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Albany ( nys|Kinjarling) is a port city in the Great Southern region in the Australian state of Western Australia, southeast of Perth, the state capital. The city centre is at the northern edge of Princess Royal Harbour, which is a part of King George Sound. The central business district is bounded by Mount Clarence to the east and Mount Melville to the west. The city is in the local government area of the City of Albany. It is the oldest colonial settlement in Western Australia, predating Perth and Fremantle by over two years. The Albany settlement was founded on 26 December 1826, as a military outpost of New South Wales as part of a plan to forestall French ambitions in the region. To that end, on 21 January 1827, the commander of the outpost, Major Edmund Lockyer, formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. During the last decade of the 19th century the town served as a gateway to the Eastern Goldfields. For many years, it was the colony's only deep-water port, having a place of eminence on shipping services between Britain and its Australian colonies. The opening of the Fremantle Inner Harbour in 1897, however, saw its importance as a port decline, after which the town's industries turned primarily to agriculture, timber and later, whaling. Contemporary Albany is the southern terminus for tourism in the region, and the state's South West, which is known for its natural environment and preservation of its heritage. The town has a role in the ANZAC legend, being the last port of call for troopships departing Australia in the First World War. On 1 November 2014 the Australian and New Zealand Prime Ministers opened the National Anzac Centre in Mount Clarence, Albany, to commemorate 100 years since the first ANZAC troops departed from King George Sound. Approximately 40,000 people attended the commemoration events held between 30 October and 2 November 2014. Also an auxiliary submarine base for the US Navy's 7th Fleet was developed during the Second World War in the event the submarine base at Fremantle was lost. Also in the harbour was an RAN Naval Installation which provided for alongside refuelling from four 5000 ton fuel tanks.

Etymology

Upon its establishment in 1826, the Albany settlement was named Frederick Town in honour of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. In 1831, the settlement was transferred to the control of the Swan River Colony and renamed Albany by Lieutenant-Governor James Stirling.West, D.A.P., ''The Settlement on the Sound – Discovery and settlement of the Albany Region 1791–1831'', Western Australian Museum, Perth, 1976, reprinted 2004. pp. 55–115. The name of the area in the Nyungar language of the local indigenous Menang people is Kinjarling, which has been said to mean "place of plenty" and "place of rain". In 2020, the City of Albany began, as part of an official dual-naming project, to give prominence to Kinjarling as the city's indigenous name.

Early history

Kinjarling was home to Menang Noongar indigenous tribes during the summer season. The Menang people would sometimes camp near "Boondie Yokine" – roughly translated as Dog Rock.The Amity Heritage Precinct
www.museum.wa.gov.au. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
Early European explorers discovered evidence of fish traps located on Emu Point and on the French, now the Kalgan, River. Vancouver made attempts to find the inhabitants of the area but only found bark dwellings that were unoccupied. Later explorers made contact and were told to leave, but were accepted when they did not. Most of the exploration was made to survey the land and sea and assess the resources for further exploitation. The explorers only occasionally noted the Noongars they encountered. Native treatment laws and programs have affected the tribes since settlement.

