Multiracial people (or mixed-race people) are people of many races
. Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds, including ''multiracial'', ''biracial'', ''multiethnic'', ''polyethnic'', ''Métis
'' and ''Guran
Individuals of multiracial backgrounds make up a significant portion of the population in many parts of the world. In North America
, studies have found that the multiracial population is continuing to grow. In many countries of Latin America
, mestizos make up the majority of the population. In the Caribbean, multiracial people officially make up the majority of the population in the Dominican Republic (73%) and Cuba (51%).
While defining race is controversial
, ''race'' remains a commonly used term for categorization. Insofar as race is defined differently in different cultures, perceptions of multiraciality will naturally be subjective.
According to U.S. sociologist Troy Duster
and ethicist Pilar Ossorio:
In the United States:
In the English-speaking world
, many terms for people of various multiracial backgrounds exist, some of which are pejorative or are no longer used. ''Mulato
'' and ''mestizo
'' are used in Spanish
'', ''cafuzo'', ''ainoko'' (from Japanese
) and ''mestiço
'' in Portuguese and ''mulâtre'' and ''métis
'' in French
for people of multiracial descent. These terms are also in certain contexts used in the English-speaking world. In Canada
, the Métis
are a recognized ethnic group of mixed European and First Nation
descent, who have status in the law similar to that of First Nations.
Terms such as ''mulatto'' for people of partially African descent and ''mestizo'' for people of partially Native American descent are still used by English-speaking people of the Western Hemisphere but mostly to refer to the past or to the demography of Latin America
and its diasporic population. ''Half-breed
'' is a historic term that referred to people of partial Native American ancestry; it is now considered pejorative and discouraged from use. ''Mestee'', once widely used, is now used mostly for members of historically mixed-race groups, such as Louisiana Creoles, Melungeon
, Brass Ankles
. In South Africa and much of English-speaking southern Africa, the term ''Coloured'' was used to describe a mixed-race person and also Asians not of African descent. While the term is socially accepted, it is becoming outdated because of its association with the apartheid
In Latin America, where mixtures became triracial after the introduction of African slavery, a panoply of terms developed during the colonial period, including terms such as ''zambo
'' for persons of Amerindian and African descent. Charts and diagrams intended to explain the classifications were common. The well-known ''Casta
'' paintings in Mexico and, to some extent, Peru, were illustrations of the different classifications.
At one time, Latin American census categories have used such classifications, but in Brazilian censuses since the Imperial times
, for example, most persons of multiracial heritage, except the Asian Brazilian
s of some European descent
(or any other to the extent it is not clearly perceptible) and vice versa, tend to be thrown into the single category of "pardo
", but race lines in Brazil
do not denote ancestry but phenotype, and as such a westernized Amerindian of copper-colored
skin is also a "pardo", a ''caboclo'' in this case, despite being not multiracial, but a European-looking person with one or more African or Indigenous American ancestor is not a "pardo" but a "branco", a white Brazilian
. The same applies to "negros" or Afro-Brazilian
s and European or Amerindian ancestors. Most Brazilians of all racial groups (except Asian-Brazilians and natives) are, to some extent, mixed-race, according to genetic research.
In English, the terms ''miscegenation
'' and ''amalgamation'' were used for unions between whites, blacks, and other ethnic groups. Those terms are now often considered offensive and are becoming obsolete. The terms ''mixed-race'', ''biracial'' or ''multiracial'' are becoming generally accepted. In other languages, translations of miscegenation did not become politically incorrect
Regions with significant multiracial populations
In East Africa
, specifically Uganda
(including portions of the East African Community
), people of mixed raced are called Half-caste
s (in English) or chotara (singular, in Swahili
), wachotara (plural in Swahili).
In North Africa, a large number of multiracial communities can also be found. Among these are the Haratin
oasis-dwellers of Saharan southern Morocco
, Algeria and Mauritania
. They are believed to be a mixture of Sub-Saharan African
s and Berbers
, and constitute a socially and ethnically distinct group.
