a permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or to an international organization. A nuncio is appo ...
s), or head certain missionary pre-diocesan jurisdictions (notably as
apostolic vicar Apostolic may refer to: The Apostles An Apostle meaning one sent on a mission: *The Twelve Apostles of Jesus, or something related to them, such as the Church of the Holy Apostles *Apostolic succession, the doctrine connecting the Christian Churc ...
, which as of 2019 no longer gets a titular see). Since 1970, a coadjutor bishop (or archbishop) uses the title of the see he is assigned to, and a bishop (or archbishop) emeritus uses the title of his last residential see.


Suffragan bishop

A
suffragan bishopIn the Anglican Communion, a suffragan bishop is a bishop who is subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop (bishop ordinary) and so is not normally jurisdictional in their role. Suffragan bishops may be charged by a metropolitan to over ...
leads a diocese within an
ecclesiastical province#REDIRECT Ecclesiastical province#REDIRECT Ecclesiastical province {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
other than the principal diocese, the
metropolitan archdioceseA metropolis religious jurisdiction, or a metropolitan archdiocese, is an episcopal see whose bishop is the metropolitan bishop of an ecclesiastical province. Metropolises, historically, have been important cities in their provinces. Eastern Orthodo ...
.


Auxiliary bishop

An
auxiliary bishop#REDIRECT Auxiliary bishop#REDIRECT Auxiliary bishop {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
is a full-time assistant to a diocesan bishop. Auxiliaries are titular bishops without the right of succession, who assist the diocesan bishop in a variety of ways and are usually appointed as vicars general or episcopal vicars of the diocese in which they serve.


Coadjutor bishop

A
coadjutor bishop#REDIRECT Coadjutor bishop#REDIRECT Coadjutor bishop {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
is a bishop who is given almost equal authority to that of the diocesan bishop; he has special faculties and the right to succeed the incumbent diocesan bishop. The appointment of coadjutors is seen as a means of providing for continuity of church leadership. Until recent times, there was the possibility of a coadjutor bishop not having the right of succession.


Bishop-prelate

A bishop who is consecrated as such, but holds an office that as such does not require episcopal rank (so the incumbent will not be made a titular bishop), just that of
Prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries. The word derives from the Latin , the past participle of , which means 'carry before', 'be set above or over' or 'prefer'; hence, ...
, notably as
Territorial prelate A territorial prelate is, in Catholic usage, a prelate whose geographic jurisdiction, called territorial prelature, does not belong to any diocese and is considered a particular church. The territorial prelate is sometimes called a prelate ''null ...
.


Emeritus bishop

When a diocesan bishop or auxiliary bishop retires, he is given the honorary title of "
emeritus ''Emeritus'' (; female: ''Emerita''), in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired chair, professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, prime minister, rabbi, emperor, or other person who has been "permitted to retain ...
" of the last see he served, i.e., archbishop emeritus, bishop emeritus, or auxiliary bishop emeritus of the see. "Emeritus" is not used for a titular see, but could be used for a bishop who has transferred to a non-diocesan appointment without actually being retired. Examples: Archbishop (or Bishop) Emeritus of Place". Traditionally, bishops appointed ordinaries or auxiliaries served for life. When the rare resignation occurred, the bishop was assigned a titular see. The status of "emeritus" emerged after the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. The Council, through the Holy See, was formally opened without invoking infallibility under the ponti ...
when bishops were at first encouraged and then required to submit their resignations at the age of 75. On 31 October 1970,
Pope Paul VI Pope Paul VI ( la, Paulus VI; it, Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, ; 26 September 18976 August 1978) was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978. Su ...
decreed that "diocesan bishops of the Latin rite who resign are no longer transferred to a titular church, but instead continue to be identified by the name of the see they have resigned."


