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Art Nouveau (; ) is an international
style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashion, a prevailing mode of clothing s ...
of art, architecture, and
applied art The applied arts are all the arts that apply design and decoration to everyday and essentially practical objects in order to make them aesthetically pleasing."Applied art" in ''The Oxford Dictionary of Art''. Online edition. Oxford Univers ...
, especially the
decorative arts ] The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design and manufacture of objects that are both beautiful and functional. It includes most of the arts making objects for the interiors of buildings, and interior design, but not usuall ...

decorative arts
, known in different languages by different names:
Jugendstil Jugendstil ("Youth Style") was an artistic movement, particularly in the decorative arts, that was influential primarily in Germany and elsewhere in Europe to a lesser extent from about 1895 until about 1910. It was the German counterpart of Art ...
in German,
Stile Liberty Liberty style ( it, Stile Liberty) was the Italian variant of Art Nouveau, which flourished between about 1900 and 1914. It was also sometimes known as ''stile floreale'', ''arte nuova'', or ''stile moderno''. It took its name from Arthur Lasenby Lib ...
in Italian,
Modernisme català
Modernisme català
in Catalan, etc. In English it is also known as the Modern Style. The style was most popular between 1890 and 1910. It was a reaction against the
academic art 300px, Life class at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in 1826 by Wilhelm Bendz">Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts">Life class at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in 1826 by Wilhelm Bendz Academic art, or academicism or academi ...
,
eclecticism and the Grand Boulevard in Budapest , a combination of Neoclassical architecture and Romanian Revival Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theor ...
and
historicism Historicism is the idea of attributing significance to elements of space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture, in order to contextualize theories, narratives and other interpretative instruments. The term "his ...
of 19th century architecture and decoration. It was often inspired by natural forms such as the sinuous curves of plants and flowers. Other characteristics of Art Nouveau were a sense of dynamism and movement, often given by asymmetry or whiplash lines, and the use of modern materials, particularly iron, glass, ceramics and later concrete, to create unusual forms and larger open spaces.Sembach, Klaus-Jürgen, ''L'Art Nouveau'' (2013), pp. 8–30 One major objective of Art Nouveau was to break down the traditional distinction between fine arts (especially painting and sculpture) and applied arts. It was most widely used in interior design, graphic arts, furniture, glass art, textiles, ceramics, jewellery and metal work. The style responded to leading 19-century theoreticians, such as French architect Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (1814–1879) and British art critic
John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, philosopher, prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjec ...
(1819–1900). In Britain, it was influenced by
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of traditi ...
and the
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and societies through skills and imagination in order to produce objects, environments and experiences. Major constituents of th ...
. German architects and designers sought a spiritually uplifting ''
Gesamtkunstwerk A ''Gesamtkunstwerk'' (, literally "total artwork", frequently translated as "total work of art", "ideal work of art", "universal artwork", "synthesis of the arts", "comprehensive artwork", or "all-embracing art form") is a work of art that makes u ...
'' ("total work of art") that would unify the architecture, furnishings, and art in the interior in a common style, to uplift and inspire the residents. The first Art Nouveau houses and interior decoration appeared in Brussels in the 1890s, in the architecture and interior design of houses designed by
Paul Hankar Paul Hankar (11 December 1859 – 17 January 1901) was a Belgian architect and furniture designer, and an innovator in the Art Nouveau style. Career He was born at Frameries, the son of a stonemason. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux ...
,
Henry van de Velde#REDIRECT Henry van de Velde {{R from other capitalisation ...
, and especially
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
, whose
Hôtel Tassel The Hôtel Tassel (french: Hôtel Tassel, nl, Hotel Tassel) is a townhouse in Brussels, Belgium, designed by Victor Horta for the Belgian scientist and professor Emile Tassel and built from 1892–93. It is generally considered the first true Art ...
was completed in 1893.Victor Horta
– Encyclopaedia Britannica
It moved quickly to Paris, where it was adapted by
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
, who saw Horta's work in Brussels and applied the style for the entrances of the new
Paris Métro The Paris Métro (french: Métro de Paris ; short for Métropolitain ) is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique ent ...
. It reached its peak at the 1900 Paris International Exposition, which introduced the Art Nouveau work of artists such as
Louis Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
. It appeared in graphic arts in the posters of
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
, and the glassware of
René Lalique René Jules Lalique (6 April 1860 – 1 May 1945) was a French glass designer known for his creations of glass art, perfume bottles, vases, jewellery, chandeliers, clocks and automobile hood ornaments. Life Lalique's early life was spent learnin ...
and
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
. From Belgium and France, it spread to the rest of Europe, taking on different names and characteristics in each country (see Naming section below). It often appeared not only in capitals, but also in rapidly growing cities that wanted to establish artistic identities (
Turin Turin ( , Piedmontese: ; it, Torino ; lat, Augusta Taurinorum, then ''Taurinum'') is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of Piedmont and of the Metropolitan City of Turin, and was the fi ...
and
Palermo Palermo ( , ; scn, Palermu, ; la, Panormus, from el, Πάνορμος, Pánormos; ar, بَلَرْم‎, ''Balarm'') is a city of southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo. The city is ...
in Italy;
Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an estimated city population of 633,120 in 2019, is the most populous city in Scotland and the fourth-most populous city in the United Kingdom (as of 2011), as well as being the 27th lar ...

Glasgow
in Scotland;
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, and thus the lar ...
and
Darmstadt Darmstadt (, also , , ) is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region). Darmstadt has around 160,000 inhabitants, making it the fourth largest city in the state o ...
in Germany), as well as in centres of independence movements (
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital, primate and most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, and has a population of ...
in Finland, then part of the Russian Empire;
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within cit ...
in
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationality'' by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Ba ...
, Spain). By 1914, and with the beginning of the
First World War World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
, Art Nouveau was largely exhausted. In the 1920s, it was replaced as the dominant architectural and decorative art style by
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, tra ...
and then
Modernism , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical movement and an art movement that arose from broad transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The movement reflected a d ...
. The Art Nouveau style began to receive more positive attention from critics in the late 1960s, with a major exhibition of the work of
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
at the
Museum of Modern Art The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. It plays a major role in developing and collecting modern art, and is often identified as one of the l ...
in 1970.


Naming

The term ''Art Nouveau'' was first used in the 1880s in the Belgian journal ''
L'Art Moderne#REDIRECT L'Art Moderne ...
'' to describe the work of ''
Les Vingt ''Les XX'' (French; "''Les Vingt''"; ; ) was a group of twenty Belgian painters, designers and sculptors, formed in 1883 by the Brussels lawyer, publisher, and entrepreneur Octave Maus. For ten years, they held an annual exhibition of their art; ...
'', twenty painters and sculptors seeking reform through art. The name was popularized by the ''Maison de l'Art Nouveau'' ("House of the New Art"), an art gallery opened in Paris in 1895 by the Franco-German
art dealer An art dealer is a person or company that buys and sells works of art, or acts as the intermediary between the buyers and sellers of art. An art dealer in contemporary art typically seeks out various artists to represent, and builds relationship ...
Siegfried Bing Samuel Siegfried Bing (26 February 1838 – 6 September 1905), who usually gave his name as S. Bing (not to be confused with his brother, Samuel Otto Bing, 1850–1905), was a German-French art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who ...
. In Britain, the French term was commonly used, while in France, it was often called by the term (akin to the British term ''Modern Style''), or .Duncan (1994), pp. 23–24. In France, it was also sometimes called (after the novelist
Jules Verne Jules Gabriel Verne (;''Longman Pronunciation Dictionary''. ; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright. His collaboration with the publisher Pierre-Jules Hetzel led to the creation of the ''Voyages extraord ...

Jules Verne
), (after
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
's iron and glass subway entrances), , or .Gontar, Cybele. Art Nouveau. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 (October 2006)
Art Nouveau is related to, but not identical with, styles that emerged in many countries in Europe at about the same time. Their local names were often used in their respective countries to describe the whole movement. * In Belgium, it was sometimes termed ("Whiplash style"), ("Eel style"), or ("Noodle style") by its detractors. * In
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom, a sovereign state in Europe comprising the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands * Great Britain, the largest island in the United Kingdom * Ro ...
, besides Art Nouveau, it was known as the ''Modern Style'', or, because of works of
Glasgow School The Glasgow School was a circle of influential artists and designers that began to coalesce in Glasgow, Scotland in the 1870s, and flourished from the 1890s to around 1910. Representative groups included The Four (also known as the Spook School) ...
, as the ''Glasgow style''. The term ''Modern'' is also used in
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is bounded by the Caspia ...
,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan,, * russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, * russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no is a transcontinental country mainly located in Central Asia wit ...
, Russia and
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraina, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest country in Europe, after Russia, which it borders to the east and north-east; it also shares borders with Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia a ...
, and in
Lithuania Lithuania ( ; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. It is one of the Baltic states, and lies on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the southea ...
. * In Germany and Scandinavia, it was called ("Reform style"), or ''
Jugendstil Jugendstil ("Youth Style") was an artistic movement, particularly in the decorative arts, that was influential primarily in Germany and elsewhere in Europe to a lesser extent from about 1895 until about 1910. It was the German counterpart of Art ...
'' ("Youth style"), after the popular German art magazine of that name, as well as ("Wave style"), or ("Lily style"). It is now called ''Jugend'' in Finland and Sweden, in
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...
, and in
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is one of the Baltic states; and is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuan ...

Latvia
. * In Denmark, it is known as ("Work of beauty"). * In Austria and the neighbouring countries then part of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and was dis ...
, , or ("Secession style"), after the artists of the
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
( hu, szecesszió, cs, secese, sk, secesia, pl, secesja). * In Italy, it was often called
Liberty style Liberty style ( it, Stile Liberty) was the Italian variant of Art Nouveau, which flourished between about 1900 and 1914. It was also sometimes known as ''stile floreale'', ''arte nuova'', or ''stile moderno''. It took its name from Arthur Lasenby Lib ...
, after
Arthur Lasenby Liberty Portrait of Liberty by Arthur Hacker (1913) Sir Arthur Lasenby Liberty (13 August 1843 – 11 May 1917) was a London-based merchant, and the founder of Liberty & Co. Early life Arthur Liberty was born on 13 August 1843 in Chesham, Buckinghams ...
, the founder of London's
Liberty & Co Liberty, commonly known as Liberty's, is a luxury department store in London, England. It is located on Great Marlborough Street in the West End of London. The buildong spans from Carnaby Street on the East to Kingly Street on the West, where i ...
, whose textile designs were popular. It was also sometimes called ("Floral style"), or ("New Art"). * In the United States, due to its association with
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
, it was sometimes called the "Tiffany style".Michèle Lavallée, "Art Nouveau", ''
Grove Dictionary of Art ''Grove Art Online'' is the online edition of ''The Dictionary of Art'', often referred to as the ''Grove Dictionary of Art'', and part of Oxford Art Online, an internet gateway to online art reference publications of Oxford University Press, whi ...
''
Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of University of Oxford. It is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is govern ...
, accessed 11 April 2008.
* In the Netherlands, it was called ("New Art"), or ("New style"). * In Portugal, . * In Spain, , ''
Modernisme ''Modernisme'' (, Catalan for "modernism"), also known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the search of a new entitlement of Catalan culture, one of the most predomi ...

Modernisme
'' (in Catalan) and ''Arte joven'' ("Young Art"). * In Switzerland, Style Sapin ("Pine tree style"). * In Finland, . * In Russia, ("Modern") or, for painting, (''
Mir Iskusstva ''Mir iskusstva'' ( rus, «Мир искусства», p=ˈmʲir ɪˈskustvə, ''World of Art'') was a Russian magazine and the artistic movement it inspired and embodied, which was a major influence on the Russians who helped revolutionize Europe ...
'', "World of Art"). * In Japan, ''Shiro-Uma''. * In
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldov ...
, ''Arta Nouă'' ("New Art") or ''Noul Stil'' ("New Style").


History


Origins

File:Philip Webb's Red House in Upton.jpg, The Red House by
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of traditi ...
and
Philip Webb Philip Speakman Webb (12 January 1831 – 17 April 1915) was an English architect sometimes called the Father of Arts and Crafts Architecture. His use of vernacular architecture demonstrated his commitment to "the art of common building." ...
(1859) File:Acteur als hoveling-Rijksmuseum AK-MAK-1601A.jpeg, Japanese woodblock print by
Utagawa Kunisada , and is one of the few known images of Kunisada. series by Kunisada Utagawa Kunisada ( ja, 歌川 国貞; 1786 – 12 January 1865), also known as Utagawa Toyokuni III ( ), was the most popular, prolific and commercially successful desig ...
(1850s) File:The Peacock Room.jpg, '''' by
James McNeil Whistler James Abbott McNeill Whistler (; July 11, 1834July 17, 1903) was an American artist active during the American Gilded Age and based primarily in the United Kingdom. He eschewed sentimentality and moral allusion in painting and was a leading prop ...
(1876–1877) File:Morris Wey printed textile design c 1883.jpg,
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of traditi ...
printed textile design (1883) File:Swan and Rush and Iris wallpaper Walter Crane.jpg, Swan, rush and iris wallpaper design by
Walter Crane Walter Crane (15 August 184514 March 1915) was a British artist and book illustrator. He is considered to be the most influential, and among the most prolific, children's book creators of his generation and, along with Randolph Caldecott and Kate ...
(1883) File:Chair LACMA M.2009.115 (5 of 5).jpg, Chair designed by
Arthur Mackmurdo Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo (12 December 1851 – 15 March 1942) was a progressive English architect and designer, who influenced the Arts and Crafts Movement, notably through the Century Guild of Artists, which he set up in partnership with He ...
(1882-1883)
The new art movement had its roots in Britain, in the floral designs of
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of traditi ...
, and in the
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and societies through skills and imagination in order to produce objects, environments and experiences. Major constituents of th ...
founded by the pupils of Morris. Early prototypes of the style include the Red House with interiors by Morris and architecture by
Philip Webb Philip Speakman Webb (12 January 1831 – 17 April 1915) was an English architect sometimes called the Father of Arts and Crafts Architecture. His use of vernacular architecture demonstrated his commitment to "the art of common building." ...
(1859), and the lavish Peacock Room by
James Abbott McNeill Whistler James Abbott McNeill Whistler (; July 11, 1834July 17, 1903) was an American artist active during the American Gilded Age and based primarily in the United Kingdom. He eschewed sentimentality and moral allusion in painting and was a leading prop ...
. The new movement was also strongly influenced by the
Pre-Raphaelite The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti, James Co ...
painters, including
Dante Gabriel Rossetti Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti (), was an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator, and member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brother ...
and
Edward Burne-Jones Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet, (; 28 August 183317 June 1898) was a British artist and designer associated with the phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, who worked with William Morris on decorative arts as a founding partner in Morr ...
, and especially by British graphic artists of the 1880s, including
Selwyn Image Selwyn Image (17 February 1849, Bodiam, Sussex – 21 August 1930, London) was an important British artist, designer, writer and poet associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement. He designed stained-glass windows, furniture, embroidery, and was ...
,
Heywood Sumner George Heywood Maunoir Sumner (1853–1940) was originally an English painter, illustrator and craftsman, closely involved with the Arts and Crafts movement and the late-Victorian London art world. In his mid-forties he relocated to Cuckoo Hill, n ...
,
Walter Crane Walter Crane (15 August 184514 March 1915) was a British artist and book illustrator. He is considered to be the most influential, and among the most prolific, children's book creators of his generation and, along with Randolph Caldecott and Kate ...
,
Alfred Gilbert Sir Alfred Gilbert (12 August 18544 November 1934) was an English sculptor. He was born in London and studied sculpture under Joseph Boehm, Matthew Noble, Édouard Lantéri and Pierre-Jules Cavelier. His first work of importance was ''The Kiss ...
, and especially
Aubrey Beardsley Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 187216 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author. His black ink drawings were influenced by Japanese woodcuts, and emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the ...
. The chair designed by
Arthur Mackmurdo Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo (12 December 1851 – 15 March 1942) was a progressive English architect and designer, who influenced the Arts and Crafts Movement, notably through the Century Guild of Artists, which he set up in partnership with He ...
has been recognized as a precursor of Art Nouveau design. In France, it was influenced by the architectural theorist and historian
Eugène Viollet-le-Duc Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (; 27 January 181417 September 1879) was a French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval landmarks in France, including those which had been damaged or abandoned during the French Revolution. Hi ...
, a declared enemy of the historical Beaux-Arts architectural style. In his 1872 book ''Entretiens sur l'architecture'', he wrote, "Use the means and knowledge given to us by our times, without the intervening traditions which are no longer viable today, and in that way we can inaugurate a new architecture. For each function its material; for each material its form and its ornament." This book influenced a generation of architects, including
Louis Sullivan Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, and has been called a "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism". He was an influential architect of the Chicago School, a mentor to Frank Lloyd ...
,
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
,
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
, and
Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (; ; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect known as the greatest exponent of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works have a highly individualized, ''sui generis'' style. Most are located in Barcelona, includin ...
. The French painters
Maurice Denis Maurice Denis (; 25 November 1870 – 13 November 1943) was a French painter, decorative artist and writer, who was an important figure in the transitional period between impressionism and modern art. He was associated with ''Les Nabis'' then the ...
,
Pierre Bonnard Pierre Bonnard (; 3 October 186723 January 1947) was a French painter, illustrator, and printmaker, known especially for the stylized decorative qualities of his paintings and his bold use of color. He was a founding member of the Post-Impression ...
and
Édouard Vuillard Jean-Édouard Vuillard (; 11 November 186821 June 1940) was a French painter, decorative artist and printmaker. From 1891 through 1900, he was a prominent member of the Nabis, making paintings which assembled areas of pure color, and interior scene ...
played an important part in integrating fine arts painting with decoration. "I believe that before everything a painting must decorate", Denis wrote in 1891. "The choice of subjects or scenes is nothing. It is by the value of tones, the coloured surface and the harmony of lines that I can reach the spirit and wake up the emotions." These painters all did both traditional painting and decorative painting on screens, in glass, and in other media. Another important influence on the new style was
Japonism Japonisme is a French term that refers to the popularity and influence of Japanese art and design in western Europe in the nineteenth century following the forced reopening of trade of Japan in 1858. Japonisme was first described by French art ...
. This was a wave of enthusiasm for
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan, an island country in East Asia * Japanese language, spoken mainly in Japan * Japanese people, the ethnic group that identifies with Japan through culture or ancestry ** Japanese diaspora ...
woodblock printing Woodblock printing or block printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper. As a method of printing on cl ...
, particularly the works of
Hiroshige Utagawa Hiroshige (, also ; ja, 歌川 広重 ), born Andō Hiroshige (; 1797 – 12 October 1858), was a Japanese ukiyo-e artist, considered the last great master of that tradition. Hiroshige is best known for his horizontal-format landsc ...
,
Hokusai , known simply as Hokusai, was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period. Hokusai is best known for the woodblock print series ''Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji'' which includes the internationally iconic print ''The Gre ...
, and
Utagawa Kunisada , and is one of the few known images of Kunisada. series by Kunisada Utagawa Kunisada ( ja, 歌川 国貞; 1786 – 12 January 1865), also known as Utagawa Toyokuni III ( ), was the most popular, prolific and commercially successful desig ...
, which were imported into Europe beginning in the 1870s. The enterprising
Siegfried Bing Samuel Siegfried Bing (26 February 1838 – 6 September 1905), who usually gave his name as S. Bing (not to be confused with his brother, Samuel Otto Bing, 1850–1905), was a German-French art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who ...
founded a monthly journal, ''Le Japon artistique'' in 1888, and published thirty-six issues before it ended in 1891. It influenced both collectors and artists, including
Gustav Klimt Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objects d'art. Klimt's prima ...
. The stylized features of Japanese prints appeared in Art Nouveau graphics, porcelain, jewellery, and furniture. Since the beginning of 1860, a
Far East The Far East is a geographical region that includes East and Southeast Asia as well as the Russian Far East. South Asia is sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons. The term "Far East" came into use in European geopolitical disco ...
ern influence suddenly manifested. In 1862, art lovers from London or Paris, could buy
Japanese art Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture, ink painting and calligraphy on silk and paper, ''ukiyo-e'' paintings and woodblock prints, ceramics, origami, and more recently manga which is modern ...
works, because in that year, Japan appeared for the first time as an exhibitor at the
International Exhibition#REDIRECT World's fair {{R from other capitalisation ...
in London. Also in 1862, in Paris, ''La Porte Chinoise'' store, on
Rue de Rivoli Rue de Rivoli () is a street in central Paris, France. It is a commercial street whose shops include leading fashionable brands. It bears the name of Napoleon's early victory against the Austrian army, at the Battle of Rivoli, fought on 14–15 Jan ...
, was open, where Japanese
ukiyo-e#REDIRECT Ukiyo-e#REDIRECT Ukiyo-e {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
and other objects from the Far Eastern were sold. In 1867, ''Examples of Chinese Ornaments'' by
Owen Jones Owen Peter Jones (born 8 August 1984) is a British left-wing newspaper columnist, political commentator, journalist, author, and Labour Party activist. He writes a column for ''The Guardian'' and contributes to the ''New Statesman'' and ''Tribu ...
appeared, and in 1870 ''Art and Industries in Japan'' by R. Alcock, and two years later, O. H. Moser and T. W. Cutler published books about Japanese art. Some Art Nouveau artists, like
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
, owned a collection of Far Eastern art, especially Japanese. New technologies in printing and publishing allowed Art Nouveau to quickly reach a global audience. Art magazines, illustrated with photographs and colour
lithographs Lithography () is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone (lithographic limestone) or a metal plate with a smooth surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Aloi ...
, played an essential role in popularizing the new style. '' The Studio'' in England, ''Arts et idèes'' and ''Art et décoration'' in France, and '' Jugend'' in Germany allowed the style to spread rapidly to all corners of Europe.
Aubrey Beardsley Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 187216 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author. His black ink drawings were influenced by Japanese woodcuts, and emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the ...
in England, and
Eugène Grasset Eugène Samuel Grasset (25 May 1845 – 23 October 1917) was a Swiss decorative artist who worked in Paris, France in a variety of creative design fields during the Belle Époque. He is considered a pioneer in Art Nouveau design. Biography Gra ...
,
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, caricaturist and illustrator whose immersion in the colorful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th c ...
, and
Félix Vallotton Félix Edouard Vallotton (December 28, 1865December 29, 1925) was a Swiss and French painter and printmaker associated with the group of artists known as . He was an important figure in the development of the modern woodcut. He painted portraits, ...
achieved international recognition as illustrators. With the posters by
Jules Chéret Jules Chéret (31 May 1836 – 23 September 1932) was a French painter and lithographer who became a master of ''Belle Époque'' poster art. He has been called the father of the modern poster. Biography left, L'Etendard Français, Chéret's 1891 ...
for dancer
Loie Fuller Loie Fuller (born Marie Louise Fuller; January 15, 1862 – January 1, 1928), also known as Louie Fuller and Loïe Fuller, was an American actress and dancer who was a pioneer of both modern dance and theatrical lighting techniques. Career Born ...

Loie Fuller
in 1893, and by
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
for actress
Sarah Bernhardt Sarah Bernhardt (; born Henriette-Rosine Bernard; 22 or 23 October 1844 – 26 March 1923) was a French stage actress who starred in some of the most popular French plays of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including ''La Dame Aux Cameli ...
in 1895, the poster became not just advertising, but an art form. Sarah Bernhardt set aside large numbers of her posters for sale to collectors.