Heritage buildings

There are a number of heritage buildings in Albany; see List of heritage places in the City of Albany and :Category:Heritage places in Albany, Western Australia. These include: *The ''Old Farm, Strawberry Hill'' was established in 1827 as a government farm to feed the colonial soldiers stationed around King George's Sound. It is the oldest farm in Western Australia. The homestead, which became the home of the Government Resident in 1836, is an example of a colonial gentleman's residence. After a chequered history the property was vested in the National Trust WA in 1964 and is now a house museum. *''Patrick Taylor Cottage'' (1832), Western Australia's oldest surviving dwelling, built in 1832 by the Morley Brothers. It is now maintained by the Albany Historical Society. *''St John's Church'' (1841–1848) is a stone building with shingled roofs in the Old Colonial Gothick Picturesque style. Set among trees, it was designed to be part of an overall contrived picturesque scene in the manner of an English garden landscape. *''Scots Uniting Church'' (1892) was designed in the Victorian Academic Gothic style by Melbourne architect Evander McIver and built with local granite stonework. *The complex now known as ''The Residency Museum'' was established in 1850 as a depot for the Convict Establishment in Albany. It is an L shaped, single storied, masonry building with a timber framed, timber shingled roof. In 1873 it was converted into the Resident Magistrate's home. It now serves as a museum. *The Victorian Free Classical Revival style ''Town Hall'' (1888) is a two-storey stone building with a prominent clock tower, which dominates York Street, the main street of Albany. It has been put to many uses apart from council meetings, including public entertainment and public meetings of all kinds and even as the venue for the first regional meeting of the State Parliament. *''The Old Post Office'' was built in two stages, the first was designed in 1869 by J Manning, the second, including a prominent tower, was designed in 1896 by George Temple-Poole. It now houses the Albany campus of the University of Western Australia. *The ''Court House'', constructed of Albany brick and granite with a tiled roof, was designed in the Federation Romanesque style by the Public Works Department under the supervision of George Temple-Poole and Hillson Beasley in 1897. *Another example of the work of George Temple Poole is the limestone and shingle Federation Arts and Crafts style ''Cottage Hospital'', designed in 1886 and completed in 1897. It is one of the oldest hospitals in the state and served as such until 1962. It is now occupied by the Vancouver Arts Centre (named after the explorer George Vancouver). File:Old Farm, Strawberry Hill.jpg|Old Farm, Strawberry Hill File:Old Farm, drawing room.jpg|Old Farm, drawing room File:St.John's Church.jpg|St. John's Church File:St.John's Church tower.jpg|St.John's Church tower File:Albany Court House.jpg|Albany Courthouse File:Old Post Office, north front.jpg|Old Post Office, north front File:Old Post Office, south front.jpg|Old Post Office, south front File:Scots Uniting Church.jpg|Scots Uniting Church File:Vancouver House, formerly the Cottage Hospital.jpg|Vancouver House, formerly the Cottage Hospital File:Town Hall, Albany.jpg|Town Hall, Albany File:Patrick Taylor cottage museum.JPG|Patrick Taylor Cottage, Duke Street Some of the above information is derived from the State Heritage Register where these places are registered. The assessment criteria contain more details.

Population

In June 2018, the urban population of Albany was 34,205 making it the state's sixth-largest population centre.About Albany
City of Albany, accessed 1 December 2009
* Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 3.5% of the population. * 74.3% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 7.5%, New Zealand 1.7%, Philippines 1.6%, South Africa 1.1% and Scotland 0.7%. * 86.8% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Filipino 0.7%, Italian 0.6%, Tagalog 0.6%, Afrikaans 0.6% and German 0.4%. * The most common responses for religion were No Religion 37.4%, Anglican 16.5% and Catholic 13.1%, with 10.4% not stated.

Geography

The city centre of Albany is located between the hills of Mount Melville and Mount Clarence, which look down into Princess Royal Harbour. Many beaches surround Albany, with Middleton Beach being the closest to the town centre. Other popular beaches include Frenchman Bay and Muttonbird Island. Albany is SSE of the state capital, Perth, to which it is linked by Albany Highway.

Wine region

Albany is a sub-region of the Great Southern region of Western Australia.

Coastline

The Albany coastline is notorious for deaths due to king waves washing people off rocks. The Torndirrup National Park features some of the more rugged coastline in the area. However, there are many beaches that are safe and usable: * Emu Point * Middleton Beach * Frenchman Bay Beach * Gull Rock Beach, also known as Boiler Beach * Bettys Beach * Two Peoples Bay, including Little Beach and Waterfall Beach * Nanarup Beach * Misery Beach * Muttonbird Beach * Cosy Corner

Climate

Albany has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen ''Csb'') with dry, warm summers, mild, wet winters, and pleasant springs and autumns. Summers have short spells of very hot weather, but cool ocean breeze brings relief, especially during evenings and nights. The city is situated on what is promoted as the "Rainbow Coast", an appropriate title given the frequency of days with both sun and drizzle or showers. Albany has 44.8 clear days annually. July is the wettest month, with a long-term average of . Rain in excess of occurs on two days out of every three during an average winter. The driest month is February with a mean of . Albany received a record amount of rain on 20 November 2008 when violent storms swept across the Great Southern region. The town was flooded after of rain fell in a 24-hour period, the highest amount recorded since rainfall records began in 1877. The wettest month on record was June 1920 when fell, while February 1877 and February 1879 remain the only rainless months.