Cardinal

A
cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardinal ...
is a member of the clergy appointed by the Pope to serve in the
College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, formerly styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church. its current membership is 225. Cardinals are appointed by the pope for life. Changes in life expectancy partly acco ...
. Members of the College aged under 80 elect a new pope, who is in practice always one of their number, on the death or resignation of the incumbent. Cardinals also serve as papal advisors and hold positions of authority within the structure of the Catholic Church. Under canon law, a man appointed a cardinal must normally be a bishop, or accept consecration as a bishop, but may seek papal permission to decline. Most cardinals are already bishops when appointed, the majority being archbishops of important archdioceses or patriarchates, others already serving as titular bishops in the Roman Curia. Recent popes have appointed a few priests, most of them renowned theologians, to the College of Cardinals, and these have been permitted to decline episcopal consecration. Examples include Karl Becker in 2012 and
Ernest Simoni
Ernest Simoni
in 2016.


Titles and functions reserved for archbishops


Pope

The
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state or sovereign of the V ...

pope
is the Bishop of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The territo ...
. The Catholic Church holds that the College of Bishops as a group is the successor of the College of Apostles. The Church also holds that uniquely among the
apostles upright=1.35, Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Chi_Rho">Chi-Rho_symbol_☧,_Catacombs_of_Domitilla,_Rome.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Catacombs of Domitilla">Chi Rho">Chi-Rho symbol ☧, C ...

apostles
Saint Peter Saint Peter; he, שמעון בר יונה, Šimʿōn bar Yōnāh; ar, سِمعَان بُطرُس, translit=Simʿa̅n Buṭrus; grc-gre, Πέτρος, Petros; cop, Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ, Petros; lat, Petrus; ar, شمعون الصفـا, Sham'un al-Safa, ...
, the first Bishop of Rome, was granted a role of leadership and authority, giving the pope the right to govern the Church together with the bishops. Hence, the Church holds that the Bishop of Rome, as successor of Peter, possesses the role, uniquely among bishops, of speaking for the whole Church, appointing other bishops, and managing the Church's central administration, the
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the pope's name and with his ...
. Papal pronouncements which meet the requirements of the decree on
papal infallibility Papal infallibility is a dogma of the Catholic Church which states that, in virtue of the promise of Jesus to Peter, the pope when appealing to his highest authority is preserved from the possibility of error on doctrine "initially given to the a ...
of the
First Vatican Council The First Vatican Council ( la, Concilium Vaticanum Primum) was convoked by Pope Pius IX on 29 June 1868, after a period of planning and preparation that began on 6 December 1864. This, the twentieth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, held ...
are infallible.


Pope emeritus

On his resignation as pope (Bishop of Rome), Benedict XVI became '' His Holiness Benedict XVI, Supreme Pontiff Emeritus'' or ''Pope Emeritus''.


Patriarch and Catholicos

CatholicosCatholicos, plural Catholicoi, is a title used for the head of certain churches in some Eastern Christian traditions. The title implies autocephaly and in some cases it is the title of the head of an autonomous church. The word comes from ancient Gre ...
is an Eastern title roughly similar to that of patriarch. In the Catholic Church it is applied to a prelate who is also a major archbishop.


Major archbishop

Major archbishop In the Eastern Catholic Churches, major archbishop is a title for the chief hierarch of an autonomous (''sui juris'') particular Church that has not been "endowed with the patriarchal title". Major archbishops generally have the same rights, privi ...
s are the heads of some of the
Eastern Catholic Churches The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches and in some historical cases referred to as ''Uniates'', are twenty-three East ...
. The major archbishops' authority within their respective ''sui juris'' churches is equal to that of a patriarch, but they receive fewer ceremonial honours.


Primate

In the Catholic,
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; they are also called ''E ...
, and some other churches a
primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal constituting the taxonomic order Primates (). Primates arose 85–55 million years ago first from small terrestrial mammals, which adapted to living in the trees ...
is usually the bishop of the oldest diocese and/or the capital of a (present or former)
nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more overtly political than an ethnic group; it has been described as "a fully ...
; the title is one of honor.