Development – Brussels (1893–1898)

File:St-Gilles (Hankar) JPG01.jpg,
Hankar House Hankar House (french: Maison Hankar, nl, Huis Hankar) is the residence built by the Belgian architect Paul Hankar in 1893. It is located at 71, / in the Saint-Gilles municipality of Brussels, Belgium. It is considered, along with the Hôtel Tassel b ...
by
Paul Hankar Paul Hankar (11 December 1859 – 17 January 1901) was a Belgian architect and furniture designer, and an innovator in the Art Nouveau style. Career He was born at Frameries, the son of a stonemason. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux ...
(1893) File:Victor Horta Hotel Tassel.JPG, Facade of the
Hôtel Tassel The Hôtel Tassel (french: Hôtel Tassel, nl, Hotel Tassel) is a townhouse in Brussels, Belgium, designed by Victor Horta for the Belgian scientist and professor Emile Tassel and built from 1892–93. It is generally considered the first true Art ...
by
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
(1892–1893) File:Tassel House stairway.JPG, Stairway of the Hôtel Tassel File:Villa Bloemenwerf (front).JPG,
Bloemenwerf Bloemenwerf is the name of the residence house of Belgian painter, architect and interior designer Henry van de Velde, built in 1895. It is located in Uccle, Brussels, Belgium. Velde designed the house and its interior as well as the furnishings. ...
house by
Henry van de Velde#REDIRECT Henry van de Velde {{R from other capitalisation ...
(1895) File:Henry van de Velde - Chair - 1895.jpg, Bloemenwerf chair made by Van de Velde for his residence (1895) File:International Exhibition Brussels par Privat-Livemont.jpg, Poster for the
International Exposition#REDIRECT World's fair {{R from other capitalisation ...
by
Henri Privat-Livemont Henri Privat-Livemont (1861–1936) was an artist born in Schaerbeek, Brussels, Belgium. He is best known for his Art Nouveau posters. From 1883 to 1889, he worked and studied in the studios of Lemaire, Lavastre & Duvignaud. He, with Lemaire ...
(1897)
The first Art Nouveau town houses,
Hankar House Hankar House (french: Maison Hankar, nl, Huis Hankar) is the residence built by the Belgian architect Paul Hankar in 1893. It is located at 71, / in the Saint-Gilles municipality of Brussels, Belgium. It is considered, along with the Hôtel Tassel b ...
by
Paul Hankar Paul Hankar (11 December 1859 – 17 January 1901) was a Belgian architect and furniture designer, and an innovator in the Art Nouveau style. Career He was born at Frameries, the son of a stonemason. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux ...
(1893) and the
Hôtel Tassel The Hôtel Tassel (french: Hôtel Tassel, nl, Hotel Tassel) is a townhouse in Brussels, Belgium, designed by Victor Horta for the Belgian scientist and professor Emile Tassel and built from 1892–93. It is generally considered the first true Art ...
by
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
(1892–1893), were built almost simultaneously in
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brussels Ho ...
. Hankar was particularly inspired by the theories of the French architect
Eugène Viollet-le-Duc Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (; 27 January 181417 September 1879) was a French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval landmarks in France, including those which had been damaged or abandoned during the French Revolution. Hi ...
. With a goal to create a synthesis of fine arts and decorative arts, he brought and to decorate the interior and exterior with ''
sgraffito ''Sgraffito'' (; plural: ''sgraffiti'') is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colours to a moistened surface, or in pottery, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers ...
'', or murals. Hankar decorated stores, restaurants and galleries in what a local critic called "a veritable delirium of originality". He died in 1901, just as the movement was beginning to receive recognition.
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
was among the most influential architects of the early Art Nouveau, and his
Hôtel Tassel The Hôtel Tassel (french: Hôtel Tassel, nl, Hotel Tassel) is a townhouse in Brussels, Belgium, designed by Victor Horta for the Belgian scientist and professor Emile Tassel and built from 1892–93. It is generally considered the first true Art ...
(1892–1893) is one of the style's landmarks. Horta's architectural training was as an assistant to
Alphonse Balat Alphonse Hubert François Balat (15 May 1818 – 16 September 1895) was a Belgian architect. Life Balat was born in Gochenée. He studied at the Academie of Namur and obtained his degree in architecture from the Academy of Antwerp in 1838. I ...
, architect to
Leopold II of Belgium * german: Leopold Ludwig Philipp Maria Viktor , house = Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , father = Leopold I of Belgium , mother = Louise of Orléans , birth_date = , birth_place = Brussels, Belgium , death_date = , death_place ...
, constructing the monumental iron and glass Greenhouses of Laeken.Culot and Pirlot, ''Bruxelles Art Nouveau'' (2005), pp. 74–75. In 1892–1893, he put this experience to a very different use. He designed the residence of a prominent Belgian chemist, Émile Tassel, on a very narrow and deep site. The central element of the house was the stairway, not enclosed by walls, but open, decorated with a curling wrought-iron railing, and placed beneath a high skylight. The floors were supported by slender iron columns like the trunks of trees. The mosaic floors and walls were decorated with delicate
arabesque The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements. Another definition is "Folia ...
s in floral and vegetal forms, which became the most popular signature of the style. In a short period, Horta built three more town houses, all with open interiors, and all with skylights for maximum interior light: the
Hôtel Solvay The Hôtel Solvay (french: Hôtel Solvay, nl, Hotel Solvay) is a large Art Nouveau town house designed by Victor Horta on ''Avenue Louise''/''Louizalaan'' in Brussels, Belgium. The house was commissioned by Armand Solvay, the son of the wealthy Bel ...
, the
Hôtel van Eetvelde The Hôtel van Eetvelde (french: Hôtel van Eetvelde, nl, Hotel van Eetvelde) is a town house designed in 1895 by Victor Horta for Edmond van Eetvelde, administrator of Congo Free State. It is located at 4, / in Brussels, Belgium. Together with t ...
, and the
Maison & Atelier Horta__NOTOC__ The Horta Museum (french: Musée Horta, nl, Hortamuseum) is a museum dedicated to the life and work of the Belgian Art Nouveau architect Victor Horta and his time. The museum is housed in Horta's former house and workshop, Maison & Atelie ...
. All four are now part of a
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
.
Henry van de Velde#REDIRECT Henry van de Velde {{R from other capitalisation ...
, born in
Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ) is a city in Belgium and the capital of Antwerp province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 520,504,
, was another founding figure in the birth of Art Nouveau. Van de Velde's designs included the interior of his residence, the
Bloemenwerf Bloemenwerf is the name of the residence house of Belgian painter, architect and interior designer Henry van de Velde, built in 1895. It is located in Uccle, Brussels, Belgium. Velde designed the house and its interior as well as the furnishings. ...
(1895). The exterior of the house was inspired by the Red House, the residence of writer and theorist
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of traditi ...
, the founder of the
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and societies through skills and imagination in order to produce objects, environments and experiences. Major constituents of th ...
. Trained as a painter, Van de Velde turned to illustration, then to furniture design, and finally to architecture. For the
Bloemenwerf Bloemenwerf is the name of the residence house of Belgian painter, architect and interior designer Henry van de Velde, built in 1895. It is located in Uccle, Brussels, Belgium. Velde designed the house and its interior as well as the furnishings. ...
, he created the textiles, wallpaper, silverware, jewellery, and even clothing, that matched the style of the residence. Van de Velde went to Paris, where he designed furniture and decoration for
Samuel Bing Samuel Siegfried Bing (26 February 1838 – 6 September 1905), who usually gave his name as S. Bing (not to be confused with his brother, Samuel Otto Bing, 1850–1905), was a German-French art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who ...
, whose Paris gallery gave the style its name. He was also an early Art Nouveau theorist, demanding the use of dynamic, often opposing lines. Van de Velde wrote: "A line is a force like all the other elementary forces. Several lines put together but opposed have a presence as strong as several forces". In 1906, he departed Belgium for
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately southwest of Leipzig, north of Nuremberg and west of Dresde ...
(Germany), where he founded the Grand-Ducal School of Arts and Crafts, where the teaching of historical styles was forbidden. He played an important role in the German Werkbund, before returning to Belgium. The debut of Art Nouveau architecture in Brussels was accompanied by a wave of Decorative Art in the new style. Important artists included Gustave Strauven, who used wrought iron to achieve baroque effects on Brussels facades; the furniture designer
Gustave Serrurier-Bovy225px, Mahogany armoire designed in 1899 by Serrurier-Bovy, on display at the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1858–1910) was a Belgian architect and furniture designer. He is credited (along with Paul Hankar, Victor Horta and Hen ...
, known for his highly original chairs and articulated metal furniture; and the jewellery designer Philippe Wolfers, who made jewellery in the form of dragonflies, butterflies, swans and serpents. The Brussels International Exposition held in 1897 brought international attention to the style; Horta, Hankar, Van de Velde, and Serrurier-Bovy, among others, took part in the design of the fair, and
Henri Privat-Livemont Henri Privat-Livemont (1861–1936) was an artist born in Schaerbeek, Brussels, Belgium. He is best known for his Art Nouveau posters. From 1883 to 1889, he worked and studied in the studios of Lemaire, Lavastre & Duvignaud. He, with Lemaire ...
created the poster for the exhibition.


Paris – Maison de l'Art Nouveau (1895) and Castel Beranger (1895–1898)

File:Art nouveau publicité galerie Samuel Bing Paris 1895.jpg,
Siegfried Bing Samuel Siegfried Bing (26 February 1838 – 6 September 1905), who usually gave his name as S. Bing (not to be confused with his brother, Samuel Otto Bing, 1850–1905), was a German-French art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who ...
invited artists to show modern works in his new Maison de l'Art Nouveau (1895). File:Galeries Bing entrée rue de Provence.jpg, The Maison de l'Art Nouveau gallery of Siegfried Bing (1895) File:Vallotton pour Bing.jpg, Poster by
Félix Vallotton Félix Edouard Vallotton (December 28, 1865December 29, 1925) was a Swiss and French painter and printmaker associated with the group of artists known as . He was an important figure in the development of the modern woodcut. He painted portraits, ...
for the new Maison de l'Art Nouveau (1896) File:Castel Béranger, February 16, 2013.jpg, Gateway of the Castel Béranger by
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
(1895–1898)
The Franco-German art dealer and publisher
Siegfried Bing Samuel Siegfried Bing (26 February 1838 – 6 September 1905), who usually gave his name as S. Bing (not to be confused with his brother, Samuel Otto Bing, 1850–1905), was a German-French art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who ...
played a key role in publicizing the style. In 1891, he founded a magazine devoted to the art of Japan, which helped publicize
Japonism Japonisme is a French term that refers to the popularity and influence of Japanese art and design in western Europe in the nineteenth century following the forced reopening of trade of Japan in 1858. Japonisme was first described by French art ...
in Europe. In 1892, he organized an exhibit of seven artists, among them
Pierre Bonnard Pierre Bonnard (; 3 October 186723 January 1947) was a French painter, illustrator, and printmaker, known especially for the stylized decorative qualities of his paintings and his bold use of color. He was a founding member of the Post-Impression ...
,
Félix Vallotton Félix Edouard Vallotton (December 28, 1865December 29, 1925) was a Swiss and French painter and printmaker associated with the group of artists known as . He was an important figure in the development of the modern woodcut. He painted portraits, ...
,
Édouard Vuillard Jean-Édouard Vuillard (; 11 November 186821 June 1940) was a French painter, decorative artist and printmaker. From 1891 through 1900, he was a prominent member of the Nabis, making paintings which assembled areas of pure color, and interior scene ...
,
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, caricaturist and illustrator whose immersion in the colorful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th c ...
and
Eugène Grasset Eugène Samuel Grasset (25 May 1845 – 23 October 1917) was a Swiss decorative artist who worked in Paris, France in a variety of creative design fields during the Belle Époque. He is considered a pioneer in Art Nouveau design. Biography Gra ...
, which included both modern painting and decorative work. This exhibition was shown at the
Société nationale des beaux-arts Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts (SNBA; ; en, National Society of Fine Arts) was the term under which two groups of French artists united, the first for some exhibitions in the early 1860s, the second since 1890 for annual exhibitions. 1862 Esta ...
in 1895. In the same year, Bing opened a new gallery at 22 rue de Provence in Paris, the
Maison de l'Art Nouveau The Maison de l'Art Nouveau ("House of New Art"), abbreviated often as L'Art Nouveau, and known also as Maison Bing for the owner, was a gallery opened on 26 December 1895, by Siegfried Bing at 22 rue de Provence, Paris.Martin Eidelberg and Suzan ...
, devoted to new works in both the fine and decorative arts. The interior and furniture of the gallery were designed by the Belgian architect
Henry van de Velde#REDIRECT Henry van de Velde {{R from other capitalisation ...
, one of the pioneers of Art Nouveau architecture. The ''Maison de l'Art Nouveau'' showed paintings by
Georges Seurat Georges-Pierre Seurat ( , , ; 2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist artist. He is best known for devising the painting techniques known as chromoluminarism as well as pointillism. While less famous than his paintin ...
,
Paul Signac Paul Victor Jules Signac ( , , ; 11 November 1863 – 15 August 1935) was a French Neo-Impressionist painter who, working with Georges Seurat, helped develop the Pointillist style. Biography Paul Signac was born in Paris on 11 November 1863. He ...
and
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, caricaturist and illustrator whose immersion in the colorful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th c ...
, glass from
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
and
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
, jewellery by
René Lalique René Jules Lalique (6 April 1860 – 1 May 1945) was a French glass designer known for his creations of glass art, perfume bottles, vases, jewellery, chandeliers, clocks and automobile hood ornaments. Life Lalique's early life was spent learnin ...
, and posters by
Aubrey Beardsley Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 187216 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author. His black ink drawings were influenced by Japanese woodcuts, and emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the ...
. The works shown there were not at all uniform in style. Bing wrote in 1902, "Art Nouveau, at the time of its creation, did not aspire in any way to have the honor of becoming a generic term. It was simply the name of a house opened as a rallying point for all the young and ardent artists impatient to show the modernity of their tendencies." The style was quickly noticed in neighbouring France. After visiting Horta's Hôtel Tassel,
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
built the Castel Béranger, among the first Paris buildings in the new style, between 1895 and 1898. Parisians had been complaining of the monotony of the architecture of the boulevards built under
Napoleon III#REDIRECT Napoleon III#REDIRECT Napoleon III {{R from miscapitalisation ...
{{R from miscapitalisation ...
by
Georges-Eugène Haussmann Georges-Eugène Haussmann, commonly known as Baron Haussmann (; 27 March 180911 January 1891), was a French official who served as prefect of Seine (1853–1870), chosen by Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive urban renewal programme of ne ...
. The Castel Beranger was a curious blend of Neo-Gothic and Art Nouveau, with curving
whiplash Whiplash may refer to: * The long flexible part of a whip * Whiplash (medicine), a neck injury ** Whiplash Injury Protection System (WHIPS), in automobiles Film and television * ''Whiplash'' (1948 film), a US film noir * ''Whiplash'' (1959 film), ...
lines and natural forms. Guimard, a skilled publicist for his work, declared: "What must be avoided at all cost is...the parallel and symmetry. Nature is the greatest builder of all, and nature makes nothing that is parallel and nothing that is symmetric." Parisians welcomed Guimard's original and picturesque style; the Castel Béranger was chosen as one of the best new façades in Paris, launching Guimard's career. Guimard was given the commission to design the entrances for the new
Paris Métro The Paris Métro (french: Métro de Paris ; short for Métropolitain ) is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique ent ...
system, which brought the style to the attention of the millions of visitors to the city's 1900 ''Exposition Universelle''.


Paris ''Exposition Universelle'' (1900)

File:Grand entrance, Exposition Universal, 1900, Paris, France.jpg, Main entrance to the Paris 1900 ''Exposition Universelle'' File:The Bigot-pavilion at the Paris Universal Exposition, 1900.jpg, The Bigot Pavilion, showcasing the work of ceramics artist
Alexandre Bigot Alexandre Bigot (5 November 1862 – 27 April 1927) was a French ceramicist. He was primarily a ceramics manufacturer; producing the designs of many artists and architects of the French Art Nouveau movement; including: Jules Lavirotte, Hector Gui ...
File:Paris Exposition Austrian Pavilion, Paris, France, 1900.jpg, Entrance to the Austrian Pavilion, with exhibits designed by
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
File:Traubensaal.jpg, The German Pavilion by
Bruno Möhring Bruno Möhring (11 December 1863 – 25/26 March 1929) was a German architect, urban planner, designer and a professor in Berlin. He was one of the most important architects of the Jugendstil style in Germany. He received his education at the Berl ...
File:Abbesses.JPG, Paris metro station entrance at designed by
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
for the 1900 ''Exposition universelle'' File:Finland paviljong.jpg,
Armas Lindgren Armas Eliel Lindgren (28 November 1874 – 3 October 1929) was Finnish architect, professor and painter. Biography Early life and career Armas Lindgren was born in Hämeenlinna on November 28, 1874. He studied architecture in the Polytechnical In ...

Armas Lindgren
and
Eliel Saarinen Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen (, ; August 20, 1873 – July 1, 1950) was a Finnish-American architect known for his work with art nouveau buildings in the early years of the 20th century. He was also the father of famed architect Eero Saarinen. Life a ...

Eliel Saarinen
won international recognition for their design of the pavilion of Finland File:Menu for Bosnia Pavillion by Alfons Mucha 1900.jpg, Menu designed by
Alfons Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
for the restaurant of the Bosnia Pavilion File:Portique Sèvres, square Félix-Desruelles, Paris 6e.jpg, Portico of the Sevres Porcelain Pavilion (1900), now on square Félix-Desruelles in Paris
The Paris 1900 ''Exposition universelle'' marked the high point of Art Nouveau. Between April and November 1900, it attracted nearly fifty million visitors from around the world, and showcased the architecture, design, glassware, furniture and decorative objects of the style. The architecture of the Exposition was often a mixture of Art Nouveau and
Beaux-Arts architecture 300px, Beaux-arts buildings at the University of California, Berkeley, designed by John Galen Howard ''Beaux-Arts'' architecture (; ) was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, particularly from the ...
: the main exhibit hall, the
Grand Palais The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English: Great Palace), is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France. Constr ...
had a Beaux-Arts façade completely unrelated to the spectacular Art Nouveau stairway and exhibit hall in the interior. French designers all made special works for the Exhibition:
Lalique Lalique is a French glassmaker, founded by renowned glassmaker and jeweller René Lalique in 1888. Lalique is best known for producing glass art, including perfume bottles, vases, and hood ornaments during the early twentieth century. Following the ...
crystal and jewellery; jewellery by
Henri Vever Henri Vever (1854–1942) was one of the most preeminent European jewelers of the early 20th century, operating the family business, Maison Vever, started by his grandfather. Henri was also a collector of a broad range of fine art, including print ...
and Georges Fouquet; Daum glass; the
Manufacture nationale de Sèvres The ''Manufacture nationale de Sèvres'' is one of the principal European porcelain factories. It is located in Sèvres, Hauts-de-Seine, France. It is the continuation of Vincennes porcelain, founded in 1740, which moved to Sèvres in 1756. It has ...
in
porcelain Porcelain () is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including a material like kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between . The strength, and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises mainly from v ...
; ceramics by
Alexandre Bigot Alexandre Bigot (5 November 1862 – 27 April 1927) was a French ceramicist. He was primarily a ceramics manufacturer; producing the designs of many artists and architects of the French Art Nouveau movement; including: Jules Lavirotte, Hector Gui ...
; sculpted glass lamps and vases by
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
; furniture by Édouard Colonna and
Louis Majorelle Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, (26 September 1859 – 15 January 1926) was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ''ébéniste''. ...
; and many other prominent arts and crafts firms. At the 1900 Paris Exposition,
Siegfried Bing Samuel Siegfried Bing (26 February 1838 – 6 September 1905), who usually gave his name as S. Bing (not to be confused with his brother, Samuel Otto Bing, 1850–1905), was a German-French art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who ...
presented a pavilion called '' Art Nouveau Bing'', which featured six different interiors entirely decorated in the Style. The Exposition was the first international showcase for Art Nouveau designers and artists from across Europe and beyond. Prize winners and participants included
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
, who made murals for the pavilion of
Bosnia-Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South and Southeast Europe, located within the Balkans. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city. Bo ...
and designed the menu for the restaurant of the pavilion; the decorators and designers Bruno Paul and
Bruno Möhring Bruno Möhring (11 December 1863 – 25/26 March 1929) was a German architect, urban planner, designer and a professor in Berlin. He was one of the most important architects of the Jugendstil style in Germany. He received his education at the Berl ...
from Berlin;
Carlo Bugatti Carlo Bugatti (2 February 1856 – April 1940) was an Italian decorator, designer and manufacturer of Art Nouveau furniture, models of jewelry, and musical instruments. Biography Son of Giovanni Luigi Bugatti, a specialist in interior decora ...
from
Turin Turin ( , Piedmontese: ; it, Torino ; lat, Augusta Taurinorum, then ''Taurinum'') is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of Piedmont and of the Metropolitan City of Turin, and was the fi ...
; Bernhardt Pankok from
Bavaria Bavaria (; German and Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a landlocked state (''Land'') in the south-east of Germany. With an area of , Bavaria is the largest German state ...
; The Russian architect-designer
Fyodor Schechtel Fyodor Osipovich Schechtel (russian: Фёдор О́сипович Ше́хтель; August 7, 1859 – July 7, 1926) was a Russian architect, graphic artist and stage designer, the most influential and prolific master of Russian Art Nouveau and la ...
, and
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
and Company from the United States. The Viennese architect
Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (; 13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect, furniture designer and urban planner. He was a leading member of the Vienna Secession movement of architecture, founded in 1897, and the broader Art Nouveau movem ...
was a member of the jury, and presented a model of the Art Nouveau bathroom of his own town apartment in Vienna, featuring a glass bathtub.
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
designed the Viennese exhibit at the Paris exposition, highlighting the designs of the
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
.
Eliel Saarinen Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen (, ; August 20, 1873 – July 1, 1950) was a Finnish-American architect known for his work with art nouveau buildings in the early years of the 20th century. He was also the father of famed architect Eero Saarinen. Life a ...

Eliel Saarinen
first won international recognition for his imaginative design of the pavilion of Finland. While the Paris Exposition was by far the largest, other expositions did much to popularize the style. The
1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition The 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition (in Catalan: ''Exposició Universal de Barcelona'' and ''Exposición Universal de Barcelona'' in Spanish) was Spain's first International World's Fair and ran from April 8 to December 9, 1888. It was also the ...
marked the beginning of the
Modernisme ''Modernisme'' (, Catalan for "modernism"), also known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the search of a new entitlement of Catalan culture, one of the most predomi ...

Modernisme
style in Spain, with some buildings of
Lluís Domènech i Montaner Lluís Domènech i Montaner (; 21 December 1850 – 27 December 1923) was a Spanish architect who was highly influential on ''Modernisme català'', the Catalan Art Nouveau/Jugendstil movement. He was also a Catalan politician. Born in Barcelona, he ...
. The '' Esposizione internazionale d'arte decorativa moderna'' of 1902 in Turin, Italy, showcased designers from across Europe, including
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
from Belgium and
Joseph Maria Olbrich Joseph Maria Olbrich (22 December 1867 – 8 August 1908) was an Austrian architect and one of the Vienna Secession founders. Early life Olbrich was born in Opava, Austrian Silesia (today in the Czech Republic), the third child of Edmund and Al ...
from Vienna, along with local artists such as
Carlo Bugatti Carlo Bugatti (2 February 1856 – April 1940) was an Italian decorator, designer and manufacturer of Art Nouveau furniture, models of jewelry, and musical instruments. Biography Son of Giovanni Luigi Bugatti, a specialist in interior decora ...
,
Galileo Chini Galileo Chini (2 December 1873 - 23 August 1956) was an Italian decorator, designer, painter, and potter. A prominent member of the Italian Liberty style movement, or Italian Art Nouveau, he taught decorative arts at the Accademia di Belle Arti in ...
and Eugenio Quarti.


Local variations


Art Nouveau in France

File:Cheret, Jules - La Loie Fuller (pl 73).jpg, Poster for the dancer
Loie Fuller Loie Fuller (born Marie Louise Fuller; January 15, 1862 – January 1, 1928), also known as Louie Fuller and Loïe Fuller, was an American actress and dancer who was a pioneer of both modern dance and theatrical lighting techniques. Career Born ...