[Bridget Anderson, ''World Directory of Minorities'' (Minority Rights Group International: 1997), p. 435.]
slave traders sold slaves in cumulatively large numbers over the centuries throughout the Persian Gulf
, Central Asia
and the Arab world
and communities descended from these slaves can be found throughout these regions.
According to a recent genetic study in 2019, North African populations have been found to be the result of admixture of extensive gene ﬂow coming from four different geographical (North Africa itself (Iberomaurusian
), Europe, West Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa) and temporal sources (Palaeolithic migrations, Neolithization, Arabization, and recent migrations).
Almost the entire population of Madagascar is an about equal admixture of South East Asian (Indonesian) primarily from Borneo
and Bantu-speaking settlers primarily from Mozambique
[On the Origins and Admixture of Malagasy: New Evidence from High-Resolution Analyses of Paternal and Maternal Lineages](_blank)
"The present population, known by the general term “Malagasy,” is considered an admixed population as it shows a combination of morphological and cultural traits typical of Bantu and Austronesian speakers ... r results confirmed that admixture in Malagasy was due to the encounter of people surfing the extreme edges of two of the broadest historical waves of language expansion: the Austronesian and Bantu expansions. In fact, all Madagascaran living groups show a mixture of uniparental lineages typical of present African and South East Asian populations with only a minor contribution of Y lineages with different origins."
Years of intermarriages created the Malagasy people
, who primarily speak Malagasy
, an Austronesian
language with Bantu
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In [[South Africa]], the [[Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949|Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act]] of 1949 prohibited marriage between Whites (people of European descent) and non-Whites (being classified as Black, Asian and Colored). It was repealed in 1985.
Multiracial South Africans are commonly referred to as ''Coloured
s''. According to the 2016 South African Census, they are the second largest ethnic group (8.8%) ahead of white South Africans
(8.1%) and behind Black Africans
Today, many Central Asian populations are an amalgamation of various peoples such as Mongols, Turkics, and Iranians. The Mongol invasion of Central Asia in 13th century resulted in the massacre of the population of Iranians and other Indo-European peoples
as well as a large degree of intermarriage and assimilation. Genetic studies shows that Central Asian Turkic people and Hazara are a mixture of Northeast Asians and Indo-European people. Caucasian ancestry is prevalent in almost all central Asian Turkic people. Kazakhs, Hazara, Karakalpaks, Crimean Tatars have more European mtdna than European y-dna. Kyrgyz have mostly European y-dna with substantial European mtdna. Other Turkic people like Uyghurs and Uzbeks have mostly European y-dna but also a significantly higher percentage of European mtdna. Turkmen have predominantly European y-dna and mtdna.
s are a Eurasian mix which originated in India
during the Colonial period beginning with the French, Dutch, Portuguese and other Europeans who came along with them, continuing during the British Raj
in India. The estimated population of Anglo-Indians is 600,000 worldwide with the majority living in India and the UK.
Article 366(2) of the Indian Constitution
defines Anglo-Indian as:
(2) an Anglo-Indian means a person whose father or any of whose other male progenitors in the male line is or was of European descent but who is domiciled within the territory of India and is or was born within such territory of parents habitually resident therein and not established there for temporary purposes only;
are an assimilation of Indo-Aryan, Eurasian and Luso-Asians ancestries, with many being descendants of the Portuguese, who had a considerable influence on Goa for over 450 years. Many Goans have a considerable amount of Portuguese in them, and tracing back family trees often proves that their family began with Portuguese people who lived many hundreds of years ago. Many Goans today identify their nationality as Portuguese-Goan as they have much Portuguese ancestry and Portuguese surnames.
(formerly Burma) was a British colony, from 1826 until 1948. Many European groups vied for control of the country before the British arrived. Intermarriage and mixed-relationships between these settlers and merchants with the local Burmese population and subsequently between British colonists and the Burmese created a local Eurasian population, known as the Anglo-Burmese
. This group dominated colonial society and through the early years of independence. Most Anglo-Burmese
now reside primarily in Australia
, New Zealand
and the UK
since Burma received her independence in 1948, with an estimated 52,000 left behind in Burma.
was a Spanish colony
for almost four centuries or 333 years, and by the United States for 46 years. This is the cause of many mixed race Filipinos of Spanish Filipino
and Philippine-American descent.