Metropolitan archbishop

A
metropolitan bishop , Ruthenian-Ukrainian metropolitan, noble, and cultural figure Image:Metropolitan of Moscow Makariy Nevskiy.jpg, upMacarius II, _translit_=_mitropolit). In_Christianity.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Russian Orthod ...
is an archbishop with minor jurisdiction over an
ecclesiastical province#REDIRECT Ecclesiastical province#REDIRECT Ecclesiastical province {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
; in practice this amounts to presiding at meetings and overseeing a diocese which has no bishop. In Eastern Catholicism a metropolitan may also be the head of an
autocephalous Autocephaly (; from el, αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. The term is primarily used in Eastern Ort ...
, ''
sui juris ''Sui iuris'', also spelled as ''sui juris'' ( or ), is a Latin phrase that literally means "of one's own right". It is used in both civil law and canon law by the Catholic Church. The term church ''sui iuris'' is used in the Catholic Code of Can ...
'', or
autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republic of Karelia. In developmental psychology and morality, moral, pol ...
church when the number of adherents of that tradition is small. In the Latin Church, metropolitans are always archbishops; in many Eastern churches, the title is "Metropolitan," with some of these churches using "archbishop" as a separate office.


Public office

Since the publication of the new Code of Canon Law in 1983 by
Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 until his death ...

Pope John Paul II
, all members of the Catholic clergy are forbidden to hold public office without the express permission of the
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome with universal ecclesiastical jur ...
.


Consecration of bishops and eparchs

The appointment of bishops in the Catholic Church is a complicated process that requires the participation of several officials. In the Latin Church, the local synod, the papal nuncio (or apostolic delegate), various
dicasteries A dicastery (from gr, δικαστήριον, dikastērion, law-court, from δικαστής, 'judge, juror') is a department of the Roman Curia, the administration of the Holy See through which the pope directs the Roman Catholic Church. The most r ...
of the Roman Curia, and the Pope all take a part; since the 1970s it has become common practice for the nuncio to solicit input from clergy and laity within the vacant diocese. In patriarchal and major archiepiscopal Eastern Churches, the permanent synod, the holy synod, and the patriarch or major archbishop also play a role in the selection of bishops.


Apostolic succession and other churches

The Catholic Church has always taught that bishops are descended from a continuous line of bishops since the days of the
apostles upright=1.35, Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Chi_Rho">Chi-Rho_symbol_☧,_Catacombs_of_Domitilla,_Rome.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Catacombs of Domitilla">Chi Rho">Chi-Rho symbol ☧, C ...

apostles
, which is known as
apostolic succession Deodatus; Claude Bassot (1580-1630).">Deodatus of Nevers">Deodatus; Claude Bassot (1580-1630). Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which ...
. Since 1896, when
Pope Leo XIII Pope Leo XIII ( it, Leone XIII; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was the head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death in 1903. He was the oldest pope (reigning until the age of 93), ...
issued the bull ''
Apostolicae curae ''Apostolicae curae'' is the title of a papal bull, issued in 1896 by Pope Leo XIII, declaring all Anglican ordinations to be "absolutely null and utterly void". The Anglican Church made no official reply, but the archbishops of Canterbury and of ...
'', the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international ...