Loie Fuller
by
Jules Chéret Jules Chéret (31 May 1836 – 23 September 1932) was a French painter and lithographer who became a master of ''Belle Époque'' poster art. He has been called the father of the modern poster. Biography left, L'Etendard Français, Chéret's 1891 ...
(1893) File:Alphonse Mucha - Poster for Victorien Sardou's Gismonda starring Sarah Bernhardt.jpg, Poster by
Alfons Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
for '' Gismonda'' starring
Sarah Bernhardt Sarah Bernhardt (; born Henriette-Rosine Bernard; 22 or 23 October 1844 – 26 March 1923) was a French stage actress who starred in some of the most popular French plays of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including ''La Dame Aux Cameli ...
(1894) File:Stairs @ Petit Palais @ Paris (34892352515).jpg, Stairway of the
Petit Palais The Petit Palais in 2015 The Petit Palais (; en, Small Palace) is an art museum in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France. Built for the 1900 Exposition Universelle ("universal exhibition"), it now houses the City of Paris Museum of Fine Arts ...
, Paris (1900) File:XDSC 7288-29-av-Rapp-paris-7.jpg, Doorway of the Lavirotte Building by Jules Lavirotte, 29, , Paris (1901) File:MuchaFouquet3.jpg, The jewellery shop of Georges Fouquet at 6, , Paris, designed by
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
, now in the Carnavalet Museum (1901) File:René lalique, pettine in corno, oro, smalti e brillanti, 1902 ca.JPG, Comb of horn, gold, and diamonds by
René Lalique René Jules Lalique (6 April 1860 – 1 May 1945) was a French glass designer known for his creations of glass art, perfume bottles, vases, jewellery, chandeliers, clocks and automobile hood ornaments. Life Lalique's early life was spent learnin ...
(c. 1902) (
Musée d'Orsay The Musée d'Orsay ( , , ) is a museum in Paris, France, on the Left Bank of the Seine. It is housed in the former Gare d'Orsay, a Beaux-Arts railway station built between 1898 and 1900. The museum holds mainly French art dating from 1848 to 19 ...
) File:Villa Majorelle facade.JPG, The Villa Majorelle in Nancy for furniture designer
Louis Majorelle Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, (26 September 1859 – 15 January 1926) was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ''ébéniste''. ...
by architect
Henri Sauvage Henri Sauvage (May 10, 1873 in Rouen – March 21, 1932 in Paris), was a French architect and designer in the early 20th century. He was one of the most important architects in the French Art nouveau movement, Art Deco, and the beginning of arc ...
(1901–02) File:Chambre à coucher Majorelle.jpg, Bedroom furniture of the Villa Majorelle (1901–02), Now in the
Museum of Fine Arts of Nancy Museum of Fine Arts of Nancy The Museum of Fine Arts of Nancy (French: ''Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nancy''), one of the oldest museums in France, is housed in one of the pavilions on Place Stanislas, in the heart of the 18th-century urban ensembl ...
File:Villa Majorelle entry grill.JPG, Glass and Wrought iron grill of the front door of the Villa Majorelle (1901)
Following the 1900 Exposition, the capital of Art Nouveau was Paris. The most extravagant residences in the style were built by Jules Lavirotte, who entirely covered the façades with ceramic sculptural decoration. The most flamboyant example is the Lavirotte Building, at 29, (1901). Office buildings and department stores featured high courtyards covered with stained glass cupolas and ceramic decoration. The style was particularly popular in restaurants and cafés, including ''
Maxim's Maxim's is a restaurant in Paris, France, located at No. 3 rue Royale in the 8th . It is known for its Art Nouveau interior decor. In the mid 20th century Maxim's was regarded as the most famous restaurant in the world. History Maxim's was foun ...
'' at Rue Royale, Paris, 3, ''rue Royale'', and Le Train Bleu (restaurant), ''Le Train bleu'' at the Gare de Lyon (1900). The status of Paris attracted foreign artists to the city. The Swiss-born artist
Eugène Grasset Eugène Samuel Grasset (25 May 1845 – 23 October 1917) was a Swiss decorative artist who worked in Paris, France in a variety of creative design fields during the Belle Époque. He is considered a pioneer in Art Nouveau design. Biography Gra ...
was one of the first creators of French Art Nouveau posters. He helped decorate the famous cabaret Le Chat Noir in 1885, made his first posters for the ''Fêtes de Paris'' and a celebrated poster of
Sarah Bernhardt Sarah Bernhardt (; born Henriette-Rosine Bernard; 22 or 23 October 1844 – 26 March 1923) was a French stage actress who starred in some of the most popular French plays of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including ''La Dame Aux Cameli ...
in 1890. In Paris, he taught at the Guérin school of art (''École normale d'enseignement du dessin''), where his students included Augusto Giacometti and Paul Berthon. Swiss-born Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen created the famous poster for the Paris cabaret Le Chat Noir, ''Le Chat noir'' in 1896. The Czechs, Czech artist
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
(1860–1939) arrived in Paris in 1888, and in 1895, made a poster for actress Sarah Bernhardt in the play '' Gismonda'' by Victorien Sardou in Théâtre de la Renaissance. The success of this poster led to a contract to produce posters for six more plays by Bernhardt. The city of Nancy in Lorraine became the other French capital of the new style. In 1901, the ''Alliance provinciale des industries d'art'', also known as the ''École de Nancy'', was founded, dedicated to upsetting the hierarchy that put painting and sculpture above the decorative arts. The major artists working there included the glass vase and lamp creators
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
, the Daum brothers in glass design, and the designer
Louis Majorelle Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, (26 September 1859 – 15 January 1926) was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ''ébéniste''. ...
, who created furniture with graceful floral and vegetal forms. The architect
Henri Sauvage Henri Sauvage (May 10, 1873 in Rouen – March 21, 1932 in Paris), was a French architect and designer in the early 20th century. He was one of the most important architects in the French Art nouveau movement, Art Deco, and the beginning of arc ...
brought the new architectural style to Nancy with his Villa Majorelle in 1902. The French style was widely propagated by new magazines, including ''The Studio'', ''Arts et Idées'' and ''Art et Décoration'', whose photographs and colour lithographs made the style known to designers and wealthy clients around the world. In France, the style reached its summit in 1900, and thereafter slipped rapidly out of fashion, virtually disappearing from France by 1905. Art Nouveau was a luxury style, which required expert and highly-paid craftsmen, and could not be easily or cheaply mass-produced. One of the few Art Nouveau products that could be mass-produced was the perfume bottle, and these are still manufactured in the style today.


Art Nouveau in Belgium

File:Belgique - Bruxelles - Hôtel Van Eetvelde - 01.jpg, The
Hôtel van Eetvelde The Hôtel van Eetvelde (french: Hôtel van Eetvelde, nl, Hotel van Eetvelde) is a town house designed in 1895 by Victor Horta for Edmond van Eetvelde, administrator of Congo Free State. It is located at 4, / in Brussels, Belgium. Together with t ...
by
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
,
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brussels Ho ...
(1898–1900) File:Belgique - Bruxelles - Hôtel Van Eetvelde - 20.jpg, Detail of the Winter Garden of the Hôtel van Eetvelde File:Old England facade, Brussels (DSCF7544).jpg, Former Old England (department store), Old England department store by Paul Saintenoy, Brussels (1898–1899) File:Maison Saint-Cyr (DSCF7558).jpg, Saint-Cyr House by Gustave Strauven, Brussels (1901–1903) File:Maison Cauchie-445.jpg, Cauchie House, House of the architect Paul Cauchie featuring
sgraffito ''Sgraffito'' (; plural: ''sgraffiti'') is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colours to a moistened surface, or in pottery, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers ...
, Brussels (1905) File:Henry van de velde, sedia, belgio 1896.JPG, Chair by
Henry van de Velde#REDIRECT Henry van de Velde {{R from other capitalisation ...
(1896) File:Gustave Serrurier-Bovy.jpg, Bed and mirror by
Gustave Serrurier-Bovy225px, Mahogany armoire designed in 1899 by Serrurier-Bovy, on display at the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1858–1910) was a Belgian architect and furniture designer. He is credited (along with Paul Hankar, Victor Horta and Hen ...
(1898–1899), now in the
Musée d'Orsay The Musée d'Orsay ( , , ) is a museum in Paris, France, on the Left Bank of the Seine. It is housed in the former Gare d'Orsay, a Beaux-Arts railway station built between 1898 and 1900. The museum holds mainly French art dating from 1848 to 19 ...
, Paris File:Philippe Wolfers, Plumes de Paon, KMKG-MRAH.jpg, Philippe Wolfers, ''Plume de Paon,'' (Collection King Baudouin Foundation, depot: KMKG-MRAH)
Belgium was an early centre of Art Nouveau, thanks largely to the architecture of
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
, who designed one of the first Art Nouveau houses, the
Hôtel Tassel The Hôtel Tassel (french: Hôtel Tassel, nl, Hotel Tassel) is a townhouse in Brussels, Belgium, designed by Victor Horta for the Belgian scientist and professor Emile Tassel and built from 1892–93. It is generally considered the first true Art ...
in 1893, and three other townhouses in variations of the same style. They are now Major town houses of the architect Victor Horta (Brussels), UNESCO World Heritage sites. Horta had a strong influence on the work of the young
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
, who came to see the Hôtel Tassel under construction, and later declared that Horta was the "inventor" of the Art Nouveau. Horta's innovation was not the facade, but the interior, using an abundance of iron and glass to open up space and flood the rooms with light, and decorating them with wrought iron columns and railings in curving vegetal forms, which were echoed on the floors and walls, as well as the furniture and carpets which Horta designed.
Paul Hankar Paul Hankar (11 December 1859 – 17 January 1901) was a Belgian architect and furniture designer, and an innovator in the Art Nouveau style. Career He was born at Frameries, the son of a stonemason. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux ...
was another pioneer of Brussels' Art Nouveau. His house was completed in 1903, the same year as Horta's Hôtel Tassel, and featured sgraffiti murals on the facade. Hankar was influenced by both Viollet-le-Duc and the ideas of the English
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and societies through skills and imagination in order to produce objects, environments and experiences. Major constituents of th ...
. His conception idea was to bring together decorative and fine arts in a coherent whole. He commissioned the sculptor Alfred Crick and the painter to decorate the facades of houses with their work. The most striking example was the house and studio built for the artist Albert Ciamberlani at 48, / in Brussels, for which he created an exuberant facade covered with
sgraffito ''Sgraffito'' (; plural: ''sgraffiti'') is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colours to a moistened surface, or in pottery, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers ...
murals with painted figures and ornament, recreating the decorative architecture of the Quattrocento, or 15th-century Italy. Hankar died in 1901, when his work was just receiving recognition. Gustave Strauven was Horta's assistant, before he started his own practice at age 21. His most famous work is the Maison Saint Cyr on Ambiorix Square in Brussels. Just four meters wide, it is decorated from top to bottom with curving ornament, in a virtually Art Nouveau-Baroque style. Other important Art Nouveau artists from Belgium included the architect and designer
Henry van de Velde#REDIRECT Henry van de Velde {{R from other capitalisation ...
, though the most important part of his career was spent in Germany; he strongly influenced the decoration of the
Jugendstil Jugendstil ("Youth Style") was an artistic movement, particularly in the decorative arts, that was influential primarily in Germany and elsewhere in Europe to a lesser extent from about 1895 until about 1910. It was the German counterpart of Art ...
. Others included the decorator
Gustave Serrurier-Bovy225px, Mahogany armoire designed in 1899 by Serrurier-Bovy, on display at the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1858–1910) was a Belgian architect and furniture designer. He is credited (along with Paul Hankar, Victor Horta and Hen ...
, and the graphic artist Fernand Khnopff. Belgian designers took advantage of an abundant supply of ivory imported from the Belgian Congo; mixed sculptures, combining stone, metal and ivory, by such artists as Philippe Wolfers, was popular.


''Nieuwe Kunst'' in the Netherlands

File:BeursVanBerlage.jpg, The Amsterdam Commodities Exchange, by Hendrik Petrus Berlage (1896–1903) File:H.p. berlage per m.j. hack, stipo-scrittoio, 1895 ca.jpg, Cabinet/Desk by Berlage (1898) File:Delftsche Slaolie.jpeg, Poster for Delft Salad Oil by Jan Toorop (1893) File:Vaas met deksel met geabstraheerd floraal decor, 1888-89.jpg, Vase with abstract floral design by Theo Colenbrander (1898) File:Vase by J. Jurriaan Kok (form) & W. R. Sterken (decoration), Haagsche Plateelbakkerij, Rozenburg, Den Haag, 1901, porcelain - Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt - Darmstadt, Germany - DSC00820.jpg, Porcelain vase designed by J. Jurriaaan Kok and decorated by W.R. Sterken (1901) In the Netherlands, the style was known as the ("New Style"), or ("New Art"), and it took a different direction from the more floral and curving style in Belgium. It was influenced by the more geometric and stylized forms of the German
Jugendstil Jugendstil ("Youth Style") was an artistic movement, particularly in the decorative arts, that was influential primarily in Germany and elsewhere in Europe to a lesser extent from about 1895 until about 1910. It was the German counterpart of Art ...
and Austrian
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
. It was also influenced by the art and imported woods from Indonesia, then the Dutch East Indies, particularly the designs of the textiles and batik from Java. The most important architect and furniture designer in the style was Hendrik Petrus Berlage, who denounced historical styles and advocated a purely functional architecture. He wrote, "It is necessary to fight against the art of illusion, to and to recognize the lie, in order to find the essence and not the illusion." Like
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
and Gaudí, he was an admirer of architectural theories of Viollet-le-Duc. His furniture was designed to be strictly functional, and to respect the natural forms of wood, rather than bending or twisting it as if it were metal. He pointed to the example of Egyptian furniture, and preferred chairs with right angles. His first and most famous architectural work was the Beurs van Berlage (1896–1903), the Amsterdam Commodities Exchange, which he built following the principles of constructivism (art), constructivism. Everything was functional, including the lines of rivets that decorated the walls of the main room. He often included very tall towers to his buildings to make them more prominent, a practice used by other Art Nouveau architects of the period, including
Joseph Maria Olbrich Joseph Maria Olbrich (22 December 1867 – 8 August 1908) was an Austrian architect and one of the Vienna Secession founders. Early life Olbrich was born in Opava, Austrian Silesia (today in the Czech Republic), the third child of Edmund and Al ...
in Vienna and
Eliel Saarinen Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen (, ; August 20, 1873 – July 1, 1950) was a Finnish-American architect known for his work with art nouveau buildings in the early years of the 20th century. He was also the father of famed architect Eero Saarinen. Life a ...

Eliel Saarinen
in Finland. Other buildings in the style include the American Hotel, Amsterdam, American Hotel (1898–1900), also by Berlage; and Astoria (Amsterdam), Astoria (1904–1905) by Herman Hendrik Baanders and Gerrit van Arkel in Amsterdam; the Haarlem railway station, railway station in Haarlem (1906–1908), and the former office building of the Holland America Lines (1917) in Rotterdam, now the Hotel New York (Rotterdam), Hotel New York. Prominent graphic artists and illustrators in the style included Jan Toorop, whose work inclined toward mysticism and symbolism (arts), symbolism, even in his posters for salad oil. In their colors and designs, they also sometimes showed the influence of the art of Java. Important figures in Dutch ceramics and porcelain included Jurriaan Kok and Theo Colenbrander. They used colorful floral pattern and more traditional Art Nouveau motifs, combined with unusual forms of pottery and contrasting dark and light colors, borrowed from the batik decoration of Java.


Modern Style and Glasgow School in Britain

File:Glasgow. 59 Dumbarton Road. Art Nouveau detail.jpg, Pub building (1899-1900) by James Hoey Craigie (1870-1930). 59 Dumbarton Road, Glasgow File:MackmurdoWren1883.gif, Cover design by
Arthur Mackmurdo Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo (12 December 1851 – 15 March 1942) was a progressive English architect and designer, who influenced the Arts and Crafts Movement, notably through the Century Guild of Artists, which he set up in partnership with He ...
for a book on Christopher Wren (1883) File:Room de Luxe.jpg, Willow Tearooms by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, 217 Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow (1903) File:St Vincent Chambers - view from S.jpg, "The Hatrack" building by James Salmon (architect, born 1873), James Salmon, 142a, 144 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow (1899-1902) File:Edward Everard's Palace, Broad Street - geograph.org.uk - 761683.jpg, The former Everard's Printing Works, Broad Street, Bristol, Broad Street, Bristol, by Henry Williams (1900) File:Belt buckle designed by Archibald Knox.jpg, Belt buckle by Archibald Knox (designer), Archibald Knox for Liberty (department store), Liberty Department Store File:Margaret MacDonald - Embroidered Panels 1902.jpg, Embroidered panels by Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh (1902) File:Three Graces Liverpool 03.jpg, The Royal Liver Building, Liverpool, by Walter Aubrey Thomas (1908–11)
Art Nouveau had its roots in Britain, in the
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and societies through skills and imagination in order to produce objects, environments and experiences. Major constituents of th ...
which started in 1860s and reached international recognition by 1880s. It called for better treatment of decorative arts, and took inspiration in medieval craftmanship and design, and nature. One notable early example of the Modern Style is
Arthur Mackmurdo Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo (12 December 1851 – 15 March 1942) was a progressive English architect and designer, who influenced the Arts and Crafts Movement, notably through the Century Guild of Artists, which he set up in partnership with He ...
's design for the cover of his essay on the city churches of Sir Christopher Wren, published in 1883, as is his Mahogany chair from the same year. Other important innovators in Britain included the graphic designers
Aubrey Beardsley Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 187216 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author. His black ink drawings were influenced by Japanese woodcuts, and emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the ...
whose drawings featured the curved lines that became the most recognizable feature of the style. Free-flowing wrought iron from the 1880s could also be adduced, or some flat floral textile designs, most of which owed some impetus to patterns of 19th century design. Other British graphic artists who had an important place in the style included
Walter Crane Walter Crane (15 August 184514 March 1915) was a British artist and book illustrator. He is considered to be the most influential, and among the most prolific, children's book creators of his generation and, along with Randolph Caldecott and Kate ...
and Charles Robert Ashbee, Charles Ashbee. The Liberty (department store), Liberty department store in London played an important role, through its colourful stylized floral designs for textiles, and the silver, pewter, and jewellery designs of Isle of Man, Manxman (of Scottish descent) Archibald Knox (designer), Archibald Knox. His jewellery designs in materials and forms broke away entirely from the historical traditions of jewellery design. For Art Nouveau architecture and furniture design, the most important centre in Britain was Glasgow, Scotland, Glasgow, with the creations of Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the
Glasgow School The Glasgow School was a circle of influential artists and designers that began to coalesce in Glasgow, Scotland in the 1870s, and flourished from the 1890s to around 1910. Representative groups included The Four (also known as the Spook School) ...
, whose work was inspired by Scottish baronial architecture and Japanese design. Beginning in 1895, Mackintosh displayed his designs at international expositions in London, Vienna, and Turin; his designs particularly influenced the Secession Style in Vienna. His architectural creations included the Glasgow Herald Building (1894) and the library of the Glasgow School of Art (1897). He also established a major reputation as a furniture designer and decorator, working closely with his wife, Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh, a prominent painter and designer. Together they created striking designs that combined geometric straight lines with gently curving floral decoration, particularly a famous symbol of the style, the Glasgow Rose". Léon-Victor Solon, made an important contribution to Art Nouveau ceramics as art director at Mintons. He specialised in plaques and in Tubelining, tube-lined vases marketed as "secessionist ware" (usually described as named after the Viennese Secession, Viennese art movement). Apart from ceramics, he designed textiles for the Thomas Wardle (industrialist), Leek silk industry and doublure (bookbinding), doublures for a bookbinder (G.T.Bagguley of Newcastle under Lyme), who patented the ''Sutherland'' binding in 1895. George Skipper was perhaps the most active art nouveau architect in England. The Edward Everard building in Bristol, built during 1900–01 to house the Former Everard's Printing Works, printing works of Edward Everard, features an Art Nouveau façade. The figures depicted are of Johannes Gutenberg and
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of traditi ...
, both eminent in the field of printing. A winged figure symbolises the "Spirit of Light", while a figure holding a lamp and mirror symbolises light and truth.


''Jugendstil'' in Germany

File:Joseph Sattler-PAN.jpg, Cover of ''Pan'' magazine by Joseph Sattler (1895) File:Otto Eckmann - Jugend Nr. 14, 1896.jpg, Cover of ''Jugend'' by Otto Eckmann (1896) File:Tapestry 'Five Swans', designed by Otto Eckmann, made by Schule fur Kunstweberie, Scherrebek, 1896-1897, wool - Bröhan Museum, Berlin - DSC04157.JPG, Tapestry ''The Five Swans'' by Otto Eckmann (1896–97) File:Muenchner Secession 1898—1900.jpg, Poster of the Munich Secession by Franz Stuck (1898–1900) File:Art Nouveau door handle.jpg, Jugendstil door handle in Berlin (circa 1900) File:Richard Riemerschmid Stuhl 1905 Dresdner Werkstätten für Handwerkskunst 1.jpg, Chair by Richard Riemerschmid (1902) File:La maison de Peter Behrens (Musée de la colonie d'artistes, Darmstadt) (8728647639).jpg, Jugendstil dining room set and dishes by Peter Behrens (1900–1901) File:Jug, designed by Richard Riemerschmid, made by Merkelbach Wilhelm Reinhold, Grenzhausen, 1902, stoneware with salt glaze and relief - Bröhan Museum, Berlin - DSC03997.JPG, Stoneware jug by Richard Riemerschmid (1902) File:WMF Jugendstil pewter dish.jpg, Jugendstil pewter dish by WMF Group, WMF Design no.232. c.1906 German Art Nouveau is commonly known by its German name, ''
Jugendstil Jugendstil ("Youth Style") was an artistic movement, particularly in the decorative arts, that was influential primarily in Germany and elsewhere in Europe to a lesser extent from about 1895 until about 1910. It was the German counterpart of Art ...
'', or "Youth Style". The name is taken from the artistic journal, ''Jugend (magazine), Die Jugend'', or ''Youth'', which was published in Munich. The magazine was founded in 1896 by Georg Hirth, who remained editor until his death in 1916. The magazine survived until 1940. During the early 20th century, ''Jugendstil'' was applied only to the graphic arts. It referred especially to the forms of typography and graphic design found in German magazines such as '' Jugend'', ''Pan (magazine), Pan'', and ''Simplicissimus''. ''Jugendstil'' was later applied to other versions of Art Nouveau in Germany, the Netherlands. The term was borrowed from German by several languages of the Baltic states and Nordic countries to describe Art Nouveau (see #Naming, Naming section). In 1892 Georg Hirth chose the name Munich Secession for the Association of Visual Artists of
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, and thus the lar ...
. The
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
, founded in 1897,Association of Visual Artists Vienna Secession – Official Website
/ref> and the Berlin Secession also took their names from the Munich group. The journals ''Jugend'' and ''Simplicissimus'', published in Munich, and ''Pan (magazine), Pan'', published in Berlin, were important proponents of the ''Jugendstil''. ''Jugendstil'' art combined sinuous curves and more geometric lines, and was used for covers of novels, advertisements, and Art exhibition, exhibition posters. Designers often created original styles of typeface that worked harmoniously with the image, e.g. Arnold Böcklin (typeface), Arnold Böcklin typeface in 1904. Otto Eckmann was one of the most prominent German artists associated with both ''Die Jugend'' and ''Pan''. His favourite animal was the swan, and so great was his influence that the swan came to serve as the symbol of the entire movement. Another prominent designer in the style was Richard Riemerschmid, who made furniture, pottery, and other decorative objects in a sober, geometric style that pointed forward toward Art Deco. The Swiss artist Hermann Obrist, living in Munich, illustrated the ''coup de fouet'' or whiplash motif, a highly stylized double curve suggesting motion taken from the stem of the cyclamen flower. File:Mathildenhoehe-ernst-ludwig-haus-076.jpg, Ernst Ludwig House by
Joseph Maria Olbrich Joseph Maria Olbrich (22 December 1867 – 8 August 1908) was an Austrian architect and one of the Vienna Secession founders. Early life Olbrich was born in Opava, Austrian Silesia (today in the Czech Republic), the third child of Edmund and Al ...
(1900) now hosting Darmstadt Colony Museum File:Hochzeitsturm DA.jpg, Wedding tower in Mathildenhöhe, Darmstadt Artists' Colony (1908) File:Sprudelhof Bad Nauheim, Hessen, Germany.jpg, Spa complex Sprudelhof in Bad Nauheim (1905–1911) File:Mexikoplatz B-Schlachtensee 06-2017.jpg, Berlin Mexikoplatz station, Mexikoplatz station in Berlin (1902–1904) File:Hackesche Höfe (Berlin) 1.jpg, Hackesche Höfe in Berlin (1906) File:Drzwi Rybnik.jpg, Art Nouveau door with a decorative sunflower motif (Rybnik Silesia)
The Mathildenhöhe, Darmstadt Artists' Colony was founded in 1899 by Ernst Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse, Ernest Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse. The architect who built Grand Duke's house, as well as the largest structure of the colony (Wedding tower), was
Joseph Maria Olbrich Joseph Maria Olbrich (22 December 1867 – 8 August 1908) was an Austrian architect and one of the Vienna Secession founders. Early life Olbrich was born in Opava, Austrian Silesia (today in the Czech Republic), the third child of Edmund and Al ...
, one of the
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
founders. Other notable artists of the colony were Peter Behrens and Hans Christiansen (artist), Hans Christiansen. Ernest Ludwig also commissioned to rebuild the spa complex in Bad Nauheim at the beginning of century. A completely new complex was constructed in 1905–1911 under the direction of and attained one of the main objectives of Jugendstil: a synthesis of all the arts. Another member of the reigning family who commissioned an Art Nouveau structure was Princess Elisabeth of Hesse and by Rhine (1864–1918), Princess Elisabeth of Hesse and by Rhine. She founded Marfo-Mariinsky Convent in Moscow in 1908 and its katholikon is recognized as an Art Nouveau masterpiece. Another notable union in German Empire was the Deutscher Werkbund, founded in 1907 in
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, and thus the lar ...
at the instigation of Hermann Muthesius by artists of Darmstadt Colony
Joseph Maria Olbrich Joseph Maria Olbrich (22 December 1867 – 8 August 1908) was an Austrian architect and one of the Vienna Secession founders. Early life Olbrich was born in Opava, Austrian Silesia (today in the Czech Republic), the third child of Edmund and Al ...
, Peter Behrens; by another founder of
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
, as well as by Wiener Werkstätte (founded by Hoffmann), by Richard Riemerschmid, Bruno Paul and other artists and companies. Later Belgian
Henry van de Velde#REDIRECT Henry van de Velde {{R from other capitalisation ...
joined the movement. The , founded by him in
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately southwest of Leipzig, north of Nuremberg and west of Dresde ...
, was a predecessor of Bauhaus, one of the most influential currents in Modern architecture, Modernist architecture. In Berlin Jugendstil was chosen for the construction of several railway stations. The most notable is Bülowstraße (Berlin U-Bahn), Bülowstraße by
Bruno Möhring Bruno Möhring (11 December 1863 – 25/26 March 1929) was a German architect, urban planner, designer and a professor in Berlin. He was one of the most important architects of the Jugendstil style in Germany. He received his education at the Berl ...
(1900–1902), other examples are Berlin Mexikoplatz station, Mexikoplatz (1902–1904), Berlin Botanischer Garten station, Botanischer Garten (1908–1909), Berlin-Frohnau station, Frohnau (1908–1910), Wittenbergplatz (Berlin U-Bahn), Wittenbergplatz (1911–1913) and Berlin-Pankow station, Pankow (1912–1914) stations. Another notable structure of Berlin is Hackesche Höfe (1906) which used polychrome glazed brick for the courtyard facade. Art Nouveau in Strasbourg (then part of the German Empire as the capital of the ''Alsace-Lorraine, Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen'') was a specific brand, in that it combined influences from Nancy, and
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brussels Ho ...
, with influences from
Darmstadt Darmstadt (, also , , ) is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region). Darmstadt has around 160,000 inhabitants, making it the fourth largest city in the state o ...
, and Vienna, to operate a local synthesis which reflected the Strasbourg#History, history of the city between the Germanic and the French realms.