After the defeat of Spain during the Spanish–American War
in 1898, the Philippines and other remaining Spanish colonies
were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Paris
. The Philippines was under U.S. sovereignty
until 1946, though occupied by Japan during World War II. In 1946, in the Treaty of Manila
, the U.S. Recognized the Republic of the Philippines as an independent nation. Even after 1946, the U.S. maintained a heavy military presence in the Philippines, with as many as 21 U.S. military bases and 100,000 U.S. military personnel stationed there. The bases closed in 1992, leaving behind thousands of Amerasian
Pearl S. Buck International foundation estimates there are 52,000 Amerasians scattered throughout the Philippines with 5,000 in the Clark area of Angeles
. although an academic research paper presented in the U.S. (in 2012) by an Angeles, Pampanga, Philippines Amerasian college research study unit suggests that the number could be a lot more.
In the United States, intermarriage among Filipinos with other races is common. They have the largest number of interracial marriage
s among Asian immigrant groups, as documented in California. It is also noted that 21.8% of Philippine-Americans are of mixed lineage.
Singapore and Malaysia
According to government statistics, the population of Singapore
as of September 2007 was 4.68 million, of whom multiracial people, including Chindians
, formed 2.4%.
In Singapore and Malaysia
, the majority of inter-ethnic marriages are between Chinese
. The offspring of such marriages are informally known as "Chindian
", though the Malaysian government only classifies them by their father's ethnicity. As the majority of these intermarriages usually involve an Indian groom and Chinese bride, the majority of Chindians in Malaysia are usually classified as "Indian
" by the Malaysian government. As for the Malays
, who are predominantly Muslim
, legal restrictions in Malaysia make it uncommon for them to intermarry with either the Indians, who are predominantly Hindu
, or the Chinese, who are predominantly Buddhist
. It is, however, common for Muslims and Arabs in Singapore
and Malaysia to take local Malay wives, due to a common Islam
people, in Singapore and the Malacca
state of Malaysia, are Tamils
with considerable Malay descent. This was due to the first Tamil settlers taking local wives, since they did not bring along any of their own women with them.
In the East Malaysian states of Sabah
, there have been many incidents of intermarriage between Chinese
and native tribes such as the Murut
in Sabah and the Iban
in Sarawak. This phenomenon has resulted in a potpourri of cultures in both states where many people claiming to be of native descent have some Chinese blood in them, and many Chinese have native blood in them. The offspring of these mixed marriages are called "Sino-(name of tribe)", e.g. Sino-Dusun. Normally, if the father is Chinese, the offspring will adopt Chinese culture and if the father is native then native culture will be adopted, but this is not always the case. These Sino-natives are usually fluent in Malay
. A smaller number are able to speak Chinese dialects and Mandarin
, especially those who have received education in vernacular Chinese schools.
Due to its strategic location in the Indian Ocean, the island of Sri Lanka
has been a confluence for settlers from various parts of the world, which has resulted in the formation of several mixed-race ethnicities in the Island. The most notable mixed-race group are the Sri Lankan Moors
, who trace their ancestry from Arab traders who settled on the island and intermarried with local women. Today, The Sri Lankan Moors live primarily in urban communities, preserving their Arab-Islamic cultural heritage while adopting many Southern Asian customs.
are a Eurasian ethnic group, consisting for the most part of male-line descendants of European colonists from the 16th to 20th centuries (mostly Portuguese, Dutch, German and British) and local women, with some minorities of Swedish, Norwegian, French and Irish.