Catholic Church
has not recognised
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; they are also called ''E ...
orders as valid, because of changes in the ordination rites that took place in the 16th century as well as divergence in the understanding of the theology of episcopacy and Eucharist. However, this view has since been complicated because
Old Catholic The term Old Catholic Church is used from the 1850s by communions which had separated from the Roman Catholic Church over certain doctrines, primarily concerned with papal authority; some of these groups, especially in the Netherlands, had alr ...
bishops, whose orders are fully recognised as valid by Rome, have acted as co-consecrators in Anglican episcopal consecrations. According to the church historian Timothy Dufort, by 1969 all
Church of England#REDIRECT Church of England#REDIRECT Church of England {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
bishops had acquired Old Catholic lines of
apostolic succession Deodatus; Claude Bassot (1580-1630).">Deodatus of Nevers">Deodatus; Claude Bassot (1580-1630). Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which ...
fully recognised by the Holy See. The Catholic Church does recognize, as
valid but illicit Validity and liceity are concepts in the Catholic Church. Liceity designates an action which has been performed legitimately; an action which has not been performed legitimately is considered "illicit". Validity designates an action which produces ...
, ordinations done by breakaway Catholic groups such as the
Old Catholic Church The term Old Catholic Church is used from the 1850s by communions which had separated from the Roman Catholic Church over certain doctrines, primarily concerned with papal authority; some of these groups, especially in the Netherlands, had alr ...
of the Utrecht Union and the
Polish National Catholic Church The Polish National Catholic Church (PNCC) is a Christian church based in the United States and founded by Polish-Americans. The PNCC is not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church due to differing theologically in several respects. A sister c ...
, so long as those receiving the ordination are baptized males and a valid rite of episcopal consecration—expressing the proper functions and sacramental status of a bishop—is used. The Holy See also recognises as valid the ordinations of the
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops ...
,
Old Catholic The term Old Catholic Church is used from the 1850s by communions which had separated from the Roman Catholic Church over certain doctrines, primarily concerned with papal authority; some of these groups, especially in the Netherlands, had alr ...
,
Oriental Orthodox The Oriental Orthodox Churches are a group of Eastern Christian churches adhering to Miaphysite Christology, with a total of approximately 60 million members worldwide. The Oriental Orthodox Churches are broadly part of the trinitarian Nic ...
and Assyrian Nestorian churches. Regarding the Churches of the East, the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. The Council, through the Holy See, was formally opened without invoking infallibility under the ponti ...
stated: However, the Holy See does not recognise as valid the orders of any group whose teaching is at variance with core tenets of Christianity even though it may use the proper ritual. The recent practice of Independent Catholic groups to ordain women has added a definite cloudiness to the recognition of the validity of orders, as the act of ordaining women as priests or bishops is incompatible with Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. The practice by some independent clergy of receiving multiple ordinations also demonstrates an understanding of Holy Orders which is at variance with Catholicism and Orthodoxy, both of which hold that a person is either ordained or not.