Secession in Austria–Hungary


Vienna Secession

File:Wien, Friedrichstraße 12, Secession-20160621-011.jpg, The Secession hall (Austria), Secession Hall in Vienna by
Joseph Maria Olbrich Joseph Maria Olbrich (22 December 1867 – 8 August 1908) was an Austrian architect and one of the Vienna Secession founders. Early life Olbrich was born in Opava, Austrian Silesia (today in the Czech Republic), the third child of Edmund and Al ...
(1897–98) File:Ernst Stöhr, Vampir, 1899.png, Vampire in Ver Sacrum (magazine), Ver Sacrum #12 (1899) p. 8 by Ernst Stöhr File:Armchair, Der reiche Fischzug (The Rich Catch of Fish) LACMA M.2000.180.39 (2 of 2).jpg, Armchair by Koloman Moser (c. 1900) File:Dame in Gelb Max Kurzweil 1907.jpg, Woman in a Yellow Dress by Max Kurzweil (1907) File:The Kiss - Gustav Klimt - Google Cultural Institute.jpg, The Kiss (Klimt), The Kiss by
Gustav Klimt Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objects d'art. Klimt's prima ...
(1907–08)
Vienna became the centre of a distinct variant of Art Nouveau, which became known as the
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
. The movement took its name from Munich Secession established in 1892. Vienna Secession was founded in April 1897 by a group of artists that included
Gustav Klimt Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objects d'art. Klimt's prima ...
, Koloman Moser,
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
,
Joseph Maria Olbrich Joseph Maria Olbrich (22 December 1867 – 8 August 1908) was an Austrian architect and one of the Vienna Secession founders. Early life Olbrich was born in Opava, Austrian Silesia (today in the Czech Republic), the third child of Edmund and Al ...
, Max Kurzweil, Ernst Stöhr, and others. The painter Klimt became the president of the group. They objected to the conservative orientation toward historicism expressed by Vienna Künstlerhaus, the official union of artists. The Secession founded a magazine, ''Ver Sacrum (magazine), Ver Sacrum'', to promote their works in all media. The architect Joseph Olbrich designed the domed Secession building in the new style, which became a showcase for the paintings of Gustav Klimt and other Secession artists. Klimt became the best-known of the Secession painters, often erasing the border between fine art painting and decorative painting. Koloman Moser was an extremely versatile artist in the style; his work including magazine illustrations, architecture, silverware, ceramics, porcelain, textiles, stained glass windows, and furniture. File:Wien - Majolika-Haus.JPG, Floral design by Alois Ludwig on the facade of Maiolica House by
Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (; 13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect, furniture designer and urban planner. He was a leading member of the Vienna Secession movement of architecture, founded in 1897, and the broader Art Nouveau movem ...
(1898) File:Otto-Wagner-Pavillon Wien.jpg, Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Station by
Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (; 13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect, furniture designer and urban planner. He was a leading member of the Vienna Secession movement of architecture, founded in 1897, and the broader Art Nouveau movem ...
(1899) File:Otto Wagner Kirche, Wien (02).jpg, Interior of the Kirche am Steinhof by
Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (; 13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect, furniture designer and urban planner. He was a leading member of the Vienna Secession movement of architecture, founded in 1897, and the broader Art Nouveau movem ...
(1904–1907) File:20120923 Brussels PalaisStoclet Hoffmann DSC06725 PtrQs.jpg, The Palais Stoclet in Brussels by
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
(1905–1911)
The most prominent architect of the
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
was
Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (; 13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect, furniture designer and urban planner. He was a leading member of the Vienna Secession movement of architecture, founded in 1897, and the broader Art Nouveau movem ...
, he joined the movement soon after its inception to follow his students Hoffmann and Olbrich. His major projects included several stations of the urban rail network (the Vienna Stadtbahn, Stadtbahn), the Linke Wienzeile Buildings (consisting of Majolica House, the House of Medallions and the house at Köstlergasse). The Karlsplatz Station is now an exhibition hall of the Vienna Museum. The Kirche am Steinhof of Steinhof Psychiatric hospital (1904–1907) is a unique and finely-crafted example of Secession religious architecture, with a traditional domed exterior but sleek, modern gold and white interior lit by abundance of modern stained glass. In 1899
Joseph Maria Olbrich Joseph Maria Olbrich (22 December 1867 – 8 August 1908) was an Austrian architect and one of the Vienna Secession founders. Early life Olbrich was born in Opava, Austrian Silesia (today in the Czech Republic), the third child of Edmund and Al ...
moved to Darmstadt Artists' Colony, in 1903 Koloman Moser and
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
founded the Wiener Werkstätte, a training school and workshop for designers and craftsmen of furniture, carpets, textiles and decorative objects. In 1905 Koloman Moser and
Gustav Klimt Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objects d'art. Klimt's prima ...
separated from Vienna Secession, later in 1907 Koloman Moser left Wiener Werkstätte as well, while its other founder
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
joined the Deutscher Werkbund.
Gustav Klimt Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objects d'art. Klimt's prima ...
and
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
continued collaborating, they organized in 1908 in Vienna and built the Stoclet Palace in
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brussels Ho ...
(1905–1911) that announced the coming of modernist architecture.Oudin, Bernard, ''Dictionnaire des Architectes'' (1994), pp. 33–34Sembach, ''L'Art Nouveau'' (2013), pp. 203–213 It was designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in June 2009.


Hungarian ''Szecesszió''

File:Museum of Applied Arts. Main facade from south. BudapestDSCN3639.jpg, Museum of Applied Arts (Budapest), Museum of Applied Arts in Budapest by Ödön Lechner (1893–1896) File:Földtani intézet - Budapest.jpg, Geological Museum of Budapest by Ödön Lechner (1898–1899) File:Gróf Palace in Szeged (2).JPG, Gróf Palace, Szeged, Gróf Palace in Szeged by Ferenc Raichle (1913) The pioneer and prophet of the ''Szecesszió'' (Secession in Hungarian), the architect Ödön Lechner, created buildings which marked a transition from historicism to modernism for Hungarian architecture. His idea for a Hungarian architectural style was the use of architectural ceramics and oriental motifs. In his works, he used pygorganite placed in production by 1886 by Zsolnay, Zsolnay Porcelain Manufactory. This material was used in the construction of notable Hungarian buildings of other styles, e.g. the Hungarian Parliament Building and Matthias Church. Works by Ödön Lechner include the Museum of Applied Arts (Budapest), Museum of Applied Arts (1893–1896), other building with similar distinctive features are Geological Museum (Budapest), Geological Museum (1896–1899) and The Postal Savings Bank building (1899–1902), all in Budapest. However, due to the opposition of Hungarian architectural establishment to Lechner's success, he soon was unable to get new commissions comparable to his earlier buildings. But Lechner was an inspiration and a master to the following generation of architects who played the main role in popularising the new style. Within the process of Magyarization numerous buildings were commissioned to his disciples in outskirts of the kingdom: e.g. and Dezső Jakab were commissioned to build the Subotica Synagogue, Synagogue (1901–1903) and Town Hall (1908–1910) in Szabadka (now Subotica, Serbia), County Prefecture (1905–1907) and Palace of Culture (Târgu Mureș), Palace of Culture (1911–1913) in Marosvásárhely (now Târgu Mureș,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldov ...
). Later Lechner himself built the Blue Church in Pozsony (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia) in 1909–1913. Another important architect was Károly Kós who was a follower of
John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, philosopher, prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjec ...
and
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of traditi ...
. Kós took the Finnish National Romanticism movement as a model and the Transylvanian vernacular as the inspiration. His most notable buildings include the Roman Catholic Church in Zebegény (1908–09), pavilions for the Budapest Municipal Zoo (1909–1912) and the Székely National Museum in Sepsiszentgyörgy (now Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania, 1911–12). File:Török bankhaz 03.JPG, Mosaic by Miksa Róth at building in Budapest (1906) File:Four Seasons Gresham Palace Hotel - Facade - Pest Side - Budapest - Hungary.jpg, Relief at the facade of Gresham Palace by Géza Maróti in Budapest (1906) File:Ödön faragó e jozsef sandor per cooperativa bùtorcsanok, sudio, budapest 1901, 07.jpg, Cabinet by Ödön Faragó, from Budapest (1901) The movement that promoted Szecesszió in arts was Gödöllő Art Colony, founded by Aladár Körösfői-Kriesch, also a follower
John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, philosopher, prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjec ...
and
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of traditi ...
and a professor at the Royal School of Applied Arts in Budapest in 1901. Its artists took part in many projects, including the Franz Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. An associate to Gödöllő Art Colony, Miksa Róth was also involved in several dozen Szecesszió projects, including Budapest buildings including Gresham Palace (stained glass, 1906) and (mosaics, 1906) and also created mosaics and stained glass for Palace of Culture (Târgu Mureș), Palace of Culture (1911–1913) in Marosvásárhely. A notable furniture designer is who combined traditional popular architecture, oriental architecture and international Art Nouveau in a highly picturesque style. , another Hungarian designer, had a much more sober and functional style, made of oak with delicate traceries of ebony and brass.


Other variations

File:The Municipal House (Obecni Dum) ceiling, Prague - 8906.jpg, Frescoes of Obecní dům, Municipal House in Prague by
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
St Vitus Prague September 2016-22.jpg, Stained glass window by Alphonse Mucha in St. Vitus Cathedral from Prague File:Prague Praha 2014 Holmstad Praha - huset - house Art Nouveau jugend Narodni Trida 7 - 12.jpg, Ceramic relief of Viola Theater in Prague by Ladislav Šaloun Prague - Nová radnice.jpg, The New City Hall (Prague), New City Hall from Prague (1908-1911)
The most prolific ''Slovenian'' Art Nouveau architect was Ciril Metod Koch. He studied at
Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (; 13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect, furniture designer and urban planner. He was a leading member of the Vienna Secession movement of architecture, founded in 1897, and the broader Art Nouveau movem ...
's classes in Vienna and worked in the Laybach (now Ljubljana, Slovenia) City Council from 1894 to 1923. After the earthquake in Laybach in 1895, he designed many secular buildings in Secession style that he adopted from 1900 to 1910: Pogačnik House (1901), Čuden Building (1901), The Farmers Loan Bank (1906–07), renovated Hauptmann Building in Secession style in 1904. The highlight of his career was the Loan Bank in Radmannsdorf (now Radovljica) in 1906. The most notable Secession buildings in ''Prague'' are examples of gesamtkunstwerk, total art with distinctive architecture, sculpture and paintings. Praha hlavní nádraží, The main railway station (1901–1909) was designed by Josef Fanta and features paintings of Václav Jansa and sculptures of Ladislav Šaloun and Stanislav Sucharda along with other artists. The Obecní dům, Municipal House (1904–1912) was designed by Osvald Polívka and Antonín Balšánek, painted by famous Czech painter
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
and features sculptures of Josef Mařatka and Ladislav Šaloun. Polívka, Mařatka, and Šaloun simultaneously cooperated in the construction of New City Hall (Prague), New City Hall (1908–1911) along with Stanislav Sucharda, and Mucha later painted St. Vitus Cathedral's stained glass windows in his distinctive style. The style of combining Hungarian Szecesszió and national architectural elements was typical for a Slovakia, Slovak architect Dušan Jurkovič. His most original works are the Cultural House in Szakolca (now Skalica in Slovakia, 1905), the buildings of spa in Luhačovice (now Czech Republic) in 1901–1903 and 35 war cemeteries near Nowy Żmigród in Galicia (Eastern Europe), Galicia (now Poland), most of them heavily influenced by local Lemko (Rusyns, Rusyn) folk art and carpentry (1915–1917).


Art Nouveau in Romania

16, Strada Dimitrie Racoviță, Bucharest (Romania); one of the most beautiful houses in Romania.jpg, House on Dimitrie Racoviță Street, Bucharest The middle part of an Art Nouveau stove in the house with number 6, Strada Speranței, Bucharest (Romania).jpg, The center of a stove from a city-house in the area of Piața Rosetti, Rosetti Square (Bucharest) Art Nouveau entrance in Piața Mihail Kogălniceanu (Mihail Kogălniceanu Square), from Bucharest (Romania).jpg, Doorway in Mihail Kogălniceanu Square, Bucharest Art Nouveau relief on Strada Sfinților from Bucharest (Romania).jpg, Relief on the façade of a small block, in the area behind the Colțea Hospital, Bucharest Mița the Cyclist House from Bucharest (Romania).jpg, Mița the Cyclist House from Bucharest (1900), combination between Baroque Revival architecture, Baroque Revival and Art Nouveau Casa Dianu, Craiova - streetview (cropped).jpg, The Dianu House from Craiova (1900-1905) Dinu Lipatti House from Bucharest (Romania).jpg, The Dinu Lipatti House from Bucharest by Petre Antonescu (1902), combination of Baroque Revival and Art Nouveau The Romulus Porescu house from Bucharest (Romania).jpg, The Romulus Porescu House from Bucharest by Dumitru Maimarolu (1905), Art Nouveau with Baroque Revival influences Cazinoul din Constanta la rasarit HDR.jpg, The Constanța Casino by Daniel Renard and Petre Antonescu (1905-1910) Detail of A Stove from the George Severeanu Museum (Bucharest, Romania).jpg, The top of a tiled stove from the George Severeanu Museum, Bucharest Detail of the fence of house 18, Bulevardul Lascăr Catargiu, Bucharest (Romania) 2.jpg, Detail on a fence on the Lascăr Catargiu Boulevard, Bucharest Ceiling of the porch of the Antim Monastery Church 1.jpg, Frescos on the ceiling of the portico of the Antim Monastery Church from Bucharest The Constanța Casino is probably the most famous exemplary of Art Nouveau in Romania. The ''Casino'', ''Kurhaus'' or ''Kursaal'' theme is specific to the Belle Époque. The author of the casino, started in 1905 and finished in 1910, is the architect Daniel Renard, who studied in Paris between and 1894 and 1900. He signed both the architectural and decoration plans of the casino. Specific to Art Nouveau is the embossed ornamentation of the facades, either with naturalistic floral motifs, such as those of the School of Nancy, or motifs inspired by marine fauna, such as shells and dolphins. One of the Art Nouveau houses of Bucharest is the Dinu Lipatti House (no. 12, Lascăr Catargiu Boulevard), by Petre Antonescu, its central motif being the entrance arch, above which there is a female mascaron (architecture), mascaraon in relief#High relief, high relief. Among the examples of Art Nouveau architecture in Bucharest are townhouses, which sometimes have only horseshoe-shaped windows or other forms or ornaments specific to Art Nouveau. An example is the Romulus Porescu House (no. 12, Doctor Paleologu Street), which also has Egyptian Revival architecture, Egyptian Revival stained glass windows on the corner windows. Some of the Baroque Revival architecture, Baroque Revival buildings in Bucharest have Art Nouveau or neorocaille influences, among them the Bucharest Observatory (no. 21, Lascăr Catargiu Boulevard), house no. 58 on Sfinții Voievozi Street, the Mița the Cyclist House (no. 9, Biserica Amzei Street, or no. 11, Christian Tell Street) and the Cantacuzino Palace (no. 141, Calea Victoriei, Victory Avenue). Stefan luchian, pannello decorativo con primavera, 1901.JPG, ''Spring'', decorative panel by Ștefan Luchian (1901) Stefan Luchian - Tanara - desen pentru coperta revistei Ileana.jpg, ''Young woman'' by Ștefan Luchian, drawing for the cover the Ileana Magazine Elena Alexandrina Bednarik - Zâna apelor.jpg, ''The Water Fairy'' by Elena Alexandrina Bednarik (1908) Biblioteca Românească Enciclopedică „Socec”, Pozeii de Corneliu Moldovanu, Editura Librăriei SOCEC & Co., societate anonimă, 1908.jpg, The cover of a small poetry book from 1908 The first page of Biblioteca Românească Enciclopedică „Socec”, Pozeii de Corneliu Moldovanu, Editura Librăriei SOCEC & Co., societate anonimă, 1908.jpg, The title page of a small poetry book from 1908 Biblioteca Societății ”STEAUA„ Ostașii Noștrii—Poesii —.jpg, The cover of a small poetry magazine from the Biblioteca Societății series (1912) One of the most notable Art Nouveau painters from Romania was Ștefan Luchian, who quickly took over the innovative and decorative directions of Art Nouveau for a short period of time. The moment was synchronized with the founding of the Ileana Society in 1897, of which he was a founding member, a company that organized an exhibition (1898) at the Union Hotel entitled The Exhibition of Independent Artists and published a magazine - the Ileana Magazine.


''Stile Liberty'' in Italy

File:Leonardo Bistolfi - Prima Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa Moderna, Torino 1902.jpg, Poster for the 1902 Turin Exposition File:Villino Florio.jpg, Villino Florio in Palermo by Ernesto Basile (1899–1902) File:20161207 Palazzo Castiglioni.jpg, Palazzo Castiglioni (Milan), Palazzo Castiglioni in Milan by Giuseppe Sommaruga (1901–1903) File:Firenze, galileo chini, vaso floreale, 1896-1898 ca..JPG, Floral vase by
Galileo Chini Galileo Chini (2 December 1873 - 23 August 1956) was an Italian decorator, designer, painter, and potter. A prominent member of the Italian Liberty style movement, or Italian Art Nouveau, he taught decorative arts at the Accademia di Belle Arti in ...
(1896–98) File:Cobra Chair and Writing Desk..jpg,
Carlo Bugatti Carlo Bugatti (2 February 1856 – April 1940) was an Italian decorator, designer and manufacturer of Art Nouveau furniture, models of jewelry, and musical instruments. Biography Son of Giovanni Luigi Bugatti, a specialist in interior decora ...
, Cobra Chair and Desk (1902), Brooklyn Museum File:Malpighi12 cancello1.JPG, Entrance of Casa Guazzoni (1904–05) in Milan by Giovanni Battista Bossi (1904–06)
Art Nouveau in Italy was known as ''arte nuova'', ''stile floreale'', ''stile moderno'' and especially ''stile Liberty''.
Liberty style Liberty style ( it, Stile Liberty) was the Italian variant of Art Nouveau, which flourished between about 1900 and 1914. It was also sometimes known as ''stile floreale'', ''arte nuova'', or ''stile moderno''. It took its name from Arthur Lasenby Lib ...
took its name from
Arthur Lasenby Liberty Portrait of Liberty by Arthur Hacker (1913) Sir Arthur Lasenby Liberty (13 August 1843 – 11 May 1917) was a London-based merchant, and the founder of Liberty & Co. Early life Arthur Liberty was born on 13 August 1843 in Chesham, Buckinghams ...
and the store he founded in 1874 in London, Liberty (department store), Liberty Department Store, which specialised in importing ornaments, textiles and art objects from Japan and the Far East, and whose colourful textiles which were particularly popular in Italy. Notable Italian designers in the style included
Galileo Chini Galileo Chini (2 December 1873 - 23 August 1956) was an Italian decorator, designer, painter, and potter. A prominent member of the Italian Liberty style movement, or Italian Art Nouveau, he taught decorative arts at the Accademia di Belle Arti in ...
, whose ceramics were often inspired both by majolica patterns. He was later known as a painter and a theatrical scenery designer; he designed the sets for two celebrated Puccini operas ''Gianni Schicchi'' and ''Turandot''. Liberty style architecture varied greatly, and often followed historical styles, particularly the Baroque. Facades were often drenched with decoration and sculpture. Examples of the Liberty style include the Villino Florio (1899–1902) by Ernesto Basile in
Palermo Palermo ( , ; scn, Palermu, ; la, Panormus, from el, Πάνορμος, Pánormos; ar, بَلَرْم‎, ''Balarm'') is a city of southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo. The city is ...
; the Palazzo Castiglioni (Milan), Palazzo Castiglioni in Milan by Giuseppe Sommaruga (1901–1903); Milan, and the Casa Guazzoni (1904–05) in Milan by Giovanni Battista Bossi (1904–06). Colorful frescoes, painted or in ceramics, and sculpture, both in the interior and exterior, were a popular feature of Liberty style. They drew upon both classical and floral themes. as in the baths of Acque della Salute, and in the Casa Guazzoni in Milan. The most important figure in
Liberty style Liberty style ( it, Stile Liberty) was the Italian variant of Art Nouveau, which flourished between about 1900 and 1914. It was also sometimes known as ''stile floreale'', ''arte nuova'', or ''stile moderno''. It took its name from Arthur Lasenby Lib ...
design was
Carlo Bugatti Carlo Bugatti (2 February 1856 – April 1940) was an Italian decorator, designer and manufacturer of Art Nouveau furniture, models of jewelry, and musical instruments. Biography Son of Giovanni Luigi Bugatti, a specialist in interior decora ...
, the son of an architect and decorator, father of Rembrandt Bugatti, Liberty sculptor, and of Ettore Bugatti, famous automobile designer. He studied at the Brera Academy, Milanese Academy of Brera, and later the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. His work was distinguished by its exoticism and eccentricity, included silverware, textiles, ceramics, and musical instruments, but he is best remembered for his innovative furniture designs, shown first in the 1888 Milan Fine Arts Fair. His furniture often featured a keyhole design, and had unusual coverings, including parchment and silk, and inlays of bone and ivory. It also sometimes had surprising organic shapes, copied after snails and cobras.


''Modernism'' in Catalonia and Spain

File:Σαγράδα Φαμίλια 2941.jpg, Sagrada Família basilica in Barcelona by
Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (; ; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect known as the greatest exponent of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works have a highly individualized, ''sui generis'' style. Most are located in Barcelona, includin ...
(1883–) File:Gaudi Casa Batllo 02.jpg, Trencadís facade of Casa Batlló by
Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (; ; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect known as the greatest exponent of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works have a highly individualized, ''sui generis'' style. Most are located in Barcelona, includin ...
and Josep Maria Jujol (1904–06) File:Casa Milà, general view.jpg, Casa Milà by Antoni Gaudí (1906–1912)Chronology
- Official website of Casa Milà
File:17-12-03-Hospital de Sant Pau (BCN) Pavelló de Sant Rafael-RalfR-DSCF0580.jpg, Hospital de Sant Pau by Lluis Domenech i Montaner (1901–30) File:PiC-casaTerrades-RI 51 0004201-0002.jpg, Casa de les Punxes by Josep Puig i Cadafalch (1905) File:Santuario Novelda.jpg, in Novelda, Valencian Community
A highly original variant of the style emerged in
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within cit ...
,
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationality'' by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Ba ...
, at about the same time that the Art Nouveau style appeared in Belgium and France. It was called ''
Modernisme ''Modernisme'' (, Catalan for "modernism"), also known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the search of a new entitlement of Catalan culture, one of the most predomi ...