The Sri Lanka Kaffirs
are an ethnic group partially descended from 16th-century Portuguese traders and the African slaves who were brought by them. The Kaffirs spoke a distinctive creole based on Portuguese, the Sri Lanka Kaffir language, now extinct. Their cultural heritage includes the dance styles Kaffringna and Manja, as well as the Portuguese Sinhalese, Creole, Afro-Sinhalese varieties.
During the 1662 Siege of Fort Zeelandia
in which Chinese Ming
loyalist forces commanded by Koxinga
besieged and defeated the Dutch East India Company
and conquered Taiwan, the Chinese took Dutch women and child prisoners. The Dutch missionary Antonius Hambroek
, two of his daughters, and his wife were among the Dutch prisoners of war with Koxinga
. Koxinga sent Hambroek to Fort Zeelandia demanding Hambroek persuade them to surrender or else he would be killed when he returned. Hambroek returned to the Fort where two of his other daughters were. He urged the Fort not to surrender, and returned to Koxinga's camp. He was then executed by decapitation. In addition to this, a rumor was spreading among the Chinese that the Dutch were encouraging native Taiwan aboriginals to kill the Chinese, so Koxinga ordered the mass execution of Dutch male prisoners in retaliation, in addition to a few women and children also being killed. The surviving Dutch women and children were then turned into slaves. Koxinga took Hambroek's teenage daughter as a concubine, and Dutch women were sold to Chinese soldiers to become their wives. The daily journal of the Dutch fort recorded that "the best were preserved for the use of the commanders, and then sold to the common soldiers. Happy was she that fell to the lot of an unmarried man, being thereby freed from vexations by the Chinese women, who are very jealous of their husbands." In 1684 some of these Dutch wives were still captives of the Chinese.
Some Dutch physical traits like auburn and red hair among people in regions of south Taiwan are a consequence of this episode of Dutch women becoming concubines to the Chinese commanders. The Chinese took Dutch women as slave concubines and wives who were never freed: in 1684 some were reported to be living. In Quemoy a Dutch merchant was contacted with an arrangement to release the prisoners, proposed by a son of Koxinga's, but it came to nothing. The Chinese officers used the Dutch women they received as concubines. The Dutch women were used for sexual pleasure by Koxinga's commanders. This event of Dutch women being distributed to the Chinese soldiers and commanders was recorded in the daily journal of the fort.
A teenage daughter of the Dutch missionary Anthonius Hambroek became a concubine to Koxinga. She was described by the Dutch commander Caeuw as "a very sweet and pleasing maiden".
Dutch language accounts record this incident of Chinese taking Dutch women as concubines and the date of Hambroek's daughter.
Under terms of the Geneva Accords of 1954
, departing French troops took thousands of Vietnamese wives and children with them after the First Indochina War
. Some 100,000 Eurasians stayed in Vietnam, after independence from French rule.
slave traders sold slaves in cumulatively large numbers over the centuries throughout the Persian Gulf
, Central Asia
and the Arab world
and communities descended from these slaves can be found throughout these regions.
In 1991 an analysis of the census showed that 50% of Black/Mixed Caribbean men born in the UK have white partners, and the 2011 BBC documentary ''Mixed Britannia'' noted that 1 in 10 British children are growing up in interracial households.
In 2000, ''The Sunday Times
'' reported that "Britain has the highest rate of interracial relationships in the world" and certainly the UK has the highest rate in the European Union
. The 2001 census showed the population of England to be 1.4% mixed-race, compared with 2.7% in Canada and 1.4% in the U.S. estimates of 1.4% in 2002, although this U.S. figure did not include mixed-race people who had a black parent. Both the US and UK have fewer people identifying as mixed race, however, than Canada.