Industry

Princess Royal Harbour panorama Albany's main industries are tourism, fishing, timber (wood chips) and agriculture. From 1952 to 1978 whaling was a major source of income and employment for the local population. The Whaling Station, which closed operations in 1978, has been converted to a museum of whaling, and features one of the 'Cheynes' whale chasers that were used for whaling in Albany. The station was the last operating whaling station in the southern hemisphere and the English-speaking world at the time of closure. The Western Power Wind Farm is located at Sand Patch, to the west of Albany. The wind farm, originally commissioned in 2001 with 12 turbines, now has 18 turbines, driven by strong southerly winds, and can generate up to 80% of the city's electricity usage. Albany has a number of historical sites including the Museum, Albany Convict Gaol, The Princess Royal Fortress (commonly known as The Forts) and Patrick Taylor Cottage, one of the oldest dwellings in Western Australia, c1832. Albany has a great deal of historical significance to Western Australia. Natural sights along the rugged coastline include the 'Natural Bridge' and the 'Gap'. The beaches have pristine white sand. The destroyer was sunk in King George Sound in 2001 as a dive wreck. Albany is also close to two low mountain ranges, the Porongurups and Stirling Ranges. Albany is the southern terminus of the Bibbulmun Track walking trail. Albany is the southern terminus of the Munda Biddi Trail off-road cycling trail. Albany is home to HMAS ''Albany'' (based in Darwin) and the adopted home port of the Royal Australian Navy frigate . Albany is frequently visited by other warships.

Transport

Albany has a city bus service run by Love's Bus Service with five town routes. Albany is connected to Perth with road-coach services via Walpole and Bunbury; via Katanning and Northam; via Kojonup and Williams. Transwa coaches also serve Jerramungup, Ravensthorpe and Hopetoun. Regional Express Airlines, a national independent regional airline, provides 23 services a week between Perth and Albany Airport using 34-passenger turboprop Saab 340 aircraft. Albany was served by the ''Albany Progress'' passenger train from Perth until 1978. The railway station reopened as a tourist information centre in 1994.Visitor Centre
City of Albany


Media

Albany radio stations include 783 Triple M (formerly 6VA and RadioWest), GOLD MX, Rete Italia, Vision FM, Fly FM Albany, HitFM (formerly HOT FM), ABC South Coast, ABC News, ABC Radio National, ABC Classic FM, Triple J, Racing Radio & Great Southern FM. Below is a table showing the broadcast frequencies on which these services can be received. Localised television stations available in Albany include GWN7, WIN Television Western Australia, West Digital Television, SBS and ABC Television Western Australia. GWN7 broadcasts a half-hour news program for regional WA, ''GWN7 News'', at 5:30pm on weeknights with a district newsroom covering Albany and surrounding areas based in the city. Below is a table showing the full suite of digital television services available in Albany. These services are broadcast from Mount Clarence and cover the majority of the geographic area with some areas requiring signal to be received from the Southern Agricultural site at Mount Barker. Both these transmission sites employ vertical polarity. Furthermore, a number of residents rely on receiving these services via satellite using the Viewer Access Satellite Television (VAST) system. Local newspapers are the ''Albany Advertiser'' (established 1888) and ''The Extra'' (owned by Seven West Media Limited, publishers of The West Australian), and ''The Great Southern Weekender'' (independently owned by Beaconwood Holdings Pty Ltd). ''The Great Southern Weekender'' also owns local radio stations GOLD MX and Fly FM.

Education

There are currently several primary schools, eight high schools and one university campus in the Albany area. Albany Senior High School

Primary schools

* Albany Primary School * Flinders Park Primary * Mount Lockyer Primary * Parklands School * Spencer Park Primary * Yakamia Primary * Woodbury Boston Primary School * Woodthorpe School * Little Grove Primary School

High schools

* Albany Senior High School 7–12 * Albany Secondary Education Support Centre 7–13 * Australian Christian College - Southlands K-12 * North Albany Senior High School 7–12 * Great Southern Grammar K-12 * St Joseph's College K-12 * Bethel Christian School K-10 * John Calvin School K-10

Universities

* A campus of the University of Western Australia * Some courses delivered by Curtin University

TAFE

* South Regional TAFE

Localities




Notable residents




See also

* Albany Regional Prison * City of Albany * Electoral district of Albany * Port of Albany

References



Bibliography

* * Garden, Donald S. ''Albany : a panorama of the Sound from 1827''. West Melbourne, Vic.: Thomas Nelson (Australia), 1977.

External links

*
City of Albany

Albany - Official Tourism Site

Albany Entertainment Centre

Albany Historical Society (Inc)



National Anzac Centre


Wikisource

* {{Authority control Category:1827 establishments in Australia Category:Great Southern (Western Australia) Category:Port cities in Western Australia Category:Populated places established in 1826