Modernisme
'' in Catalan and ''Modernismo'' in Spanish. Its most famous creator was
Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (; ; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect known as the greatest exponent of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works have a highly individualized, ''sui generis'' style. Most are located in Barcelona, includin ...
. Gaudí used floral and organic forms in a very novel way in ''Palau Güell'' (1886–1890). According to UNESCO, "the architecture of the park combined elements from the Arts and Crafts movement, Symbolism, Expressionism, and Rationalism, and presaged and influenced many forms and techniques of 20th-century Modernism." He integrated crafts as ceramics, stained glass, wrought ironwork forging and carpentry into his architecture. In his Güell Pavilions (1884–1887) and then Parc Güell (1900–1914) he also used a new technique called ''trencadís'', which used waste ceramic pieces. His designs from about 1903, the ''Casa Batlló'' (1904–1906) and ''Casa Milà'' (1906–1912), are most closely related to the stylistic elements of Art Nouveau.Duncan (1994), p. 52. Later structures such as ''Sagrada Família'' combined Art Nouveau elements with revivalist Neo-Gothic. Casa Batlló, Casa Milà, Güell Pavilions, and Parc Güell were results of his collaboration with Josep Maria Jujol, who himself created houses in Sant Joan Despí (1913–1926), several churches near Tarragona (1918 and 1926) and the sinuous Casa Planells (1924) in
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within cit ...
. Besides the dominating presence of Gaudí,
Lluís Domènech i Montaner Lluís Domènech i Montaner (; 21 December 1850 – 27 December 1923) was a Spanish architect who was highly influential on ''Modernisme català'', the Catalan Art Nouveau/Jugendstil movement. He was also a Catalan politician. Born in Barcelona, he ...
also used Art Nouveau in Barcelona in buildings such as the Castell dels Tres Dragons (1888), Casa Lleó Morera, Palau de la Música Catalana (1905) and Hospital de Sant Pau (1901–1930). The two latter buildings have been listed by UNESCO as World Cultural Heritage.https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/804/multiple=1&unique_number=950 Official List of the UNESCO site "Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona" (1997) Another major modernista was Josep Puig i Cadafalch, who designed the Casa Martí and its Els Quatre Gats café, the Casimir Casaramona textile factory (now the CaixaForum Barcelona, CaixaFòrum art museum), Casa Macaya, Casa Amatller, the Palau del Baró de Quadras (housing Casa Àsia for 10 years until 2013) and the Casa de les Punxes ("House of Spikes"). A Valencian Art Nouveau, distinctive Art Nouveau movement was also in the Valencian Community. Some of the notable architects were Demetrio Ribes Marco, Vicente Pascual Pastor, Timoteo Briet Montaud, and José María Manuel Cortina Pérez. Valencian Art Nouveau defining characteristics are a notable use of ceramics in decoration, both in the facade and in ornamentation, and also the use of Valencian regional motives. Another remarkable variant is the Madrilenian Art Nouveau or "Modernismo madrileño", with such notable buildings as the Longoria Palace, the Casino de Madrid or the Cementerio de la Almudena, among others. Renowned modernistas from Madrid were architects José López Sallaberry, Fernando Arbós y Tremanti and . File:Ramon Casas - Ramon Casas and Pere Romeu on a Tandem - Google Art Project.jpg, Ramon Casas and Pere Romeu on a Tandem by Ramon Casas (1897) File:El Petó Perdut. Lambert Escaler i Milà.JPG, Sculpture of polychrome terracota by File:Gaudi-tocador-2618sh.jpg, Lowboy by
Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (; ; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect known as the greatest exponent of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works have a highly individualized, ''sui generis'' style. Most are located in Barcelona, includin ...
(1889) File:Palau de la Música Catalana-1.jpg, Stained glass ceiling of Palau de la Música Catalana by Antoni Rigalt (1905–1908) File:140 La sardana, plafó de marqueteria de Gaspar Homar.jpg, Furniture by
The ''
Modernisme ''Modernisme'' (, Catalan for "modernism"), also known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the search of a new entitlement of Catalan culture, one of the most predomi ...

Modernisme
'' movement left a wide art heritage including drawings, paintings, sculptures, glass and metal work, mosaics, ceramics, and furniture. A part of it can be found in Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya. Inspired by a Paris café called Le Chat Noir, where he had previously worked, decided to open a café in Barcelona that was named ''Els Quatre Gats'' (Four Cats in Catalan). The café became a central meeting point for Barcelona's most prominent figures of ''Modernisme'', such as Pablo Picasso and Ramon Casas i Carbó who helped to promote the movement by his posters and postcards. For the café he created a picture called Ramon Casas and Pere Romeu on a Tandem that was replaced with his another composition entitled Ramon Casas and Pere Romeu in an Automobile in 1901, symbolizing the new century.
Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (; ; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect known as the greatest exponent of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works have a highly individualized, ''sui generis'' style. Most are located in Barcelona, includin ...
designed furniture for many of the houses he built; one example is an armchair called the Confidant from the Batlló House, for the Battle House. He influenced another notable Catalan furniture designer, (1870–1953) who often combined marquetry and mosaics with his furnishings.


''Arte Nova'' in Portugal

File:Aveiro Casa do Major Pessoa 856.jpg, Facade of Major Pessoa Residence in Aveiro, Portugal, Aveiro (1907–1909) File:Porta Assimétrica Casa do Major Pessoa.jpg, Atrium of Major Pessoa Residence File:PRO ARTE (23943640572).jpg, Casa-Museu Dr. Anastácio Gonçalves, Museum-Residence Dr. Anastácio Gonçalves in Lisbon (1904–1905) File:A Livraria Lello e Irmão-A ponte de encanto.jpg, The Livraria Lello bookstore in Porto, Portugal (1906) File:Avenida Almirante Reis n 2 (fachada L Intendente) 7146.jpg, Details of ''Almirante Reis, 2-2K'' building in Lisbon (1908) File:Azulejo Casa da Cooperativa Agrícola em Aveiro.jpg, Ceramic tile of Cooperativa Agrícola in Aveiro, Portugal, Aveiro (1913) The Art Nouveau variant in Aveiro, Portugal, Aveiro (Portugal) was called ''Arte Nova'', and its principal characteristic feature was ostentation: the style was used by bourgeoisie who wanted to express their wealth on the facades while leaving the interiors conservative. Another distinctive feature of Arte Nova was the use of locally produced tiles with Art Nouveau motifs. The most influential artist of Arte Nova was Francisco Augusto da Silva Rocha. Though he was not trained as an architect, he designed many buildings in Aveiro and in other cities in Portugal. One of them, the Major Pessoa residence, has both an Art Nouveau facade and interior, and now hosts the Museum of Arte Nova. There are other examples of Arte Nova in other cities of Portugal. Some of them are the Casa-Museu Dr. Anastácio Gonçalves, Museum-Residence Dr. Anastácio Gonçalves by (1904–1905) in Lisbon, Café Majestic by (1921) and Livraria Lello bookstore by (1906), both in Porto.


''Jugendstil'' in the Nordic countries


Finland

File:Lart nouveau à Helsinki limmeuble Pohjola (7624127520).jpg, Main entrance of the Pohjola Insurance building (1899–1901), sculptures by Hilda Flodin File:Gallen-Kallela - Tuonelan joella.JPG, By the River of Tuonela (1903) in the Finnish National Romantic Style by Akseli Gallen-Kallela File:Tampere Cathedral.jpg, Tampere Cathedral in the Finnish National Romantic Style (1902–1907) by Lars Sonck File:Eliel saarinen, sedia con braccioli, helsinki 1907-08 ca.JPG, Chair by
Eliel Saarinen Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen (, ; August 20, 1873 – July 1, 1950) was a Finnish-American architect known for his work with art nouveau buildings in the early years of the 20th century. He was also the father of famed architect Eero Saarinen. Life a ...

Eliel Saarinen
(1907–1908) File:Estación central de FF.CC. de Helsinki, Finlandia, 2012-08-14, DD 04.JPG, Statues at Helsinki Central railway station by Emil Wikström
Art Nouveau was popular in the Nordic countries, where it was usually known as
Jugendstil Jugendstil ("Youth Style") was an artistic movement, particularly in the decorative arts, that was influential primarily in Germany and elsewhere in Europe to a lesser extent from about 1895 until about 1910. It was the German counterpart of Art ...
, and was often combined with the National Romantic Style of each country. The Nordic country with the largest number of Jugendstil buildings is the Grand Duchy of Finland, then a part of Russian Empire. The Jugendstil period coincided with Golden Age of Finnish Art and national awakening. After Exposition Universelle (1900), Paris Exposition in 1900 the leading Finnish artist was Akseli Gallen-Kallela. He is known for his illustrations of the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic, as well as for painting numerous Judendstil buildings in the Duchy. The architects of the Finnish pavilion at the Exposition were Herman Gesellius,
Armas Lindgren Armas Eliel Lindgren (28 November 1874 – 3 October 1929) was Finnish architect, professor and painter. Biography Early life and career Armas Lindgren was born in Hämeenlinna on November 28, 1874. He studied architecture in the Polytechnical In ...

Armas Lindgren
, and
Eliel Saarinen Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen (, ; August 20, 1873 – July 1, 1950) was a Finnish-American architect known for his work with art nouveau buildings in the early years of the 20th century. He was also the father of famed architect Eero Saarinen. Life a ...

Eliel Saarinen
. They worked together from 1896 to 1905 and created many notable buildings in
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital, primate and most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, and has a population of ...
including Pohjola Insurance building (1899–1901) and National Museum of Finland (1905–1910) as well as their joint residence Hvitträsk in Kirkkonummi (1902). Architects were inspired by Nordic legends and nature, rough granite façade thus became a symbol for belonging to the Finnish nation. After the firm dissolved, Saarinen designed the Helsinki Central railway station, Helsinki Railway Station (1905–1914) in clearer forms, influenced by American architecture. The sculptor who worked with Saarinen in construction of National Museum of Finland and Helsinki Railway Station was Emil Wikström. Another architect who created several notable works in Finland was Lars Sonck. His major Jugendstil works include Tampere Cathedral (1902–1907), Ainola, the home of Jean Sibelius (1903), Headquarters of the Helsinki Telephone Association (1903–1907) and Kallio Church in Helsinki (1908–1912). Also, Magnus Schjerfbeck, brother of Helene Schjerfbeck, made tuberculosis sanatorium known as Nummela Sanatorium in 1903 using the Jugendstil style.


Norway

File:Norges kongesagaer-Tittelblad 1914-utgave-G. Munthe.jpg, Graphic design by Gerhard Munthe (1914) File:Lars kinsarvik, poltroncina, norvegia ante 1900, 02.JPG, Viking-Art Nouveau Chair by Norwegian designer Lars Kinsarvik (1900) File:Jugendstilsenteret.jpg, Jugendstilsenteret, Art Nouveau Centre in Ålesund (town), Ålesund (1905–1907) File:JS Spisestue.jpg, Interior of Art Nouveau Centre in Ålesund File:Ornaments from a door (8474785119).jpg, Ornaments of a door in Art Nouveau Centre in Ålesund Norway also was aspiring independence (from Sweden) and local Art Nouveau was connected with a revival inspired by Viking folk art and crafts. Notable designers included Lars Kisarvik, who designed chairs with traditional Viking and Celtic art, Celtic patterns, and Gerhard Munthe, who designed a chair with a stylized dragon-head emblem from ancient Viking ships, as well as a wide variety of posters, paintings and graphics. The Norwegian Ålesund (town), town of Ålesund is regarded as the main centre of Art Nouveau in Scandinavia because it was completely reconstructed after a fire of 23 January 1904. About 350 buildings were built between 1904 and 1907 under an urban plan designed by the engineer Frederik Næsser. The merger of unity and variety gave birth to a style known as Ål Stil. Buildings of the style have linear decor and echoes of both Jugendstil and vernacular elements, e.g. towers of stave churches or the crested roofs. One of the buildings, Swan Pharmacy, now hosts the Jugendstilsenteret, Art Nouveau Centre.


Sweden and Denmark

Vase with blackberry, painting by Per Algot Eriksson, Porzellanfabrik Rorstrand, Stockholm, silver by E. Lefebvre, Paris, porcelain and silver - Bröhan Museum, Berlin - DSC04069.JPG, Vase with blackberry, painting by Per Algot Eriksson, and silver by E. Lefebvre, in the Bröhan Museum (Berlin) File:Mocha Cup and Saucer from the 'Iris' Service LACMA AC1998.265.25.1-.2.jpg, Cup and saucer from the 'iris' service (1897), in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Inkwell and stamp box, by Jens Dahl-Jensen, Copenhagen, c. 1900, Bing and Grondahl porcelain - Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt - Darmstadt, Germany - DSC00749.jpg, Inkwell and stamp box, by Jens Dahl-Jensen (c. 1900), in the Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt (Darmstadt, Germany) File:Erhvervsarkivet-Læsesalen.jpg, The Great Hall of City Library of Aarhus by Karl Hansen Reistrup File:Engelbrektskyrkan, altare.jpg, Altar of Engelbrektskyrkan in Stockholm (1914) File:Baltiska_1914b.jpg, Poster for the Baltic Exhibition in Malmö (1914) Jugendstil masterpieces of other Nordic countries include Engelbrektskyrkan (1914) and Royal Dramatic Theater (1901–1908) in Stockholm, Sweden and former City Library (now Danish National Business Archives) in Aarhus, Denmark (1898–1901). The architect of the latter is Hack Kampmann, then a proponent of National Romantic Style who also created Aarhus Custom House, Custom House, Aarhus Theatre, Theatre and Villa Kampen in Aarhus. Denmark's most notable art nouveau designer was the silversmith Georg Jensen. The Baltic Exhibition in Malmö 1914 can be seen as the last major manifestation of the Jugendstil in Sweden.


''Modern'' in Russia

File:Fabergé egg Rome 03.JPG, An Art Nouveau Fabergé egg (1898) File:Firebird.jpg, Illustration of the ''Tsarevitch Ivan, the Firebird and the Gray Wolf, Firebird'' by Ivan Bilibin (1899) File:Scheherazade (Rimsky-Korsakov) 02 by L. Bakst 2.jpg, Set for Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's ballet ''Scheherazade'' by Léon Bakst (1910) File:Bakst Nizhinsky.jpg, Program design for "Afternoon of a Faun" by Léon Bakst for ''Ballets Russes'', (1912) File:Sergueï vassilievitch malioutine per manifatture di talachkino, coppia di sedie, smolensk 1900 ca.JPG, Chairs by Sergey Malyutin, Talashkino Art Colony File:Bogatyr fireplace (M.Vrubel, GTG) by shakko.jpg, Ceramic fireplace on Russian folklore theme by Mikhail Vrubel (1908) Модерн ("Modern") was a very colourful Russian variation of Art Nouveau which appeared in Moscow and Saint Petersburg in 1898 with the publication of a new art journal, "Мир искусства" (transliteration: ''
Mir Iskusstva ''Mir iskusstva'' ( rus, «Мир искусства», p=ˈmʲir ɪˈskustvə, ''World of Art'') was a Russian magazine and the artistic movement it inspired and embodied, which was a major influence on the Russians who helped revolutionize Europe ...
'') ("The World of Art"), by Russian artists Alexandre Benois and Léon Bakst, and chief editor Sergei Diaghilev. The magazine organized exhibitions of leading Russian artists, including Mikhail Vrubel, Konstantin Somov, Isaac Levitan, and the book illustrator Ivan Bilibin. The World of Art style made less use of the vegetal and floral forms of French Art Nouveau; it drew heavily upon the bright colours and exotic designs of Russian folklore and fairy tales. The most influential contribution of the "World of Art" was the creation of a new ballet company, the ''Ballets Russes'', headed by Diaghilev, with costumes and sets designed by Bakst and Benois. The new ballet company premiered in Paris in 1909, and performed there every year through 1913. The exotic and colourful sets designed by Benois and Bakst had a major impact on French art and design. The costume and set designs were reproduced in the leading Paris magazines, ''L'Illustration'', La Vie Parisienne (magazine), ''La Vie parisienne'' and Gazette du Bon Ton, ''Gazette du bon ton'', and the Russian style became known in Paris as ''à la Bakst''. The company was stranded in Paris first by the outbreak of World War I, and then by the Russian Revolution in 1917, and ironically never performed in Russia. Of Russian architects, the most prominent in the pure Art Nouveau style was
Fyodor Schechtel Fyodor Osipovich Schechtel (russian: Фёдор О́сипович Ше́хтель; August 7, 1859 – July 7, 1926) was a Russian architect, graphic artist and stage designer, the most influential and prolific master of Russian Art Nouveau and la ...
. The most famous example is the Gorky Museum, Ryabushinsky House in Moscow. It was built by a Russian businessman and newspaper owner, and then, after the Russian Revolution, became the residence of the writer Maxim Gorky, and is now the Gorky Museum. Its main staircase, made of a polished aggregate of concrete, marble and granite, has flowing, curling lines like the waves of the sea, and is illuminated by a lamp in the form of a floating jellyfish. The interior also features doors, windows and ceiling decorated with colorful frescoes of mosaic. Schechtel, who is also considered a major figure in Russian symbolism, designed several other landmark buildings in Moscow, including the rebuilding of the Moscow Yaroslavsky railway station, in a more traditional Moscow revival style. File:Особняк Рябушинского02.JPG, Gorky Museum, Ryabushinsky House in Moscow by
Fyodor Schechtel Fyodor Osipovich Schechtel (russian: Фёдор О́сипович Ше́хтель; August 7, 1859 – July 7, 1926) was a Russian architect, graphic artist and stage designer, the most influential and prolific master of Russian Art Nouveau and la ...
(1900) File:Moscow. Ryabushinsky House. Interiors. Main stairs - 028.JPG, Main staircase of Gorky Museum, Ryabushinsky House Moscow by
Fyodor Schechtel Fyodor Osipovich Schechtel (russian: Фёдор О́сипович Ше́хтель; August 7, 1859 – July 7, 1926) was a Russian architect, graphic artist and stage designer, the most influential and prolific master of Russian Art Nouveau and la ...
(1900) File:Teremok (Talashkino; 2013-11-10) 02.JPG, Teremok House in Talashkino a Russian Revival work by Sergey Malyutin (1901–1902) Singer House Saint Petersburg bronze decoration detail.jpg, Cartouche (design), Cartouche with a mascaron (architecture), mascaron, on the facade of the Singer House, by Pavel Suzor (1904) File:Moscow 05-2012 PertsovaHouse.jpg, Pertsova House by Sergey Malyutin in Moscow (1905–1907) File:Wiki Metropol Hotel Moscow Artwork 2.jpg, Facade of the Hotel Metropol (Moscow), Hotel Metropol in Moscow with mosaics by Mikhail Vrubel (1899–1907) File:Belmond Grand Hotel Europe Saint Petersburg Dining room stained glass.jpg, Dining room of the Grand Hotel Europe in Saint Petersburg (1910) File:Yaroslavsky rail terminal.jpg, Russian Revival exterior of Yaroslavsky railway station by
Fyodor Schechtel Fyodor Osipovich Schechtel (russian: Фёдор О́сипович Ше́хтель; August 7, 1859 – July 7, 1926) was a Russian architect, graphic artist and stage designer, the most influential and prolific master of Russian Art Nouveau and la ...
in Moscow (1902–1904) File:Церковь во имя Святого Духа (1903-1906).jpg, The Holy Spirit Church in Talashkino, by Sergey Malyutin
Other Russian architects of the period created Russian Revival architecture, which drew from historic Russian architecture. These buildings were created mostly in wood, and referred to the Architecture of Kievan Rus'. One example is the Teremok House in Talashkino (1901–1902) by Sergey Malyutin, and Pertsova House (also known as Pertsov House) in Moscow (1905–1907). He also was a member of Mir iskusstva movement. The Saint Petersburg architect Nikolai Vasilyevich Vasilyev, Nikolai Vasilyev built in a range of styles before emigrating in 1923. This building is most notable for stone carvings made by Sergei Vashkov inspired by the carvings of Cathedral of Saint Demetrius in Vladimir, Russia, Vladimir and Saint George Cathedral, Yuryev-Polsky, Saint George Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky of the XII and XIII centuries. The Marfo-Mariinsky Convent (1908–1912) by Alexey Shchusev is an updated version of a classic Russian Orthodox Church. Shchusev later designed Lenin's Mausoleum (1924) in Moscow. Several art colonies in Russia in this period were built in the Russian Revival architecture, Russian Revival style. The two best-known colonies were situated in Abramtsevo Colony, Abramtsevo, funded by Savva Mamontov, and Talashkino, Smolensk Governorate, funded by Princess Maria Tenisheva. One example of this Russian Revival architecture is the Marfo-Mariinsky Convent (1908–1912), an updated Russian Orthodox Church by Alexey Shchusev, who later, ironically, designed Lenin's Mausoleum in Moscow.


''Jūgendstils'' (Art Nouveau in Riga)

File:Riga Elizabetes ielā 10b,.JPG, Facade of house at Elizabetes ielā, 10b, by Mikhail Eisenstein (1903) File:Shell (45628779401).jpg, Stairway in Pēkšēns House by Konstantīns Pēkšēns (1903) now hosting Riga Jūgendstils museum File:Riga, Vilandes 10 (3) 2014-03-13.jpg, National Romantic decoration on a house built by Konstantīns Pēkšēns (1908) File:Ministry of Education and Science of Latvia.jpg, Ministry of Education, built by Edgar Friesendorf (1911) Riga, the present-day capital of
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is one of the Baltic states; and is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuan ...

Latvia
, was at the time one of the major cities of the Russian Empire. Art Nouveau architecture in Riga nevertheless developed according to its own dynamics, and the style became overwhelmingly popular in the city. Soon after the Latvian Ethnographic Exhibition in 1896 and the Industrial and Handicrafts Exhibition in 1901, Art Nouveau became the dominant style in the city. Thus Art Nouveau architecture accounts for one-third of all the buildings in the centre of Riga, making it the city with the highest concentration of such buildings anywhere in the world. The quantity and quality of Art Nouveau architecture was among the criteria for including Riga in UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. There were different variations of Art Nouveau architecture in Riga: * in Eclectic Art Nouveau, floral and other nature-inspired elements of decoration were most popular. Examples of that variation are works of Mikhail Eisenstein, * in Perpendicular Art Nouveau, geometrical ornaments were integrated into the vertical compositions of the facades. Several department stores were built in this style, and it is sometimes also referred to as "department store style" or ''Warenhausstil'' in German, * National Romantic Art Nouveau was inspired by local folk art, monumental volumes and the use of natural building materials. Some later Neoclassical architecture, Neo-Classical buildings also contained Art Nouveau details.


''Style Sapin'' in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland

File:Cdffallet.jpg, Villa Fallet with fir-inspired decoration (1906) by Eduard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier) (1905) File:La-Chaux-de-Fonds-crematoire-interieur-4.jpg, Crematorium (1908–10), interior, with stylized fir tree design on ceiling. The symbolist murals by L'Epplattenier were added later. File:La-Chaux-de-fonds-architecture-detail-1.jpg, Crematorium (1908–10), with stylized "sapin" or pine cone detail File:La-Chaux-de-fonds-architecture-detail-2.jpg, Crematorium (1908–10), with pine cone detail. A variation called '' Style Sapin'' ("Pine Tree Style") emerged in La Chaux-de-Fonds in the Canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland. The style was launched by the painter and artist Charles l’Eplattenier and was inspired especially by the ''sapin'', or pine tree, and other plants and wildlife of the Jura Mountains. One of his major works was the Crematorium in the town, which featured triangular tree forms, pine cones, and other natural themes from the region. The style also blended in the more geometric stylistic elements of
Jugendstil Jugendstil ("Youth Style") was an artistic movement, particularly in the decorative arts, that was influential primarily in Germany and elsewhere in Europe to a lesser extent from about 1895 until about 1910. It was the German counterpart of Art ...
and
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
. Another notable building in the style is the Villa Fallet La Chaux-de-Fonds, a chalet designed and built in 1905 by a student of L'Epplattenier, the eighteen-year-old Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (1887–1965) who later became better known as Le Corbusier, The form of the house was a traditional Swiss chalet, but the decoration of the facade included triangular trees and other natural features. Jeanneret built two more chalets in the area, including the Villa Stotzer, in a more traditional chalet style.


''Tiffany Style'' and Louis Sullivan in the United States

File:Tiffany Chapel from HABS crop.jpg, Tiffany Chapel from the 1893 Word's Columbian Exposition, now in the Charles Hosmer Morse Museum of American Art in Winter Park, Florida, Winter Park, Florida File:Vase by Louis Comfort Tiffany, 1893-1896 - Cincinnati Art Museum - DSC04306.JPG, Glass vase by
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
now in the Cincinnati Art Museum (1893–96) File:The Century Magazine- Midsummer Holiday Number MET DT8268.jpg, Poster ''Century'' by Louis John Rhead (1894) File:Wisteria Tiffany Studios Lamp (cropped).jpg, Wisteria lamp by Louis Comfort Tiffany (circa 1902), in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts File:Louis c. tiffany, veduta di osyster bay, 1908.JPG, Tiffany window in his house at Oyster Bay, New York File:Wade Chapel stained glass window.jpg, The ''Flight of Souls'' Window by Louis Comfort Tiffany won a gold medal at the 1900 Paris Exposition File:Wainright 6.jpg, Windows of the Wainwright Building by
Louis Sullivan Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, and has been called a "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism". He was an influential architect of the Chicago School, a mentor to Frank Lloyd ...
(1891) File:Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building 1 South State Street entrance.jpg, State Street (Chicago), South State Street entrance to the Sullivan Center, Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Store (1899) by Louis Sullivan File:Prudential Guaranty Building 02.jpg, Detail of the Prudential (Guaranty) Building, New York Louis Sullivan (1896) File:2017BankOwatonnaMN.jpg, National Farmer's Bank of Owatonna by Louis Sullivan (1907–08)
In the United States, the firm of
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
played a central role in American Art Nouveau. Born in 1848, he studied at the National Academy Museum and School, National Academy of Design in New York, began working with glass at the age of 24, entered the family business started by his father, and in 1885 set up his own enterprise devoted to fine glass, and developed new techniques for its colouring. In 1893, he began making glass vases and bowls, again developing new techniques that allowed more original shapes and colouring, and began experimenting with decorative window glass. Layers of glass were printed, marbled and superimposed, giving an exceptional richness and variety of colour in 1895 his new works were featured in the Art Nouveau gallery of Siegfried Bing, giving him a new European clientele. After the death of his father in 1902, he took over the entire Tiffany enterprise, but still devoted much of his time to designing and manufacturing glass art objects. At the urging of Thomas Edison, he began to manufacture electric lamps with multicoloured glass shades in structures of bronze and iron, or decorated with mosaics, produced in numerous series and editions, each made with the care of a piece of jewellery. A team of designers and craftsmen worked on each product. The Tiffany lamp in particular became one of the icons of the Art Nouveau, but Tiffany's craftsmen (and craftswomen) designed and made extraordinary windows, vases, and other glass art. Tiffany's glass also had great success at the Exposition Universelle (1900), ''1900 Exposition Universelle'' in Paris; his stained glass window called the ''Flight of Souls'' won a gold medal. The Columbian Exposition was an important venue for Tiffany; a chapel he designed was shown at the Pavilion of Art and Industry. The Tiffany Chapel, along with one of the windows of Tiffany's home in New York, are now on display at the Charles Hosmer Morse Museum of American Art in Winter Park, Florida, Winter Park, Florida. Another important figure in American Art Nouveau was the architect
Louis Sullivan Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, and has been called a "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism". He was an influential architect of the Chicago School, a mentor to Frank Lloyd ...
. Sullivan was a leading pioneer of American modern architecture. He was the founder of the Chicago school (architecture), Chicago School, the architect of some of the first skyscrapers, and the teacher of Frank Lloyd Wright. His most famous saying was "Form follows function". While the form of his buildings was shaped by their function, his decoration was an example of American Art Nouveau. At the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, most famous for the neoclassical architecture of its renowned ''White City'', he designed a spectacular Art Nouveau entrance for the very functional Transportation Building. While the architecture of his ''Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building'' (1899) (now the Sullivan Center) was strikingly modern and functional, he surrounded the windows with stylized floral decoration. He invented equally original decoration for the National Farmer's Bank of Owatonna, Minnestota (1907–1908) and the Merchants' National Bank in Grinell, Iowa. He invented a specifically American variety of Art Nouveau, declaring that decorative forms should oscillate, surge, mix and derive without end. He created works of great precision which sometimes combined Gothic with Art Nouveau themes.