In the United Kingdom, many multiracial people have Caribbean
heritage. For example, supermodel Naomi Campbell
, who has Jamaican
n roots. Some, like 2008 Formula One
World Champion, Lewis Hamilton
, are referred to or describe themselves as 'mixed
The 2001 UK Census
included a section entitled 'Mixed' to which 1.4% (1.6% by 2005 estimates) of people responded, which was split further into ''White and Black Caribbean, White and Asian, White and Black African'' and ''Other Mixed''. In the 2011 census, 2.2% chose 'Mixed' for the question on ethnicity.
thumb|left|Canada Census Multiple Visible Minority 1996 - 2016
Multiracial Canadians in 2006 officially totaled 1.5% of the population, up from 1.2% in 2001. The official mixed race population grew by 25% since the previous census. Of these, the most frequent combinations were ''multiple visible minorities'' (for example, people of mixed black and South Asian heritage form the majority, specifically in Toronto
), followed closely by ''white-black'', ''white-Chinese'', ''white-Arab'' and many other smaller mixes.
During the time of slavery in the United States
, a very large but unknown number of African American slaves escaped to Canada, where slavery
was made illegal in 1834, via the Underground Railroad
. Many of these people married in with European Canadian and Native Canadian populations, although their precise numbers and the numbers of their descendants, are not known.
Another 1.2% of Canadians officially are Métis
(descendants of a historical population who were partially Aboriginal
—also called "Indian" or "Native"—and European
, particularly English
ethnic groups). Although listed as a single "race" in Canada, the Métis are therefore multiracial. In particular the Métis population may be far higher than the official numbers state, due to earlier racism causing people to historically hide their mixed heritage. This however is changing, although many Canadians may now be unaware of their mixed race heritage, especially those of Métis descent.
In the United States
, the 2000 census was the first in the history of the country to offer respondents the option of identifying themselves as belonging to more than one race. This multiracial option was considered a necessary adaptation to the demographic and cultural changes that the United States has been experiencing.
officially numbered 6.1 million in 2006, or 2.0% of the population.
There is considerable evidence that an accurate number would be much higher. Prior to the mid-20th century, many people hid their multiracial heritage. The development of binary thinking
about race meant that African Americans, a high proportion of whom have also had European ancestry, were classified as black. Some are now reclaiming additional ancestries. Many Americans today are multi-racial without knowing it. According to the Census Bureau, as of 2002, over 75% of all African American
s had multiracial ancestries usually Native American.
In 2010, the number of Americans who checked both "black" and "white" on their census forms was 134 percent higher than it had been a decade earlier. In 2012, those choosing 'Two or more races' on the census was 2.4% of the total.
According to James P. Allen
and Eugene Turner, by some calculations in the 2000 Census, the multiracial population that is part white is as follows:
*White/Native American and Alaskan Native
*White/African American: 737,492
*White/Asian: 727,197 and
*White/Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander: 125,628.
The stigma of a mixed race heritage, associated with racial discrimination among numerous racial groups, has decreased significantly in the United States. People of mixed-race heritage can identify themselves now in the U.S. Census by any combination of races, whereas before Americans were required to select from only one category. For example, in 2010, they were offered choices of one or more racial categories from the following list:
*Black, African Am. or Negro
*American Indian or Alaska Native
*Guamanian or Chamorro
*Other Asian pecify
*Other Pacific Islander pecify
*Some Other Race pecify
Many mixed raced Americans use the term ''biracial''. The US has a growing multiracial identity movement, reflective of a desire by people to claim their full identities. Interracial marriage
, most notably between whites and blacks, was historically deemed immoral and illegal in most states in the 18th, 19th and first half of the 20th century because of its long association of blacks with the slave caste. California
and the Western United States
had similar laws to prohibit European-Asian marriages, which was associated with discrimination against Chinese and Japanese on the West Coast. Many states eventually repealed such laws and a 1967 decision by the US Supreme Court (''Loving v. Virginia
'') overturned all remaining US anti-miscegenation laws
The United States is one of the most racially diverse countries in the world. Americans are mostly multi-ethnic descendants of various immigrant nationalities culturally distinct in their former countries. Assimilation
took place, unevenly at different periods of history, depending on the American region. The "Americanization" of foreign ethnic groups and the inter-racial diversity of millions of Americans has been a fundamental part of its history, especially on frontiers where different groups of people came together.