Dress and vestments


Latin Church

The everyday dress of Latin Church bishops may consist of a black (or, in tropical countries, white)
cassock The cassock or soutane is a Christian clerical clothing coat used by the clergy of the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, in addition to certain Protestant denominations such as Anglicans and Lutherans. "Ankle-length garment" is the ...
with amaranth trim and purple
fascia A fascia (; plural fasciae ; adjective fascial; from Latin: "band") is a band or sheet of connective tissue, primarily collagen, beneath the skin that attaches, stabilizes, encloses, and separates muscles and other internal organs. Fascia is clas ...
, along with a
pectoral cross or subalpine regions, late 6th century–7th century A pectoral cross or pectorale (from the Latin ''pectoralis'', "of the chest") is a cross that is worn on the chest, usually suspended from the neck by a cord or chain. In ancient and medieval ...
and
episcopal ring An ecclesiastical ring is a finger ring worn by clergy, such as a bishop's ring. As pontifical accoutrements Episcopal rings for bishops and archbishops, (Musée national du Moyen Âge, hôtel de Cluny, Paris">hôtel_de_Cluny.html" style="text- ...
. The 1969 Instruction on the dress of prelates stated that the dress for ordinary use may instead be a simple cassock without coloured trim. Since 1969, a black suit and clerical shirt, already customary in English-speaking countries, has become very common also in countries where previously it was unknown. A Latin Church bishop's
choir dress in choir dress: cassock, rochet, mozzetta, and pectoral cross on chain. Choir dress is the traditional vesture of the clerics, seminarians and religious of Christian churches worn for public prayer and the administration of the sacraments exc ...
, which is worn when attending but not celebrating liturgical functions, consists of the purple
cassock The cassock or soutane is a Christian clerical clothing coat used by the clergy of the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, in addition to certain Protestant denominations such as Anglicans and Lutherans. "Ankle-length garment" is the ...
with amaranth trim,
rochet A rochet () is a white vestment generally worn by a Roman Catholic or Anglican bishop in choir dress. It is unknown in the Eastern churches. The rochet in its Roman form is similar to a surplice, except that the sleeves are narrower. In its Angl ...
, purple
zuchetto with a scarlet zucchetto The zucchetto (, also ,"zucchetto"
(US) and
, ...
, purple
biretta The biretta ( la, biretum, birretum) is a square cap with three or four peaks or horns, sometimes surmounted by a tuft. Traditionally the three-peaked biretta is worn by Roman Catholic clergy and some Anglican and Lutheran clergy. A four-peaked ...
with a tuft, and
pectoral cross or subalpine regions, late 6th century–7th century A pectoral cross or pectorale (from the Latin ''pectoralis'', "of the chest") is a cross that is worn on the chest, usually suspended from the neck by a cord or chain. In ancient and medieval ...
. The cappa magna may be worn, but only within the bishop's own diocese and on especially solemn occasions. The
mitre The mitre (British English) (; Greek: μίτρα, "headband" or "turban") or miter (American English; see spelling differences), is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial headdress of bishops and certain abbots in traditio ...
,
zuchetto with a scarlet zucchetto The zucchetto (, also ,"zucchetto"
(US) and
, ...
, and stole are generally worn by bishops when presiding over liturgical functions. For liturgical functions other than the
Mass Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (rate of change of velocity with respect to time) when a net force is applied. An object's mass also determines the strength of its gravitational attra ...
the bishop typically wears the
cope , Ghent, 15th century. Note the shield-shaped "hood". The cope (known in Latin as ''pluviale'' 'rain coat' or ''cappa'' 'cape') is a liturgical vestment, more precisely a long mantle or cloak, open in front and fastened at the breast with a band ...
. Within his own
diocese In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated i ...
and when celebrating solemnly elsewhere with the consent of the local
ordinary Ordinary or The Ordinary often refer to: Music * ''Ordinary'' (EP) (2015), by South Korean group Beast * ''Ordinary'' (Every Little Thing album) (2011) * "Ordinary" (Two Door Cinema Club song) (2016) * "Ordinary" (Wayne Brady song) (2008) * "Ordi ...
, he also uses the
crosier A crosier (also known as a crozier, paterissa, pastoral staff, or bishop's staff) is a stylized staff that is a symbol of the governing office of a bishop or Apostle and is carried by high-ranking prelates of Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic ...
. When celebrating
Mass Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (rate of change of velocity with respect to time) when a net force is applied. An object's mass also determines the strength of its gravitational attra ...
, a bishop, like a
priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular ...
, wears the
chasuble The chasuble () is the outermost liturgical vestment worn by clergy for the celebration of the Eucharist in Western-tradition Christian churches that use full vestments, primarily in Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches. In the Eastern O ...
. The
Caeremoniale EpiscoporumThe Cæremoniale Episcoporum (Ceremonial of Bishops) is a book that describes the church services to be performed by bishops of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church. Pope Clement VIII published on 14 July 1600 the first book to bear this name ...
recommends, but does not impose, that in solemn celebrations a bishop should also wear a
dalmatic ) The dalmatic is a long, wide-sleeved tunic, which serves as a liturgical vestment in the Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican, United Methodist, and some other churches. When used, it is the proper vestment of a deacon at Mass, Holy Communion or other se ...

dalmatic
, which can always be white, beneath the chasuble, especially when administering the sacrament of
holy orders#REDIRECT Holy orders#REDIRECT Holy orders {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, blessing an abbot or abbess, and dedicating a church or an altar.''Caeremoniale Episcoporum'', 56 The Caeremoniale Episcoporum no longer makes mention of pontifical gloves, pontifical sandals,
liturgical stockings Episcopal sandals, also known as the pontifical sandals, are a Roman Catholic pontifical vestment worn by bishops when celebrating liturgical functions according to the pre–Vatican II rubrics, for example a Tridentine Solemn Pontifical Mass. In s ...
(also known as
buskins Buskins A buskin is a knee- or calf-length boot made of leather or cloth, enclosed by material, and laced, from above the toes to the top of the boot, and open across the toes. A high-heeled version was worn by Athenian tragic actors (to make the ...
), the maniple, or the accoutrements that it once prescribed for the bishop's horse.