Art Nouveau in Argentina

File:Entre luces y colores.jpg, Stained glass and sculptures by Ercole Pasina in Calise House in Buenos Aires (1911) File:Cañon corrido de la Galería General Güemes.jpg, Interior of Galería Güemes, Buenos Aires by Francisco Gianotti (1913) File:Buenos Aires - Avenida de Mayo - Palacio Barolo - 2006.jpg, Palacio Barolo in Buenos Aires by Mario Palanti (1919-1923) File:Club Español Rosario 2.jpg, Metal work, ceramics and statues at the facade of in Rosario (1912) File:Cielo Azul Azulejo.jpg, Ceramic chimney of Confitería La Europea in Rosario (1916) Flooded with European immigrants, Argentina welcomed all artistic and architectural European styles, including Art Nouveau. Cities with the most notable Art Nouveau heritage in Argentina are Buenos Aires, Rosario and Mar del Plata. Paris was a prototype for Buenos Aires with the construction of large boulevards and avenues in the 19th century. The local style along with French influence was also following Italian Liberty as many architects (Virginio Colombo, Francisco Gianotti, Mario Palanti) were Italians. In works of Catalan influence can be noted as he completed his studies in Barcelona in 1900. The influence of
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
can be found at Paso y Viamonte building. The introduction of Art Nouveau in Rosario is connected to who trained in Barcelona. His (1912) features one of the largest stained glass windows in Latin America produced (as well as tiling and ceramics) by the local firm Buxadera, Fornells y Cía. The sculptor of the building is Diego Masana from Barcelona. Belgian influence on Argentinian Art Nouveau is represented by the Villa Ortiz Basualdo, now hosting the Juan Carlos Castagnino Municipal Museum of Art in Mar del Plata where the furniture, interiors, and lighting are by
Gustave Serrurier-Bovy225px, Mahogany armoire designed in 1899 by Serrurier-Bovy, on display at the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1858–1910) was a Belgian architect and furniture designer. He is credited (along with Paul Hankar, Victor Horta and Hen ...
.


Art Nouveau in the rest of the world

File:Theatre municipal - Tunis.jpg, Théâtre municipal de Tunis, Théâtre municipal in Tunis (1902) File:Lüderitz Goerke-Haus 07.jpg, Goerke-Haus in Lüderitz, Namibia (1909–1910) File:Bellas Artes 01.jpg, Art Nouveau/Neoclassical Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City (1904–1934) File:Mexico City 2015 014.jpg, Statues of Pegasus, Mexico City, Statue of Pegasus in Mexico City File:Ephraim Moses Lilien - An Allegorical Wedding- Sketch for a carpet dedicated to Mr. and Mrs. David Wolffsohn Triptych (from... - Google Art Project.jpg, An Allegorical Wedding: Sketch for a carpet (Triptych from right to left): Exile, Marriage, Redemption by Ephraim Moses Lilien (1906) File:Metropole la terrasse.jpg, A bistro at Sofitel Legend Metropole Hanoi (1902) with Art Nouveau and colonial designs As in Argentina, Art Nouveau in other countries was mostly influenced by foreign artists: * Spaniards were behind Art Nouveau projects in Havana, Cuba, they were even not qualified enough to be called architects. Spaniards were not directly involved in works in Ponce, Puerto Rico but were an inspiration and a subject of study for local architects in Ponce, Puerto Rico, * French were behind Art Nouveau in Tunisia (that was a French protectorate of Tunisia, French protectorate then), * Germans were behind Jugendstil heritage of Lüderitz, Namibia; Qingdao, China, * Italians were behind Art Nouveau in Valparaiso, Chile; Montevideo, Uruguay; Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, * Russians were behind Art Nouveau heritage of Harbin, China, * Art Nouveau Heritage in Lima consists of work of Italians Masperi brothers, French architect Claude Sahut and British masters of stained glass * Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City was a result of the cooperation of Italians (architect Adamo Boari and sculptor Leonardo Bistolfi), local architect , Hungarian artists Aladár Körösfői-Kriesch, Géza Maróti and Miksa Róth, Catalan sculptor Agustí Querol Subirats and French master Edgar Brandt. Art Nouveau motifs can also be found in French Colonial artchitechture throughout French Indochina. A notable art movement called Bezalel school appeared in the Palestine (region), Palestine region in dating to the late Ottoman and Mandatory Palestine, British Mandate periods. It has been described as "a fusion of Asian art, oriental art and Jugendstil." Several artists associated with the Bezalel school were noted for their Art Nouveau style, including Ze'ev Raban, Ephraim Moses Lilien and Abel Pann.


Characteristics

File:Tassel House ground floor.JPG, Floor of the
Hôtel Tassel The Hôtel Tassel (french: Hôtel Tassel, nl, Hotel Tassel) is a townhouse in Brussels, Belgium, designed by Victor Horta for the Belgian scientist and professor Emile Tassel and built from 1892–93. It is generally considered the first true Art ...
, by
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
, with a Whiplash (decorative art), whiplash vegetal motif (1893) File:Wand Decoration Obrist 1895.png, ''Coup de Fouet'' or Whiplash (decorative art), whiplash motif, depicting the stems of cyclamen flowers, by Hermann Obrist (1895) File:Anvers Metro Entrance.jpg, Stylized vegetal forms; Entrance of the Anvers Metro Station in Paris by
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
(1900) File:Wisteria Tiffany Studios Lamp.jpg, Floral patterns. Lamp with Wisteria design by
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
(1899-1900) File:Louis Majorelle-Grand meuble d'appui nénuphar.jpg, Exotic materials and decoration. Mahogany and Brosimum guianense, amourette wood cabinet with water lily decoration of gilded bronze by
Louis Majorelle Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, (26 September 1859 – 15 January 1926) was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ''ébéniste''. ...
(1905–08) File:Wien - Majolikahaus - Stiegengeländer.jpg, Highly stylized floral designs in balconies and railings.
Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (; 13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect, furniture designer and urban planner. He was a leading member of the Vienna Secession movement of architecture, founded in 1897, and the broader Art Nouveau movem ...
stairway in Majolica House, Vienna (1898) File:Palais Stoclet, 1903-1904 - détail.JPG, Geometric lines the
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
; Palais Stoclet by
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
(1905–1911)
Early Art Nouveau, particularly in Belgium and France, was characterized by undulating, curving forms inspired by lilies, vines, flower stems and other natural forms, used in particular in the interiors of
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
and the decoration of
Louis Majorelle Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, (26 September 1859 – 15 January 1926) was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ''ébéniste''. ...
and
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
.Ducher, ''Caractéristique des Styles'' (1989), pp. 198–199 It also drew upon patterns based on butterflies and dragonflies, borrowed from Japanese art, which were popular in Europe at the time. Early Art Nouveau also often featured more stylized forms expressing movement, such as the ''coup de fouet'' or "
whiplash Whiplash may refer to: * The long flexible part of a whip * Whiplash (medicine), a neck injury ** Whiplash Injury Protection System (WHIPS), in automobiles Film and television * ''Whiplash'' (1948 film), a US film noir * ''Whiplash'' (1959 film), ...
" line, depicted in the cyclamen plants drawn by designer Hermann Obrist in 1894. A description published in ''Pan (magazine), Pan'' magazine of Hermann Obrist's wall hanging ''Cyclamen'' (1894), compared it to the "sudden violent curves generated by the crack of a whip,"Duncan (1994), pp. 27–28. The term "whiplash", though it was originally used to ridicule the style, is frequently applied to the characteristic curves employed by Art Nouveau artists. Such decorative undulating and flowing lines in a syncopated rhythm and asymmetrical shape, are often found in the architecture, painting, sculpture, and other forms of Art Nouveau design. Other floral forms were popular, inspired by lilies, wisteria and other flowers, particularly in the lamps of
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
and the glass objects made by the artists of the École de Nancy, School of Nancy and
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
. Other curving and undulating forms borrowed from nature included butterflies, peacocks, swans, and water lilies. Many designs depicted women's hair intertwined with stems of lilies, irises and other flowers. Stylized floral forms were particularly used by
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
in carpets, balustrades, windows, and furniture. They were also used extensively by
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
for balustrades, and, most famously, for the lamps and railings at the entrances of the Paris Metro. Guimard explained: "That which must be avoided in everything that is continuous is the parallel and symmetry. Nature is the greatest builder and nature makes nothing that is parallel and nothing that is symmetrical." Earlier Art Nouveau furniture, such as that made by
Louis Majorelle Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, (26 September 1859 – 15 January 1926) was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ''ébéniste''. ...
and
Henry van de Velde#REDIRECT Henry van de Velde {{R from other capitalisation ...
, was characterized by the use of exotic and expensive materials, including mahogany with inlays of precious woods and trim, and curving forms without right angles. It gave a sensation of lightness. In the second phase of Art Nouveau, following 1900, the decoration became purer and the lines were more stylized. The curving lines and forms evolved into polygons and then into cubes and other geometric forms. These geometric forms were used with particular effect in the architecture and furniture of
Joseph Maria Olbrich Joseph Maria Olbrich (22 December 1867 – 8 August 1908) was an Austrian architect and one of the Vienna Secession founders. Early life Olbrich was born in Opava, Austrian Silesia (today in the Czech Republic), the third child of Edmund and Al ...
,
Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (; 13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect, furniture designer and urban planner. He was a leading member of the Vienna Secession movement of architecture, founded in 1897, and the broader Art Nouveau movem ...
, Koloman Moser and
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
, especially the Palais Stoclet in Brussels, which announced the arrival of
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, tra ...
and modernism. Another characteristic of Art Nouveau architecture was the use of light, by opening up of interior spaces, by the removal of walls, and the extensive use of skylights to bring a maximum amount of light into the interior.
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
's residence-studio and other houses built by him had extensive skylights, supported on curving iron frames. In the Hotel Tassel he removed the traditional walls around the stairway, so that the stairs became a central element of the interior design.


Relationship with contemporary styles and movements

As an art style, Art Nouveau has affinities with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Pre-Raphaelites and the Symbolism (arts), Symbolist styles, and artists like
Aubrey Beardsley Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 187216 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author. His black ink drawings were influenced by Japanese woodcuts, and emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the ...
,
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
,
Edward Burne-Jones Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet, (; 28 August 183317 June 1898) was a British artist and designer associated with the phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, who worked with William Morris on decorative arts as a founding partner in Morr ...
,
Gustav Klimt Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objects d'art. Klimt's prima ...
and Jan Toorop could be classed in more than one of these styles. Unlike Symbolist painting, however, Art Nouveau has a distinctive appearance; and, unlike the artisan-oriented
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and societies through skills and imagination in order to produce objects, environments and experiences. Major constituents of th ...
, Art Nouveau artists readily used new materials, machined surfaces, and abstraction in the service of pure design. Art Nouveau did not eschew the use of machines, as the Arts and Crafts movement did. For sculpture, the principal materials employed were glass and wrought iron, resulting in sculptural qualities even in architecture. Ceramics were also employed in creating editions of sculptures by artists such as Auguste Rodin. though his sculpture is not considered Art Nouveau. Art Nouveau architecture made use of many technology, technological innovations of the late 19th century, especially the use of exposed iron and large, irregularly shaped pieces of glass for architecture. Art Nouveau tendencies were also absorbed into local styles. In Denmark, for example, it was one aspect of ''Skønvirke'' ("aesthetic work"), which itself more closely relates to the Arts and Crafts style. Likewise, artists adopted many of the floral and organic motifs of Art Nouveau into the ''Młoda Polska'' ("Young Poland") style in Poland. ''Młoda Polska'', however, was also inclusive of other artistic styles and encompassed a broader approach to art, literature, and lifestyle.


Genres

Art Nouveau is represented in painting and sculpture, but it is most prominent in architecture and the
decorative arts ] The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design and manufacture of objects that are both beautiful and functional. It includes most of the arts making objects for the interiors of buildings, and interior design, but not usuall ...

decorative arts
. It was well-suited to the graphic arts, especially the poster, interior design, metal and glass art, jewellery, furniture design, ceramics and textiles.


Posters and graphic art

File:Beardsley-peacockskirt.PNG, ''The Peacock Skirt'', by
Aubrey Beardsley Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 187216 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author. His black ink drawings were influenced by Japanese woodcuts, and emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the ...
, (1892) File:Thestudiomagazinefirstcover.jpg, First issue of '' The Studio'', with cover by Aubrey Beardsley (1893) File:Eugene Grasset, poster for Grafton Galleries, 1893.jpg, Poster for Grafton Galleries by
Eugène Grasset Eugène Samuel Grasset (25 May 1845 – 23 October 1917) was a Swiss decorative artist who worked in Paris, France in a variety of creative design fields during the Belle Époque. He is considered a pioneer in Art Nouveau design. Biography Gra ...
(1893) File:Divan Japonais LACMA 59.80.19.jpg, ''Divan Japonais (lithograph), Divan Japonais'' lithograph by
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, caricaturist and illustrator whose immersion in the colorful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th c ...
(1892–93) File:Inland-Printer-July-1894.jpg, ''The Inland Printer'' magazine cover by Will H. Bradley (1894) File:The Chap-Book No. 5, the pipes, advertising poster, 1895.jpg, Poster for ''The Chap-Book'' by Will H. Bradley (1895) File:Alfons Mucha - 1896 - Biscuits Lefèvre-Utile.jpg, ''Biscuits Lefèvre-Utile'' by
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
(1896) File:Alphonse Mucha - Zodiac.jpg, Zodiac Calendar by Alphonse Mucha (1896) File:Steinlen-Motocycles Comiot.jpg, ''Motocycles Comiot'' by Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen from ''Les Maîtres de l'Affiche, Les Maîtres de l'affiche'' (1899) File:Kolo Moser - Mädchenkopf - 1899.jpeg, ''Ver Sacrum'' illustration by Koloman Moser (1899) File:Kolo Moser - Vorfrühling1 - 1900.jpeg, illustration from ''Ver Sacrum'' by Koloman Moser (1900) File:Flickr - …trialsanderrors - Richard Strauss-Woche, festival poster, 1910.jpg, Festival poster by Ludwig Hohlwein (1910)
The graphic arts flourished in the Art Nouveau period, thanks to new technologies of printing, particularly colour lithography, which allowed the mass production of colour posters. Art was no longer confined to galleries, museums and salons; it could be found on Paris walls, and in illustrated art magazines, which circulated throughout Europe and to the United States. The most popular theme of Art Nouveau posters was women; women symbolizing glamour, modernity and beauty, often surrounded by flowers. In Britain, the leading graphic artist in the Art Nouveau style was
Aubrey Beardsley Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 187216 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author. His black ink drawings were influenced by Japanese woodcuts, and emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the ...
(1872–1898). He began with engraved book illustrations for ''Le Morte d'Arthur'', then black and white illustrations for ''Salome (play), Salome'' by Oscar Wilde (1893), which brought him fame. In the same year, he began engraving illustrations and posters for the art magazine ''The Studio'', which helped publicize European artists such as Fernand Khnopff in Britain. The curving lines and intricate floral patterns attracted as much attention as the text. The Swiss-French artist
Eugène Grasset Eugène Samuel Grasset (25 May 1845 – 23 October 1917) was a Swiss decorative artist who worked in Paris, France in a variety of creative design fields during the Belle Époque. He is considered a pioneer in Art Nouveau design. Biography Gra ...
(1845–1917) was one of the first creators of French Art Nouveau posters. He helped decorate the famous cabaret Le Chat Noir, Le Chat noir in 1885 and made his first posters for the ''Fêtes de Paris''. He made a celebrated poster of
Sarah Bernhardt Sarah Bernhardt (; born Henriette-Rosine Bernard; 22 or 23 October 1844 – 26 March 1923) was a French stage actress who starred in some of the most popular French plays of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including ''La Dame Aux Cameli ...
in 1890, and a wide variety of book illustrations. The artist-designers
Jules Chéret Jules Chéret (31 May 1836 – 23 September 1932) was a French painter and lithographer who became a master of ''Belle Époque'' poster art. He has been called the father of the modern poster. Biography left, L'Etendard Français, Chéret's 1891 ...
, Georges de Feure and the painter
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, caricaturist and illustrator whose immersion in the colorful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th c ...
all made posters for Paris theaters, cafés, dance halls cabarets. The Czechs, Czech artist
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
(1860–1939) arrived in Paris in 1888, and in 1895 made a poster for actress Sarah Bernhardt in the play '' Gismonda'' by Victorien Sardou. The success of this poster led to a contract to produce posters for six more plays by Bernhardt. Over the next four years, he also designed sets, costumes, and even jewellery for the actress. Based on the success of his theater posters, Mucha made posters for a variety of products, ranging from cigarettes and soap to beer biscuits, all featuring an idealized female figure with an hourglass figure. He went on to design products, from jewellery to biscuit boxes, in his distinctive style. In Vienna, the most prolific designer of graphics and posters was Koloman Moser (1868–1918), who actively participated in the Secession movement with
Gustav Klimt Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objects d'art. Klimt's prima ...
and
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
, and made illustrations and covers for the magazine of the movement, ''Ver Sacrum (magazine), Ver Sacrum'', as well as paintings, furniture and decoration.


Painting

File:Femmes au jardin.gif,
Pierre Bonnard Pierre Bonnard (; 3 October 186723 January 1947) was a French painter, illustrator, and printmaker, known especially for the stylized decorative qualities of his paintings and his bold use of color. He was a founding member of the Post-Impression ...
, ''Women in the Garden'' (1890–91), painted screens in the Japanese ''kamemono'' style File:Edouard Vuillard - Woman in a Striped Dress - Google Art Project.jpg, ''Le Corsage rayé'' by
Édouard Vuillard Jean-Édouard Vuillard (; 11 November 186821 June 1940) was a French painter, decorative artist and printmaker. From 1891 through 1900, he was a prominent member of the Nabis, making paintings which assembled areas of pure color, and interior scene ...
(1895), National Gallery of Art File:LES DANAÏDES OR FEMMES À LA SOURCE.PNG, Paul Sérusier, ''Women at the Spring'', Musée d'Orsay (1898) File:Gustav Klimt 014.jpg, Beethoven Frieze in the ''Sezessionshaus'' in Vienna by
Gustav Klimt Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objects d'art. Klimt's prima ...
(1902) File:Kolo Moser - Serpentinentänzerin - ca1902.jpeg, Watercolour and ink painting of Loie Fuller, Loïe Fuller Dancing, by Koloman Moser (1902) File:SlaviaMucha.jpg, ''Slavia'' by
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
(1908) File:Mais.Cauchie sgraf. 2e ét.JPG, Sgraffito by Paul Cauchie on his residence and studio, Brussels (1905) File:Klimt, Erwartung, Stoclet Fries.jpg, Detail of the frieze by
Gustav Klimt Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objects d'art. Klimt's prima ...
in the Palais Stoclet, Brussels (1905–1911)
Painting was another domain of Art Nouveau, though most painters associated with Art Nouveau are primarily described as members of other movements, particularly post-impressionism and Symbolism (arts), symbolism.
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorati ...
was famous for his Art Nouveau posters, which frustrated him. According to his son and biographer, Jiří Mucha, he did not think much of Art Nouveau. "What is it, ''Art Nouveau''? he asked. "...Art can never be new." He took the greatest pride in his work as a history painter. His one Art-Nouveau inspired painting, "Slava", is a portrait of the daughter of his patron in Slavic costume, which was modelled after his theatrical posters. The painters most closely associated with Art Nouveau were Les Nabis, post-impressionist artists who were active in Paris from 1888 until 1900. One of their stated goals was to break down the barrier between the fine arts and the decorative arts. They painted not only canvases, but also decorative screens and panels. Many of their works were influenced by the aesthetics of Japanese prints. The members included
Pierre Bonnard Pierre Bonnard (; 3 October 186723 January 1947) was a French painter, illustrator, and printmaker, known especially for the stylized decorative qualities of his paintings and his bold use of color. He was a founding member of the Post-Impression ...
,
Maurice Denis Maurice Denis (; 25 November 1870 – 13 November 1943) was a French painter, decorative artist and writer, who was an important figure in the transitional period between impressionism and modern art. He was associated with ''Les Nabis'' then the ...
, Paul Ranson,
Édouard Vuillard Jean-Édouard Vuillard (; 11 November 186821 June 1940) was a French painter, decorative artist and printmaker. From 1891 through 1900, he was a prominent member of the Nabis, making paintings which assembled areas of pure color, and interior scene ...
, Ker-Xavier Roussel,
Félix Vallotton Félix Edouard Vallotton (December 28, 1865December 29, 1925) was a Swiss and French painter and printmaker associated with the group of artists known as . He was an important figure in the development of the modern woodcut. He painted portraits, ...
, and Paul Sérusier. In Belgium, Fernand Khnopff worked in both painting and graphic design. Wall murals by Gustav Klimt were integrated into decorative scheme of
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
for the Palais Stoclet. The Klimt mural for the dining room at the Palais Stoclet (1905–1911) is considered a masterpiece of late Art Nouveau. One subject did appear both in traditional painting and Art Nouveau; the American dancer
Loie Fuller Loie Fuller (born Marie Louise Fuller; January 15, 1862 – January 1, 1928), also known as Louie Fuller and Loïe Fuller, was an American actress and dancer who was a pioneer of both modern dance and theatrical lighting techniques. Career Born ...

Loie Fuller
, was portrayed by French and Austrian painters and poster artists. One particular style that became popular in the Art Nouveau period, especially in Brussels, was
sgraffito ''Sgraffito'' (; plural: ''sgraffiti'') is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colours to a moistened surface, or in pottery, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers ...
, a technique invented in the Renaissance of applying layers of tinted plaster to make murals on the facades of houses. This was used in particular by Belgian architect
Paul Hankar Paul Hankar (11 December 1859 – 17 January 1901) was a Belgian architect and furniture designer, and an innovator in the Art Nouveau style. Career He was born at Frameries, the son of a stonemason. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux ...
for the houses he built for two artist friends, Paul Cauchie and Albert Ciamberlani.