On January 20, 2009, Barack Obama
was sworn in as America's first multiracial president,
as he is the son of a European American
mother and a Luo
father from Kenya. He acknowledges both parents. His official White House
biography describes him as African American
. In Hawai'i, the U.S. state in which he was born, he would be called "hapa
", which is the Hawaiian
word for "mixed ethnic heritage".
has long been a multi-ethnic country, with a vast majority of people having multi-racial heritages even if they do not self-identify in that manner. The indigenous Fijians are of mixed Melanesian and Polynesian ancestry, resulting from years of migration of islanders from various places mixing with each other. Fiji Islanders from the Lau group have intermarried with Tonga
ns and other Polynesians over the years. The overwhelming majority of the rest of the indigenous Fijians, though, can be genetically traced to having mixed Polynesian/Melanesian ancestry.
The Indo-Fijian population is also a hodge-podge of South Asian immigrants (called Girmits in Fiji), who came as indentured labourers beginning in 1879. While a few of these labourers managed to bring wives, many of them either took or were given wives once they arrived in Fiji. The Girmits, who are classified as simply "Indians" to this day, came from many parts of the Indian subcontinent of present-day India
and to a lesser degree Bangladesh
. It is easy to recognize the Indian mixtures present in Fiji and see obvious traces of Southern and Northern Indians and other groups who have been categorised together. To some degree, even more of this phenomenon would have likely happened if the religious groups represented (primarily Hindu, Muslim and Sikh
) had not resisted to some degree marriage between religious groups, which tended to be from more similar parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Over the years, particularly in the sugar cane
-growing regions of Western Viti Levu
and parts of Vanua Levu
, Indo-Fijians and Indigenous Fijians have mixed. Others have Chinese/Fijian ancestry, Indo-Fijian/Samoa
n or Rotuman ancestry and European/Fijian ancestry (often called "part Fijians"). The latter are often descendants of shipwrecked sailors and settlers who came during the colonial period. Migration from a dozen or more different Pacific countries (Tuvalu
, Solomon Islands
, Samoa and Wallis and Futuna
being the most prevalent) have added to the various ethnicities and intermarriages.
Latin America and the Caribbean
is the common word used to describe multiracial people in Latin America
, especially people with Native American
or other European ancestry. Mestizos make up a large portion of Latin Americans, comprising a majority in many countries.
In Latin America, racial mixture was officially acknowledged from colonial times. There was official nomenclature for every conceivable mixture present in the various countries. Initially, this classification was used as a type of caste
system, where rights and privileges were accorded depending on one's official racial classification. Official caste distinctions were abolished in many countries of the Spanish
as they became independent of Spain. Several terms have remained in common usage.
Race and racial mixture have played a significant role in the politics of many Latin American countries. In most countries, for example Mexico
, Dominican Republic
, a majority of the population can be described as biracial or multiracial (depending on the country). In Mexico
, over 80% of the population is mestizo
in some degree or another.
[[Silva-Zolezzi I., Hidalgo-Miranda A., Estrada-Gil J., Fernandez-Lopez J.C., Uribe-Figueroa L., Contreras A., Balam-Ortiz E., del Bosque-Plata L., Velazquez Fernandez D., Lara C., Goya R., Hernandez-Lemus E., Davila C., Barrientos E., March S., Jimenez-Sanchez G. Analysis of genomic diversity in Mexican Mestizo populations to develop genomic medicine in Mexico. ''Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A''. 2009 May 26;106(21):8611-6.]]
The Mexican philosopher and educator [[José Vasconcelos]] authored an essay on the subject, ''[[La Raza Cósmica]]'', celebrating racial mixture. [[Venezuela]]n ex-president [[Hugo Chávez]], himself of Spanish, indigenous and African ancestry, made positive references to the mixed race ancestry of most Latin Americans from time to time.