Eastern Catholic

The everyday dress of Eastern Catholic bishops is often the same as their Latin Church counterparts: black clerical suit with pectoral cross or
panagia Panagia (Greek: Παναγία, fem. of panágios, pan- + hágios, the ''All-Holy'', or the ''Most Holy''; pronounced ) (also transliterated Panaghia or Panajia), in Medieval and Modern Greek, is one of the titles of Mary, mother of Jesus, used e ...
. When attending liturgical functions at which he does not celebrate, an Eastern Catholic bishop usually wears a mantya, panagia and an
engolpion An encolpion (also engolpion, enkolpion; Greek: ἐγκόλπιον, ''enkólpion'', "on the chest"; plural: ἐγκόλπια, ''enkólpia'') is a medallion with an icon in the center worn around the neck by Orthodox and Eastern Catholic bishops. T ...
if he is a
patriarch The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also ''popes'' – such as the Pope of Rome or ...
or
metropolitan bishop , Ruthenian-Ukrainian metropolitan, noble, and cultural figure Image:Metropolitan of Moscow Makariy Nevskiy.jpg, upMacarius II, _translit_=_mitropolit). In_Christianity.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Russian Orthod ...
. He will also carry a pastoral staff in the form of a walking stick topped by a pommel. Eastern Catholic bishops do not normally use an episcopal ring. When participating in the
Divine Liturgy Icon of Ss. Basil the Great (left) and John Chrysostom">Basil_the_Great.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Icon of Ss. Basil the Great">Icon of Ss. Basil the Great (left) and John Chrysostom, ascribed authors of ...
, an Eastern Catholic bishop will wear the
sakkos of Gregory the Illuminator wearing the earlier ''polystavrion'' (14th century fresco, Mistras). , Athens, Greece). bishop wearing a ''sakkos''. What appears to be a collar is a separate vestment, called the ''omophorion'' (Prešov, Slovakia). The ...
(Imperial
dalmatic ) The dalmatic is a long, wide-sleeved tunic, which serves as a liturgical vestment in the Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican, United Methodist, and some other churches. When used, it is the proper vestment of a deacon at Mass, Holy Communion or other se ...

dalmatic
),
omophorion from the 14th century depicting St. Gregory the Illuminator of Armenia wearing a white ''omophorion''. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition, the ''omophorion'' ( grc-gre, ὠμοφόριον, me ...
,
epigonation Fresco of St Gregory the Illuminator wearing a gold epigonation (the half-visible rhombus">Gregory the Illuminator">Fresco of St Gregory the Illuminator wearing a gold epigonation (the half-visible rhombus behind the Omophorion) embroider ...
and Eastern-style mitre. The most typical mitre in the Eastern Catholic churches is based on the closed Imperial crown of the late Byzantine Empire. It is made in the shape of a bulbous crown, completely enclosed, and the material is of brocade, damask or cloth of gold. It may be embroidered, and richly decorated with jewels. There are normally four icons attached to the mitre: (Christ, the Theotokos, John the Baptist and the Cross. Eastern mitres are usually gold, but other liturgical colours may be used. The mitre is often topped by a cross, either made out of metal and standing upright, or embroidered in cloth and lying flat on the top. He will also carry a
crosier A crosier (also known as a crozier, paterissa, pastoral staff, or bishop's staff) is a stylized staff that is a symbol of the governing office of a bishop or Apostle and is carried by high-ranking prelates of Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic ...
of the Eastern style.


See also

* Catholic Church hierarchy * Historical list of the Catholic bishops of the United States * Apostolic administrator, List of Catholic apostolic administrations * Apostolic prefect, List of Catholic apostolic prefectures * Apostolic Vicariate, List of Catholic apostolic vicariates * List of Catholic archdioceses * List of Catholic dioceses (alphabetical) * List of Catholic dioceses (structured view) * Military ordinariate, List of Catholic military dioceses * Mission sui iuris, List of Catholic missions ''sui juris'' * Exarch#Modern Eastern Catholic churches, List of Eastern Catholic exarchates * List of the Catholic bishops of the United States * List of the Catholic dioceses of the United States * Lists of patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops


References


External links


List of Catholic bishops worldwide
{{Authority control Episcopacy in the Catholic Church,