Glass art

File:Émile Gallé - Coupe "Par une telle nuit".jpg, Cup ''Par une telle nuit'' by
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
, France, (1894) File:Lampe aux Ombelles 2.jpg, ''Lampe aux ombelles'' by
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
, France, (about 1902) File:MEN Emile Galle Rose de France 24032013 1.jpg, ''Rose de France'' cup by
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
, (1901) File:Vase Daum.jpg, Daum vase, France, (1900) File:Lamp-Daum-BMA.jpg, Lamp by Daum, France (1900) File:Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Louis Comfort Tiffany, Au Nouveau Cirque, Papa Chrysanthème, c.1894, stained glass, 120 x 85 cm, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.jpg,
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, caricaturist and illustrator whose immersion in the colorful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th c ...
,
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
, ''Au Nouveau Cirque, Papa Chrysanthème'', c.1894, stained glass,
Musée d'Orsay The Musée d'Orsay ( , , ) is a museum in Paris, France, on the Left Bank of the Seine. It is housed in the former Gare d'Orsay, a Beaux-Arts railway station built between 1898 and 1900. The museum holds mainly French art dating from 1848 to 19 ...
File:Véranda de la Salle.jpg, Stained glass window ''Veranda de la Salle'' by Jacques Grüber in Nancy, France (1904) File:Karl koepping, due bicchieri decorativi in vetro soffiato, gemania 1896, 01.jpg, Blown glass with flower design by Karl Koepping, Germany, (1896) File:Stängelglas, designed by Otto Prutscher, made by Meyr's Neffe, Adolf bei Winterberg (Bohemia), c. 1909, glass - Bröhan Museum, Berlin - DSC03986.JPG, Glass designed by Otto Prutscher (Austria) (1909) File:Vitrail du hall dentrée (House for an art lover, Glasgow) (3809393032).jpg, Window for the House of an Art Lover, by Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh (1901) File:Louis comfort tiffany, lampada da tavolo pomb lily, 1900-10 ca..JPG, Lily lamp by
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
(1900–1910) File:Louis-comfort tiffany, vaso in vetro soffiato iridescente, new york 1900, 01.JPG, Iridescent vase by
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
(1904) File:Ngv, louis comfort tiffany, jack-in-the-pulpit vase, 1913 circa 01.JPG, Jack-in-the-pulpit vase, Louis Comfort Tiffany, U.S. (1910) File:John La Farge - 'Untitled (Architecture)', c. 1903, glass, High Museum.JPG, Stained glass window ''Architecture'' by John La Farge U.S. (1903) File:Kolo Moser Steinhof leibliche Tugenden Westen.jpg, Stained glass windows by Koloman Moser for the Kirche am Steinhof, Church of St. Leopold, Vienna (1902–07)
Glass art was a medium in which Art Nouveau found new and varied ways of expression. Intense amount of experimentation went on, particularly in France, to find new effects of transparency and opacity: in engraving win cameo, double layers, and acid engraving, a technique that permitted production in series. The city of Nancy became an important centre for the French glass industry, and the workshops of
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
and the Daum studio, led by Auguste Daum, Auguste and Antonin Daum, were located there. They worked with many notable designers, including , , and Amalric Walter. They developed a new method of incrusting glass by pressing fragments of different coloured glass into the unfinished piece. They often collaborated with the furniture designer
Louis Majorelle Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, (26 September 1859 – 15 January 1926) was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ''ébéniste''. ...
, whose home and workshops were in Nancy. Another feature of Art Nouveau was the use of stained glass windows with that style of floral themes in residential salons, particularly in the Art Nouveau houses in Nancy. Many were the work of Jacques Grüber, who made windows for the Villa Majorelle and other houses. In Belgium, the leading firm was the glass factory of Val Saint Lambert, which created vases in organic and floral forms, many of them designed by Philippe Wolfers. Wolfers was noted particularly for creating works of symbolist glass, often with metal decoration attached. In Bohemia, then a region of the Austria-Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire noted for crystal manufacture, the companies J. & L. Lobmeyr and Joh. Loetz Witwe also experimented with new colouring techniques, producing more vivid and richer colours. In Germany, experimentation was led by Karl Köpping, who used blown glass to create extremely delicate glasses in the form of flowers; so delicate that few survive today. In Vienna, the glass designs of the Secession movement were much more geometrical than those of France or Belgium; Otto Prutscher was the most rigorous glass designer of the movement. In Britain, a number of floral stained glass designs were created by Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh for the architectural display called "The House of an Art Lover". In the United States,
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
and his designers became particularly famous for their lamps, whose glass shades used common floral themes intricately pieced together. Tiffany lamps gained popularity after the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, where Tiffany displayed his lamps in a Byzantine-like chapel. Tiffany experimented extensively with the processes of colouring glass, patenting in 1894 the process Favrile glass, which used metallic oxides to colour the interior of the molten glass, giving it an iridescent effect. His workshops produced several different series of the Tiffany lamp in different floral designs, along with stained glass windows, screens, vases and a range of decorative objects. His works were first imported to Germany, then to France by
Siegfried Bing Samuel Siegfried Bing (26 February 1838 – 6 September 1905), who usually gave his name as S. Bing (not to be confused with his brother, Samuel Otto Bing, 1850–1905), was a German-French art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who ...
, and then became one of the decorative sensations of the 1900 Exposition. An American rival to Tiffany, Steuben Glass, was founded in 1903 in Corning (city), New York, Corning, NY, by Frederick Carder, who, like Tiffany, used the Fevrile process to create surfaces with iridescent colours. Another notable American glass artist was John La Farge, who created intricate and colourful stained glass windows on both religious and purely decorative themes. Examples of stained glass windows in churches can be found in the Art Nouveau religious buildings article.


Metal art

File:Paris 16 - Castel Béranger -10.JPG, Balcony of Castel Béranger in Paris, by
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
(1897–98) File:Ferronneries de la façade de lancienne banque Renauld (Nancy) (3997752903).jpg, Railings by
Louis Majorelle Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, (26 September 1859 – 15 January 1926) was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ''ébéniste''. ...
for the Bank Renauld in Nancy File:Fernand dubois, candelabro tulipani, 1899 ca., bronzo argentato.jpg, Tulip candelabra by Fernand Dubois (1899) File:Tischlampe Schleiertänzerin BNM.jpg, Table Lamp by François-Raoul Larche in gilt bronze, with the dancer Loïe Fuller as model (1901) File:Villa Majorelle entry grill.JPG, Entrance grill of the Villa Majorelle in Nancy (1901–02) File:Victor horta, applique a due bracci per lampadine elettriche, 1903 ca.JPG, Light fixture by
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
(1903) File:Baluster from the Schlesinger and Mayer Store (later Carson Pirie Scott), by George Grant Elmslie, 1899-1904, cast iron - Chazen Museum of Art - DSC02458.JPG, Cast iron Baluster by George Grant Elmslie (1899-1904) File:Friedrich-Adler-2.jpg, Lamp by German architect Friedrich Adler (artist), Friedrich Adler (1903–04) File:Ernst riegel, coppa con piede, germania 1905 ca., argento e malachite.JPG, Lamp by Ernst Riegel made of silver and malachite (1905) File:PPalais Stoclet, détail de la grille principale avec éléments du jardin..JPG, Gate of the Palais Stoclet by
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
, Brussels (1905-1911) File:Portail de la Villa Knopf (34633284432).jpg, Gate of Villa Knopf in Strasbourg (1905)
The 19th-century architectural theorist Viollet-le-Duc had advocated showing, rather than concealing the iron frameworks of modern buildings, but Art Nouveau architects
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
and
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
went a step further: they added iron decoration in curves inspired by floral and vegetal forms both in the interiors and exteriors of their buildings. They took the form of stairway railings in the interior, light fixtures, and other details in the interior, and balconies and other ornaments on the exterior. These became some of the most distinctive features of Art Nouveau architecture. The use of metal decoration in vegetal forms soon also appeared in silverware, lamps, and other decorative items. In the United States, the designer George Grant Elmslie made extremely intricate cast iron designs for the balustrades and other interior decoration of the buildings of Chicago architect
Louis Sullivan Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, and has been called a "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism". He was an influential architect of the Chicago School, a mentor to Frank Lloyd ...
. While French and American designers used floral and vegetal forms,
Joseph Maria Olbrich Joseph Maria Olbrich (22 December 1867 – 8 August 1908) was an Austrian architect and one of the Vienna Secession founders. Early life Olbrich was born in Opava, Austrian Silesia (today in the Czech Republic), the third child of Edmund and Al ...
and the other Secession artists designed teapots and other metal objects in a more geometric and sober style.


Jewellery

File:Louis Aucoc02.jpg, Carved horn decorated with pearls, by Louis Aucoc (circa 1900) File:Louis Aucoc00.jpg, Translucent enamel flowers with small diamonds in the veins, by Louis Aucoc (circa 1900) File:Louis Aucoc01.jpg, "Flora" brooch by Louis Aucoc (circa 1900) File:Tiffany and Company Iris Corsage Ornament Walters 57939 Detail croped.jpg, A corsage ornament by
Louis Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
(1900) File:René lailique, pettorale libellula, in oro, smalti, crisoprazio, calcedonio, pietre lunari e diamanti, 1897-98 ca. 01.jpg, Dragonfly Lady brooch by
René Lalique René Jules Lalique (6 April 1860 – 1 May 1945) was a French glass designer known for his creations of glass art, perfume bottles, vases, jewellery, chandeliers, clocks and automobile hood ornaments. Life Lalique's early life was spent learnin ...
, made of gold, enamel, chrysoprase, moonstone, and diamonds (1897–98) File:Broche with Woman - René Lalique.JPG, Brooch with woman by René Lalique File:Necklace (3922815556).jpg, Necklace by Charles Robert Ashbee (1901) File:Paul follot, pettine con aquilegie, 1904-09 ca, corno, oro, smalti, acquamarine.JPG, Brooch of horn with enamel, gold and aquamarine by Paul Follot (1904–09) File:Philippe Wolfers for Wolfers Frères - Nikè brooch - 1902 - Collectie Koning Boudewijnstichting - Voormalige verzameling Marcel Wolfers.jpg, Philippe Wolfers, Niké Brooch (1902), collection King Baudouin Foundation, depot: KMKG-MRAH
Art Nouveau jewellery's characteristics include subtle curves and lines. Its design often features natural objects including flowers, animals or birds. The female body is also popular often appearing on Cameo (carving), cameos. It frequently included long necklaces made of pearls or sterling-silver chains punctuated by glass beads or ending in a silver or gold pendant, itself often designed as an ornament to hold a single, faceted jewel of amethyst, peridot, or citrine quartz, citrine. The Art Nouveau period brought a notable stylistic revolution to the jewellery industry, led largely by the major firms in Paris. For the previous two centuries, the emphasis in fine jewellery had been creating dramatic settings for diamonds. During the reign of Art Nouveau, diamonds usually played a supporting role. Jewellers experimented with a wide variety of other stones, including agate, garnet, opal, moonstone (gemstone), moonstone, Beryl#Aquamarine and maxixe, aquamarine and other semi-precious stones, and with a wide variety of new techniques, among others vitreous enamel, enamelling, and new materials, including horn (anatomy), horn, moulded glass, and ivory. Early notable Paris jewellers in the Art Nouveau style included Louis Aucoc, whose family jewellery firm dated to 1821. The most famous designer of the Art Nouveau period,
René Lalique René Jules Lalique (6 April 1860 – 1 May 1945) was a French glass designer known for his creations of glass art, perfume bottles, vases, jewellery, chandeliers, clocks and automobile hood ornaments. Life Lalique's early life was spent learnin ...
, served his apprenticeship in the Aucoc studio from 1874 to 1876. Lalique became a central figure of Art Nouveau jewellery and glass, using nature, from dragonfly, dragonflies to grasses, as his models. Artists from outside of the traditional world of jewellery, such as Paul Follot, best known as a furniture designer, experimented with jewellery designs. Other notable French Art Nouveau jewellery designers included Jules Brateau and Georges Henry. In the United States, the most famous designer was
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
, whose work was shown at the shop of
Siegfried Bing Samuel Siegfried Bing (26 February 1838 – 6 September 1905), who usually gave his name as S. Bing (not to be confused with his brother, Samuel Otto Bing, 1850–1905), was a German-French art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who ...
and also at the 1900 Paris Exposition. In Britain, the most prominent figure was the Liberty & Co. designer Archibald Knox (designer), Archibald Knox, who made a variety of Art Nouveau pieces, including silver belt buckles. C. R. Ashbee designed pendants in the shapes of peacocks. The versatile
Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an estimated city population of 633,120 in 2019, is the most populous city in Scotland and the fourth-most populous city in the United Kingdom (as of 2011), as well as being the 27th lar ...

Glasgow
designer Charles Rennie Mackintosh also made jewellery, using traditional Celtic symbols. In Germany, the centre for ''Jugendstil'' jewellery was the city of Pforzheim, where most of the German firms, including Theodor Fahrner, were located. They quickly produced works to meet the demand for the new style.


Architecture and ornamentation

File:Entrance - Hôtel Solvay - 1898.jpg, Entrance of
Hôtel Solvay The Hôtel Solvay (french: Hôtel Solvay, nl, Hotel Solvay) is a large Art Nouveau town house designed by Victor Horta on ''Avenue Louise''/''Louizalaan'' in Brussels, Belgium. The house was commissioned by Armand Solvay, the son of the wealthy Bel ...
in Brussels by
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
(1898) File:Villa Majorelle stairway facade.JPG, Detail of the facade of the Villa Majorelle by
Henri Sauvage Henri Sauvage (May 10, 1873 in Rouen – March 21, 1932 in Paris), was a French architect and designer in the early 20th century. He was one of the most important architects in the French Art nouveau movement, Art Deco, and the beginning of arc ...
in Nancy (1901–02) File:Eléments de décor dun immeuble art nouveau (Paris) (4810271270).jpg, Thistles and curve-lined mascaron (architecture), mascarons in decoration of Les Chardons building by Charles Klein in Paris (1903) File:Immeuble art nouveau (Riga) (7575658724).jpg,
Jugendstil Jugendstil ("Youth Style") was an artistic movement, particularly in the decorative arts, that was influential primarily in Germany and elsewhere in Europe to a lesser extent from about 1895 until about 1910. It was the German counterpart of Art ...
straight-lined mascaron (architecture), mascaron in Riga,
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is one of the Baltic states; and is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuan ...

Latvia
(1906) File:Витебский вокзал. Картинный зал.jpg, Whiplash motifs at Vitebsky railway station by Sima Mihash and Stanislav Brzozowski, Saint Petersburg (1904) File:Mascara Fachada BA.jpg, One of the mascarons made by Adamo Boari in the facade of the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City, Mexico (1904–1934) File:Immeuble De Beck Brussels.jpg, Asymmetric facade with curved lines of De Beck building by Gustave Strauven in
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brussels Ho ...
(1905) File:Art Nouveau architecture in Strasbourg 02.JPG, Irises and mascaron at the facade of Schichtel building by Aloys Walter in Strasbourg, France (1905–06)
Art Nouveau architecture was a reaction against the eclectic styles that dominated European architecture in the second half of the 19th century. It was expressed through decoration: either ornament (art), ornamental (based on flowers and plants, e.g. thistles, irises, cyclamens, orchids, water lilies etc.) or sculptural (see the #Sculpture, respective section below). While faces of people (or mascaron (architecture), mascarons) are referred to ornament, the use of people in different forms of sculpture (statues and reliefs: see the #Sculpture, respective section below) was also common in some forms of Art Nouveau. Before
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
, Jugendstil and the various forms of the National romantic style façades were asymmetrical, and often decorated with polychrome ceramic tiles. The decoration usually suggested movement; there was no distinction between the structure and the ornament.Renault and Lazé, ''Les styles de l'architecture et du mobilier'' (2006), pp. 107–111 A curling or whiplash (decorative art), "whiplash" motif, based on the forms of plants and flowers, was widely used in the early Art Nouveau, but decoration became more abstract and symmetrical in
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau, that was formed in 1897 by a group of Austria ...
and other later versions of the style, as in the Palais Stoclet in Brussels (1905–1911). The style first appeared in Brussels'
Hankar House Hankar House (french: Maison Hankar, nl, Huis Hankar) is the residence built by the Belgian architect Paul Hankar in 1893. It is located at 71, / in the Saint-Gilles municipality of Brussels, Belgium. It is considered, along with the Hôtel Tassel b ...
by
Paul Hankar Paul Hankar (11 December 1859 – 17 January 1901) was a Belgian architect and furniture designer, and an innovator in the Art Nouveau style. Career He was born at Frameries, the son of a stonemason. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux ...
(1893) and
Hôtel Tassel The Hôtel Tassel (french: Hôtel Tassel, nl, Hotel Tassel) is a townhouse in Brussels, Belgium, designed by Victor Horta for the Belgian scientist and professor Emile Tassel and built from 1892–93. It is generally considered the first true Art ...
(1892–93) of
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
. The Hôtel Tassel was visited by
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
, who used the same style in his first major work, the Castel Béranger (1897–98). Horta and Guimard also designed the furniture and the interior decoration, down to the doorknobs and carpeting. In 1899, based on the fame of the Castel Béranger, Guimard received a commission to design the Paris Métro entrances by Hector Guimard, entrances of the stations of the new
Paris Métro The Paris Métro (french: Métro de Paris ; short for Métropolitain ) is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique ent ...
, which opened in 1900. Though few of the originals survived, these became the symbol of the Art Nouveau movement in Paris. In Paris, the architectural style was also a reaction to the strict regulations imposed on building facades by
Georges-Eugène Haussmann Georges-Eugène Haussmann, commonly known as Baron Haussmann (; 27 March 180911 January 1891), was a French official who served as prefect of Seine (1853–1870), chosen by Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive urban renewal programme of ne ...
, the prefect of Paris under
Napoleon III#REDIRECT Napoleon III#REDIRECT Napoleon III {{R from miscapitalisation ...
{{R from miscapitalisation ...
. Bow windows were finally allowed in 1903, and Art Nouveau architects went to the opposite extreme, most notably in the houses of Jules Lavirotte, which were essentially large works of sculpture, completely covered with decoration. An important neighbourhood of Art Nouveau houses appeared in the French city of Nancy, around the Villa Majorelle (1901–02), the residence of the furniture designer
Louis Majorelle Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, (26 September 1859 – 15 January 1926) was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ''ébéniste''. ...
. It was designed by
Henri Sauvage Henri Sauvage (May 10, 1873 in Rouen – March 21, 1932 in Paris), was a French architect and designer in the early 20th century. He was one of the most important architects in the French Art nouveau movement, Art Deco, and the beginning of arc ...
as a showcase for Majorelle's furniture designs. File:Horta Museum.JPG, Spiral staircase in Horta Museum, Maison and Atelier Horta by
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
in
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brussels Ho ...
(1898–1901) File:Bruxelles - Palais Stoclet (6).jpg, Detail of Stoclet Palace in
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brussels Ho ...
(1905–1911) File:Palau de la Música Catalana, the Catalan Concert Hall.jpg, Interior of Palau de la Música Catalana in
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within cit ...
(1905–1909) File:Parc guell - panoramio.jpg, Entrance buildings in Parc Güell by
Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (; ; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect known as the greatest exponent of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works have a highly individualized, ''sui generis'' style. Most are located in Barcelona, includin ...
in
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within cit ...
(1900–1914)
Many Art Nouveau buildings were included in UNESCO World Cultural Heritage list as a part of their city centres (in Old City (Bern), Bern, Budapest, Lviv, Paris, Porto, Prague, Riga, Saint Petersburg, Strasbourg (Neustadt (Strasbourg), Neustadt), Vienna). Along with them, there were buildings that were included in the list as separate objects: * : the works of
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
(
Hôtel Tassel The Hôtel Tassel (french: Hôtel Tassel, nl, Hotel Tassel) is a townhouse in Brussels, Belgium, designed by Victor Horta for the Belgian scientist and professor Emile Tassel and built from 1892–93. It is generally considered the first true Art ...
,
Hôtel Solvay The Hôtel Solvay (french: Hôtel Solvay, nl, Hotel Solvay) is a large Art Nouveau town house designed by Victor Horta on ''Avenue Louise''/''Louizalaan'' in Brussels, Belgium. The house was commissioned by Armand Solvay, the son of the wealthy Bel ...
,
Hôtel van Eetvelde The Hôtel van Eetvelde (french: Hôtel van Eetvelde, nl, Hotel van Eetvelde) is a town house designed in 1895 by Victor Horta for Edmond van Eetvelde, administrator of Congo Free State. It is located at 4, / in Brussels, Belgium. Together with t ...
, Horta Museum, Maison and Atelier Horta) and the Stoclet Palace by
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
in
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brussels Ho ...
; * : the works of
Lluís Domènech i Montaner Lluís Domènech i Montaner (; 21 December 1850 – 27 December 1923) was a Spanish architect who was highly influential on ''Modernisme català'', the Catalan Art Nouveau/Jugendstil movement. He was also a Catalan politician. Born in Barcelona, he ...
(Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau in
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within cit ...
), and the works of
Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (; ; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect known as the greatest exponent of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works have a highly individualized, ''sui generis'' style. Most are located in Barcelona, includin ...
(Park Güell, Palau Güell, Sagrada Família, Casa Batlló, Casa Milá, Casa Vicens in
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within cit ...
; Church of Colònia Güell, Colònia Güell in Santa Coloma de Cervelló).


Sculpture

File:Le Jeu de l'echarpe (Dancer with scarf), by Agathon Leonard, before 1901, Susse Freres, Paris, gilt bronze - Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt - Darmstadt, Germany - DSC00944.jpg, Dancer with a Scarf by Agathon Léonard, made for the
Manufacture nationale de Sèvres The ''Manufacture nationale de Sèvres'' is one of the principal European porcelain factories. It is located in Sèvres, Hauts-de-Seine, France. It is the continuation of Vincennes porcelain, founded in 1740, which moved to Sèvres in 1756. It has ...
, France (1898) File:Dolça Catalana. Lambert Escaler i Milà..JPG, Statue of polychrome terracotta by in
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within cit ...
(1901) File:Aarhus Theatre inside6.JPG, High-relief of swans and statues in the interior of Aarhus Theatre by Karl Hansen Reistrup in Aarhus, Denmark (1897–1900) File:Décor art nouveau d'un immeuble du quartier Katajanokka (Helsinki).jpg, High-relief of owls in Katajanokka by Georg Wasastjerna,
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital, primate and most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, and has a population of ...
(1903) File:Blosse 09488.JPG, Sculpture by Ernest Bussière in Nancy, France File:Karhu - Emil Wikström.jpeg, Bear statue by Emil Wikström at National Museum of Finland (1905–1910) File:Sprudelhof 20.jpg, Bas-relief in Sprudelhof by Heinrich Jobst in Bad Nauheim, Germany (1905–1911) File:WLM14ES - Zaragoza Monumento a lo sitios 00251 - .jpg, Monument to Siege of Saragossa (1808), Siege of Zaragoza by Agustí Querol Subirats (1908) File:Hradec Králové - Eliščino nábřeží - Muzeum východních Čech - Museum of East Bohemia 1909-12 by Jan Kotěra - View SE on Průmysl - Industry by Stanislav Sucharda.jpg, Ceramic relief and statue by Stanislav Sucharda in Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic (1909–1912) File:Tortosa - Casa Bau 3.JPG, Gargoyle by Josep Plantada i Artiga in Tortosa,
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationality'' by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Ba ...
, Spain (1915) File:St.MangBrunnen "Träger".JPG, Atlas (architecture), Atlantes, caryatids at Sankt-Mang-Brunnen by Georg Wrba in Kempten, Germany (1905) File:Conservatori Municipal de Música de Barcelona 38.JPG, Ceramic putti in Music conservatory of
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within cit ...
by Eusebi Arnau (1916–28)
Sculpture was another form of expression for Art Nouveau artists, crossing with ceramics sometimes. The porcelain figurine ''Dancer with a Scarf'' by Agathon Léonard won recognition both in ceramics and in sculpture at the Exposition Universelle (1900), Paris Exposition in 1900. Sculptors of other countries also created ceramic sculptures: Bohemian Stanislav Sucharda and Ladislav Šaloun, Belgian Charles Van der Stappen and Catalan , who created statues of polychrome terracotta. Another notable sculptor of that time was Agustí Querol Subirats from
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationality'' by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Ba ...
who created statues in Spain, Mexico, Argentina, and Cuba. In architectural sculpture not only statues but also reliefs were used. Art Nouveau architects and sculptors found inspiration in animal motif (art), motifs (butterflies, peacocks, swans, owls, bats, dragons, bears). Atlas (architecture), Atlantes, caryatids, putti, and gargoyles were also used.