Colonialism throughout the West Indies
has created diverse populations on many islands, including people of multiracial identities. Of note is the mixture of West African communities
, most brought to the region as slaves and East Indian
settlers most of whom came as indentured labor after the abolition of slavery. Trinidad and Tobago
claim the highest populations of such mixtures, known locally as ''dougla
s''. In addition to such mixtures, many inhabitants of the West Indies can also have any combination of Amerindian
According to the 2010 official census, 43,13% of Brazilians
identified themselves as pardo
That option is normally marked by people that consider themselves multiracial
(''mestiço''). The Mixed Race Day
or Mestizo Day (Dia do Mestiço), on 27 June, is official event in States of Amazonas, Roraima e Paraíba and a holyday in two cities. The term ''pardo'' is formally used in the official census but is not used by the population. In Brazilian society, most people who are multiracial call themselves ''moreno'': light-''moreno'' or dark-''moreno''. Those terms are not considered offensive and focus more on skin color than on ethnicity (it is considered more like other human characteristics such as being short or tall).
The most common multiracial groups are between European and African (''mulatto
'') and Amerindian and European (''caboclo
'' or ''mameluco''). But there are also African and Amerindian (''cafuzo'') and East Asian (mostly Japanese) and European/other (''ainoko'' or more recently, ''hāfu
''). All groups are more or less found throughout the whole country. Brazilian multiracials with the following three origins, Amerindian, European and African, make up the majority. It is said today that 89% or even more of the "Pardo" population in Brazil has at least one Amerindian ancestor (most of ''brancos'' or White Brazilian population have some Amerindian or African ancestry too despite nearly half of the country's population self-labeling as "Caucasian" in the censuses. In Brazil, it is very common for multiracial people to claim that they have no Amerindian ancestry, but studies have found that if a Brazilian multiracial can trace their ancestry back to nearly eight to nine generations, they will have at least one Amerindian ancestor from their maternal side of the family.
Since multiracial relations in Brazilian society have occurred for many generations, some people find it difficult to trace their own ethnic ancestry. Today a majority of mixed-race Brazilians do not really know their ethnic ancestry. Their unique features make them Brazilian-looking in skin color, lips and nose shape or hair texture, but they are aware only that their ancestors were probably Portuguese, African or Amerindian. Also, there was a very large number of other Europeans (counted in the millions) who contributed to the Brazilian racial make up, Japanese (the largest Japanese population outside Japan), Italian (the largest Italian population outside Italy) Lebanese (the largest population of Lebanese outside Lebanon), Germans, Poles and Russians. There is also a high percentage of Brazilians of Jewish descent, perhaps hundreds of thousands, mostly found in the northeast of the country who cannot be sure of their ancestry as they descend from the so-called "Crypto-Jews" (Jews who practiced Judaism in secret but outwardly pretended to be Catholics), also called Marranos or New Christians, often considered Portuguese. According to some sources, one third of families arrived from Portugal during colonization were of Jewish origin.
There is a high level of integration between all groups but also a great social and economic difference between European descendants (more common in upper and middle classes) and African, Amerindian and multiracial descendants (more common tin lower classes), which is called Brazilian apartheid
* Amalgamation (history)
* Interracial marriage
* Melting pot
* Mixed Race Day
* Race (human classification)
* Race and genetics
* Multiethnic society
* One-drop rule
* Origins of Tutsi and Hutu
* Passing (racial identity)
* Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact hypotheses
* Race and society
* Race traitor
* William Loren Katz
a film by Youmanity
celebrating interracial marriages
The Multiracial Activist
an online activist publication registered with the Library of Congress, focused on multiracial individuals and interracial families since 1997
an organization leading the movement for a multiracial classification
Association of MultiEthnic Americans, Inc.
Blended People of America
US-based nonprofit organization representing the interests of the mixed-race community
Brazilian Multiracial Movement
Brazilian mixed-race organization
The Hafu Project
a study of half-Japanese people, London-, Munich-, Tokyo-based nonprofit organisation
an organization advocating for mixed-heritage people and families
Mixed Race UK
, UK-based nonprofit organization representing the interests of the mixed-race community
a UK-based organisation for mixed-race families
People in Harmony UKSwirl
US-based mixed community
Category:Race (human categorization)