Furniture

File:Henri van de velde, sedie e divano imbottiti per salotto, dalla casa del banchiere louis bauer a bruxelles, 1896, 01.JPG, Chair by
Henry van de Velde#REDIRECT Henry van de Velde {{R from other capitalisation ...
, Belgium (1896) File:Chaise de Charles Rennie Mackintosh (Musée d'Orsay) (8982129778).jpg, Chair by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, UK (1897–1900) File:Stool LACMA M.2008.24.jpg, Stool by
Paul Hankar Paul Hankar (11 December 1859 – 17 January 1901) was a Belgian architect and furniture designer, and an innovator in the Art Nouveau style. Career He was born at Frameries, the son of a stonemason. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux ...
, Belgium (1898) File:Richard riemerschmid per dresdener werkstätten für handwerkskunst, armadio, dresda 1902.JPG, Wardrobe by Richard Riemerschmid, Germany (1902) File:Chambre à coucher art nouveau (Musée de lEcole de Nancy) (8029141171).jpg, A bedroom by
Louis Majorelle Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, (26 September 1859 – 15 January 1926) was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ''ébéniste''. ...
(1903–1904) File:Art Nouveau Dining Masson.jpg, Dining room by Eugène Vallin, France (1903) File:Fauteuil de F. Rupert-Carabin (MAMC, Strasbourg) (28827499300).jpg, Chair by Rupert Carabin, France (1895) File:Victor horta, boiserie e mobilio dell'hotel aubecq a bruxelles, 1902-04, 06.JPG, Furniture set by
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
in the Hôtel Aubeque from Brussels (1902–1904) File:Oak chair made by Charles Rohlfs, 1898-99, Princeton University Art Museum.JPG, Chair by Charles Rohlfs, US (1898–1899) File:Carlobugattichicago.jpg, "Snail chair" and other furniture by
Carlo Bugatti Carlo Bugatti (2 February 1856 – April 1940) was an Italian decorator, designer and manufacturer of Art Nouveau furniture, models of jewelry, and musical instruments. Biography Son of Giovanni Luigi Bugatti, a specialist in interior decora ...
, Italy (1902) File:Gaspar Homar i Mezquida. Cadira de piano..JPG, Chair by Gaspar Homar, Spain (1903) File:Dawn and Dusk bed.jpg, "Dawn and Dusk" bed by
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
, France (1904) File:Adjustable armchair, Model 670, Sitting Machine, designed by Josef Hoffmann, Jacob & Josef Kohn, Vienna, 1904-1906, beech, plywood, wood, brass- Museum für Angewandte Kunst Köln - Cologne, Germany - DSC09636.jpg, Adjustable armchair Model 670 "Sitting Machine" designed by
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
, Austria (1904–1906) File:Victor Horta Meubelen van Turijn KBS-FRB.jpg,
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
, ''furniture from Turin'' (1902), in the collection of the King Baudouin Foundation.
Furniture design in the Art Nouveau period was closely associated with the architecture of the buildings; the architects often designed the furniture, carpets, light fixtures, doorknobs, and other decorative details. The furniture was often complex and expensive; a fine finish, usually polished or varnished, was regarded as essential, and continental designs were usually very complex, with curving shapes that were expensive to make. It also had the drawback that the owner of the home could not change the furniture or add pieces in a different style without disrupting the entire effect of the room. For this reason, when Art Nouveau architecture went out of style, the style of furniture also largely disappeared. In France, the centre for furniture design and manufacture was in Nancy, where two major designers,
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
and
Louis Majorelle Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, (26 September 1859 – 15 January 1926) was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ''ébéniste''. ...
had their studios and workshops, and where the ''Alliance des industries d'art'' (later called the School of Nancy) had been founded in 1901. Both designers based on their structure and ornamentation on forms taken from nature, including flowers and insects, such as the dragonfly, a popular motif in Art Nouveau design. Gallé was particularly known for his use of marquetry in relief, in the form of landscapes or poetic themes. Majorelle was known for his use of exotic and expensive woods, and for attaching bronze sculpted in vegetal themes to his pieces of furniture. Both designers used machines for the first phases of manufacture, but all the pieces were finished by hand. Other notable furniture designers of the Nancy School included Eugène Vallin and Émile André; both were architects by training, and both designed furniture that resembled the furniture from Belgian designers such as Horta and Van de Velde, which had less decoration and followed more closely the curving plants and flowers. Other notable French designers included Henri Bellery-Desfontaines, who took his inspiration from the neo-Gothic styles of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Viollet-le-Duc; and Georges de Feure, Eugène Gaillard, and Édouard Colonna, who worked together with art dealer
Siegfried Bing Samuel Siegfried Bing (26 February 1838 – 6 September 1905), who usually gave his name as S. Bing (not to be confused with his brother, Samuel Otto Bing, 1850–1905), was a German-French art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who ...
to revitalize the French furniture industry with new themes. Their work was known for "abstract naturalism", its unity of straight and curved lines, and its rococo influence. The furniture of de Feure at the Bing pavilion won a gold medal at the 1900 Paris Exposition. The most unusual and picturesque French designer was François-Rupert Carabin, a sculptor by training, whose furniture featured sculpted nude female forms and symbolic animals, particularly cats, who combined Art Nouveau elements with Symbolism (arts), Symbolism. Other influential Paris furniture designers were Charles Plumet, and Alexandre Charpentier. In many ways the old vocabulary and techniques of classic French 18th-century Rococo furniture were re-interpreted in a new style. In Belgium, the pioneer architects of the ''Art Nouveau movement'',
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
and
Henry van de Velde#REDIRECT Henry van de Velde {{R from other capitalisation ...
, designed furniture for their houses, using vigorous curving lines and a minimum of decoration. The Belgian designer
Gustave Serrurier-Bovy225px, Mahogany armoire designed in 1899 by Serrurier-Bovy, on display at the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1858–1910) was a Belgian architect and furniture designer. He is credited (along with Paul Hankar, Victor Horta and Hen ...
added more decoration, applying brass strips in curving forms. In the Netherlands, where the style was called ''Nieuwe Kunst'' or New Art, H. P. Berlag, Lion Cachet and Theodor Nieuwenhuis followed a different course, that of the English
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and societies through skills and imagination in order to produce objects, environments and experiences. Major constituents of th ...
, with more geometric rational forms. In Britain, the furniture of Charles Rennie Mackintosh was purely Arts and Crafts, austere and geometrical, with long straight lines and right angles and a minimum of decoration. Continental designs were much more elaborate, often using curved shapes both in the basic shapes of the piece, and in applied decorative motifs. In Germany, the furniture of Peter Behrens and the
Jugendstil Jugendstil ("Youth Style") was an artistic movement, particularly in the decorative arts, that was influential primarily in Germany and elsewhere in Europe to a lesser extent from about 1895 until about 1910. It was the German counterpart of Art ...
was largely rationalist, with geometric straight lines and some decoration attached to the surface. Their goal was exactly the opposite of French Art Nouveau; simplicity of structure and simplicity of materials, for furniture that could be inexpensive and easily mass-manufactured. The same was true for the furniture of designers of the Wiener Werkstätte in Vienna, led by
Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (; 13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect, furniture designer and urban planner. He was a leading member of the Vienna Secession movement of architecture, founded in 1897, and the broader Art Nouveau movem ...
,
Josef Hoffmann Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer. He was among the founders of Vienna Secession and co-establisher of the Wiener Werkstätte. His most famous architectural work is the Palais Stoclet, in Brus ...
, Josef Maria Olbrich and Koloman Moser. The furniture was geometric and had a minimum of decoration, though in style it often followed national historic precedent, particularly the Biedemeier style. Italian and Spanish furniture design went off in their own direction.
Carlo Bugatti Carlo Bugatti (2 February 1856 – April 1940) was an Italian decorator, designer and manufacturer of Art Nouveau furniture, models of jewelry, and musical instruments. Biography Son of Giovanni Luigi Bugatti, a specialist in interior decora ...
in Italy designed the extraordinary Snail Chair, wood covered with painted parchment and copper, for the Turin International Exposition of 1902. In Spain, following the lead of
Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (; ; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect known as the greatest exponent of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works have a highly individualized, ''sui generis'' style. Most are located in Barcelona, includin ...
and the ''Modernismo'' movement, the furniture designer Gaspar Homar designed works that were inspired by natural forms with touches of Catalan historic styles. In the United States, furniture design was more often inspired by the Arts and Crafts movement, or by historic American models, than by the Art Nouveau. One designer who did introduce Art Nouveau themes was Charles Rohlfs in Buffalo, New York, whose designs for American white oak furniture were influenced by motifs of Celtic Art and Gothic art, with touches of Art Nouveau in the metal trim applied to the pieces.


Ceramics

File:Vase MET SF1999 398 1.jpg, Glazed earthenware vase by
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
(1880–1885) (Metropolitan Museum) File:Vase MET SF2008 113 img1.jpg, Earthenware plate and sculpted stand (1884) by
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
(Metropolitan Museum) File:Vase (France), 1884–89 (CH 18634943).jpg, Faience or earthenware vase with two feet, with mountain night scene on the back and a floral daylight scene with butterfly on the front, by
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
(1884–1885) File:Dish MET ES5405.jpg, Vase by Maurice Dufrêne, France, (1900) File:Bol art nouveau (Musée des arts décoratifs) (4714073425).jpg, Bowl by Auguste Delaherche, Paris, (1901) File:Edmond lachenal ed émile decoeur, vaso, chatillon-sur-bagneux, 1902 ca..JPG, Edmond Lachenal, vase, France (1902) File:Limoges enamel Art Nouveau Paul Bonnaud.JPG, Limoges enamel by Paul Bonnaud, France (1903) File:Thorvald Bindesbøll ceramics.JPG, Faience vase by Thorvald Bindesbøll, Denmark, (1893) File:Vase, designed by Alf Wallander, made by Porzellanfabrik Rorstrand, Stockholm, 1897, porcelain - Bröhan Museum, Berlin - DSC04029.JPG, Vase by Alf Wallander, Sweden (1897) File:Vase Rosenthal, Art-nouveau, vers 1900, h. 18 cm..JPG, Vase with copper ornaments by the Rosenthal (company), Rosenthal ceramics factory, Bavaria, Germany, (1900) File:Punch bowl, designed by Richard Riemerschmid, made by Merkelbach Wilhelm Reinhold, Grenzhausen, 1902, porcelain stoneware with salt glaze and relief - Bröhan Museum, Berlin - DSC03991.JPG, Porcelain stoneware punch bowl by Richard Riemerschmid, Germany, (1902) File:No 29 Avenue Rapp entryway.jpg, Ceramic facade decoration of Lavirotte Building by
Alexandre Bigot Alexandre Bigot (5 November 1862 – 27 April 1927) was a French ceramicist. He was primarily a ceramics manufacturer; producing the designs of many artists and architects of the French Art Nouveau movement; including: Jules Lavirotte, Hector Gui ...
, Paris (1901) File:Grand hotel & la pace, vetrata di galileo chini in stile secessione, 1904 ca. 03.jpg, Ceramic tile façade decoration by
Galileo Chini Galileo Chini (2 December 1873 - 23 August 1956) was an Italian decorator, designer, painter, and potter. A prominent member of the Italian Liberty style movement, or Italian Art Nouveau, he taught decorative arts at the Accademia di Belle Arti in ...
, Italy, (1904) File:Rippl-Rónai - Vase.jpg, Vase by József Rippl-Rónai Hungary, (1900) File:Horti - Flower pot.jpg, Vase with vines and snails by Pál Horti, Hungary (1900) File:Vase, modeled by Annie V. Lingley, Grueby Faience Company, Boston, c. 1901, glazed earthenware - Hood Museum of Art - DSC09245.JPG, Glazed earthenware pot by the Grueby Faience Company of Boston (1901) File:Turn-Teplitz - Vase with elm-leef blackberry.jpg, Amphora with elm-leaf and blackberry manufactured by Stellmacher & Kessner File:Shirayamadani Rookwood vase 1892.jpg, Rookwood Pottery Company vase of ceramic overlaid with silver by Kataro Shirayamadani, U.S., (1892) File:Rookwood vase 2011.jpg, Rookwood Pottery Company vase by Carl Schmidt (1904) File:Budapest Kozma utca Jüdischer Friedhof Schmidl Mausoleum 696.jpg, Zsolnay, Zsolnay factory and Miksa Róth mosaics of Schmidl Mausoleum in Budapest (1902–03) File:Azulejo Casa da Cooperativa Agrícola em Aveiro.jpg, Tile of Cooperativa Agrícola in Aveiro, Portugal, Aveiro (1913)
Ceramic art, including faience, was another flourishing domain for Art Nouveau artists, in the English-speaking countries falling under the wider art pottery movement. The last part of the 19th century saw many technological innovations in the manufacture of ceramics, particularly the development of high temperature (''grand feu'') ceramics with crystallised and matte glazes. At the same time, several lost techniques, such as sang de boeuf glaze, were rediscovered. Art Nouveau ceramics were also influenced by traditional and modern Japanese and Chinese ceramics, whose vegetal and floral motifs fitted well with the Art Nouveau style. In France, artists also rediscovered the traditional stoneware (''grés'') methods and reinvented them with new motifs.
Émile Gallé Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist and designer who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major innovators in the French Art Nouveau movement. He was noted for his designs of A ...
, in Nancy, created earthenware works in natural earth colors with naturalistic themes of plants and insects. Ceramics also found an important new use in architecture: Art Nouveau architects, Jules Lavirotte and
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau style. He achieved early fame with his design for the Castel Beranger, the first Art Nouveau apartment building in Pa ...
among them, began to decorate the façades of buildings with architectural ceramics, many of them made by the firm of
Alexandre Bigot Alexandre Bigot (5 November 1862 – 27 April 1927) was a French ceramicist. He was primarily a ceramics manufacturer; producing the designs of many artists and architects of the French Art Nouveau movement; including: Jules Lavirotte, Hector Gui ...
, giving them a distinct Art Nouveau sculptural look. One of the pioneer French Art Nouveau ceramists was Ernest Chaplet, whose career in ceramics spanned thirty years. He began producing stoneware influenced by Japanese and Chinese prototypes. Beginning in 1886, he worked with painter Paul Gauguin on stoneware designs with applied figures, multiple handles, painted and partially glazed, and collaborated with sculptors Félix Bracquemond, Jules Dalou and Auguste Rodin. His works were acclaimed at the 1900 Exposition. The major national ceramics firms had an important place at the 1900 Paris Exposition: the
Manufacture nationale de Sèvres The ''Manufacture nationale de Sèvres'' is one of the principal European porcelain factories. It is located in Sèvres, Hauts-de-Seine, France. It is the continuation of Vincennes porcelain, founded in 1740, which moved to Sèvres in 1756. It has ...
outside Paris; Nymphenburg, Meissen, Villeroy & Boch in Germany, and Doulton Industrial Products, Doulton in Britain. Other leading French ceramists included Taxile Doat, Pierre-Adrien Dalpayrat, Edmond Lachenal, and Auguste Delaherche. In France, Art Nouveau ceramics sometimes crossed the line into sculpture. The porcelain figurine ''Dancer with a Scarf'' by Agathon Léonard, made for the
Manufacture nationale de Sèvres The ''Manufacture nationale de Sèvres'' is one of the principal European porcelain factories. It is located in Sèvres, Hauts-de-Seine, France. It is the continuation of Vincennes porcelain, founded in 1740, which moved to Sèvres in 1756. It has ...
, won recognition in both categories at the 1900 Paris Exposition. The Zsolnay, Zsolnay factory in Pécs, Hungary, was founded by Miklós Zsolnay (1800–1880) in 1853 and led by his son, Vilmos Zsolnay (1828–1900) with chief designer Tádé Sikorski (1852–1940) to produce stoneware and other ceramics. In 1893, Zsolnay introduced porcelain pieces made of eosin. He led the factory to worldwide recognition by demonstrating its innovative products at world fairs and international exhibitions, including the Weltausstellung 1873 Wien, 1873 World Fair in Vienna, then at the Exposition Universelle (1878), 1878 World Fair in Paris, where Zsolnay received a ''Grand Prix''. Frost-resisting Zsolnay building decorations were used in numerous buildings, specifically during the Art Nouveau movement. Ceramic tiles were also a distinctive feature of Portuguese ''Arte Nova'' that continued the long azulejo tradition of the country.


Mosaics

File:Wien - Majolika-Haus.JPG, Linke Wienzeile Buildings, Majolica House in Vienna by
Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (; 13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect, furniture designer and urban planner. He was a leading member of the Vienna Secession movement of architecture, founded in 1897, and the broader Art Nouveau movem ...
(1898) File:Камин "Вольга Святославич и Микула Селянинович" в доме Бажанова.jpg, Majolica fireplace, house of Bazhanov, Abramtsevo Colony, by Mikhail Vrubel (1898) File:Mosaic in floor of entrance, Fox & Anchor Pub, 115 Charterhouse Street, London (8475013835).jpg, Mosaics of Fox and Anchor pub by William James Neatby in London (1898) File:Antwerpen Jugendstil Waterloostraat Herfst, Winter, Zomer en Lente 10.jpg, Mosaic which portrays summer as a woman, with a Byzantine art, Byzantine Revival golden background, in
Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ) is a city in Belgium and the capital of Antwerp province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 520,504,
, Belgium File:Esslingen aN, Merkelsches Schwimmbad, Fassadenmosaik.jpg, Mosaics designed by Oskar Graf for in Esslingen am Neckar, Germany (1905–1907) File:S5000074a.jpg, Mosaics of Villa l'Aube by Auguste Donnay, Belgium File:Church of the Holy Spirit 02.jpg, Mandylion by Nicholas Roerich in Talashkino, Russia (1908–1914)Journal of UralNIIProject RAASN – 2014. – № 2. – p. 27—32. – ISSN 2074-2932 (in Russian) File:Palatul Culturii din Târgu Mureș 20.jpg, Mosaics for Palace of Culture (Târgu Mureș), Palace of Culture by Aladár Körösfői-Kriesch and Miksa Róth in Târgu Mureș,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldov ...
(1911–1913) File:Park Guell Terrace.JPG, Trencadís mosaics in Park Güell by
Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (; ; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect known as the greatest exponent of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works have a highly individualized, ''sui generis'' style. Most are located in Barcelona, includin ...
in
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within cit ...
(1914) File:Azulejo Casa da Cooperativa Agrícola em Aveiro.jpg, Tile of Cooperativa Agrícola in Aveiro, Portugal, Aveiro (1913) File:Ivanovo Obl Vichuga asv2018-08 img02.jpg, Maiolica mural of Abramtsevo Colony in Russia (1870s–1890s) File:Louis c. tiffany, paesaggio con giardino e una fontana, 1915 ca., 02.JPG, Mosaics by
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art NouveauLa ...
(1915)
Mosaics were used by many Art Nouveau artists of different movements, especially of Catalan
Modernisme ''Modernisme'' (, Catalan for "modernism"), also known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the search of a new entitlement of Catalan culture, one of the most predomi ...

Modernisme
(Hospital de Sant Pau, Palau de la Música Catalana, Casa Lleó-Morera and many others).
Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (; ; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect known as the greatest exponent of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works have a highly individualized, ''sui generis'' style. Most are located in Barcelona, includin ...
invented a new technique in the treatment of materials called trencadís, which used waste ceramic pieces. Colourful Maiolica tile in floral designs wee a distinctive feature of the Linke Wienzeile Buildings, Majolica House in Vienna by
Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (; 13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect, furniture designer and urban planner. He was a leading member of the Vienna Secession movement of architecture, founded in 1897, and the broader Art Nouveau movem ...
, (1898) and of the buildings of the works of the Russian Abramtsevo Colony, especially those by Mikhail Vrubel.


Textiles and wallpaper

File:Wand Decoration Obrist 1895.png, Silk and wool tapestry design, ''Cyclamen'', by Hermann Obrist, an early example of the Whiplash (decorative art), Whiplash motif based on the stem of a cyclamen flower (1895) File:Nénuphar Verneuil Pl 2.jpg, Page on the Water Lily, from the book by
Eugène Grasset Eugène Samuel Grasset (25 May 1845 – 23 October 1917) was a Swiss decorative artist who worked in Paris, France in a variety of creative design fields during the Belle Époque. He is considered a pioneer in Art Nouveau design. Biography Gra ...
on ornamental uses of flowers (1899) File:Kolo Moser - Abimelech - 1899.jpeg, Textile design by Koloman Moser (1899) File:Silverstudio.jpg, Printed cotton from the Silver Studio, for Liberty (department store), Liberty department store, U.K. (1904) File:Vaszary János A pásztor szőnyeg 1906.jpg, ''The Shepherd'' tapestry by János Vaszary (1906) combined Art Nouveau motifs and a traditional Hungarian folk theme File:Horta Tapis KBS-FRB.jpg,
Victor Horta Victor Pierre Horta (; Victor, Baron Horta after 1932; 6 January 1861 – 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer, and one of the founders of the Art Nouveau movement. His Hôtel Tassel in Brussels built in 1892–1893, is often co ...
, A carpet in the collection King Baudouin Foundation.
Textiles and wallpapers were an important vehicle of Art Nouveau from the beginning of the style, and an essential element of Art Nouveau interior design. In Britain, the textile designs of
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of traditi ...
had helped launch the
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and societies through skills and imagination in order to produce objects, environments and experiences. Major constituents of th ...
and then Art Nouveau. Many designs were created for the Liberty (department store), Liberty department store in London, which popularized the style throughout Europe. One such designer was the Silver Studio, which provided colourful stylized floral patterns. Other distinctive designs came from
Glasgow School The Glasgow School was a circle of influential artists and designers that began to coalesce in Glasgow, Scotland in the 1870s, and flourished from the 1890s to around 1910. Representative groups included The Four (also known as the Spook School) ...
, and Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh. The Glasgow school introduced several distinctive motifs, including stylized eggs, geometric forms and the "Rose of Glasgow". In France, a major contribution was made by designer
Eugène Grasset Eugène Samuel Grasset (25 May 1845 – 23 October 1917) was a Swiss decorative artist who worked in Paris, France in a variety of creative design fields during the Belle Époque. He is considered a pioneer in Art Nouveau design. Biography Gra ...
who in 1896 published ''La Plante et ses applications ornamentales'', suggesting Art Nouveau designs based on different flowers and plants. Many patterns were designed for and produced by for the major French textile manufacturers in Mulhouse, Lille and Lyon, by German and Belgian workshops. The German designer Hermann Obrist specialized in floral patterns, particularly the cyclamen and the "whiplash" style based on flower stems, which became a major motif of the style. The Belgian
Henry van de Velde#REDIRECT Henry van de Velde {{R from other capitalisation ...
presented a textile work, ''La Veillée d'Anges'', at the Salon ''La Libre Esthéthique'' in Brussels, inspired by the symbolism of Paul Gauguin and of the Nabis. In the Netherlands, textiles were often inspired by batik patterns from the Dutch colonies in the East Indies. Folk art also inspired the creation of tapestries, carpets, embroidery and textiles in Central Europe and Scandinavia, in the work of Gerhard Munthe and Frida Hansen in Norway. The ''Five Swans'' design of Otto Eckmann appeared in more than one hundred different versions. The Hungarian designer János Vaszary combined Art Nouveau elements with folkloric themes.


Museums

There are 4 types of museums featuring Art Nouveau heritage: * Broad-scope museums (not specifically dedicated to Art Nouveau but with large collection of items in this style). ''Art Nouveau monuments are italicised''; * House-museums of Art Nouveau artists (all but Alphonse Mucha museum are Art Nouveau monuments); * Museums dedicated to local Art Nouveau movements (all are Art Nouveau monuments); * Other Art Nouveau buildings with museum status or featuring a museum inside (not dedicated to local Art Nouveau movements/specific artists). There are many other Art Nouveau buildings and structures that do not have museum status but can be officially visited for a fee or unofficially for free (e.g. railway stations, churches, cafes, restaurants, pubs, hotels, stores, offices, libraries, cemeteries, fountains as well as numerous apartment buildings that are still inhabited).


See also

* Aestheticism * Art Nouveau in Poland * Art Nouveau religious buildings * ''Belle Époque'' * Fin de siècle * Paris architecture of the Belle Époque, Paris architecture of the ''Belle Époque'' * Réseau Art Nouveau Network * Secession (art) * Second Industrial Revolution * Timeline of Art Nouveau * World Art Nouveau Day


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Bony, Anne, ''L'Architecture Moderne'', Paris, Larousse (2012) * Bouillon, Jean-Paul, ''Journal de L'Art Nouveau'', Paris, Skira, 1985. * Culot, Maurice and Pirlot, Ann-Marie, ''Bruxelles Art Nouveau'', Brussels, Archives d'Architecture Moderne (in French), (2005), * Duncan, Alastair, ''Art Nouveau'', World of Art, New York: Thames and Hudson, 1994. * * Heller, Steven, and Seymour Chwast, ''Graphic Style from Victorian to Digital'', new ed. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2001. pp. 53–57. * Huyges, René, ''L'Art et le monde moderne'', Volume 1, Librarie Larousse, Paris, 1970 * * * *} * Renault, Christophe and Lazé, Christophe, ''les Styles de l'architecture et du mobliier'', Éditions Jean-Paul Gisserot, 2006 (in French). * * * * * Sterner, Gabriele, ''Art Nouveau, an Art of Transition: From Individualism to Mass Society'', 1st English ed. (original title: ''Jugendstil: Kunstformen zwischen Individualismus und Massengesellschaft''), translated by Frederick G. Peters and Diana S. Peters, publisher Woodbury, N.Y.: Barron's Educational Series, 1982. * * *


Further reading

* Art Nouveau Grange Books, Rochester, England 2007 * William Craft Brumfield. ''The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture'' (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991)
Debora L. Silverman, ''Art Nouveau in Fin-de-siècle France: Politics, Psychology, and Style'', 1992
*
L'Art appliqué : le style moderne, revue internationale, Éditeur : H. Laurens (Paris) 1903–04, Bibliothèque nationale de France

''Modern'style (Art Nouveau)'': Le Dictionnaire Pratique de Menuiserie – Ebénisterie – Charpente, Par J. Justin Storck, édition de 1900
*


External links



Teaching resource on the Art Nouveau movement from the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.
Réseau Art Nouveau Network
a European network of Art Nouveau cities
Art Nouveau European Route
a non-profit association for the international promotion and protection of Art Nouveau heritage
Europeana virtual exhibition of Art Nouveau
{{Authority control Art Nouveau, Art movements Decorative arts Modern art Art movements in Europe