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The ''Agosta''-class submarine is a class of diesel-electric fast-attack submarine developed and constructed by the French DCNS in 1970s to succeed the submarines. The submarines have served in the French Navy as well as exported to the navies of Spain and Pakistan. It also used by Royal Malaysian Navy for the training purpose. They were replaced in French service by the nuclear attack submarines but are still in active service with the navies of Spain and Pakistan. The French Navy grouped this model of submarine in their most capable class as an ''océanique'', meaning "ocean-going."

Ships



French Navy

built by Arsenal de Cherbourg * ''Agosta'' (S 620) – completed 1977 – decommissioned 1997 * ''Bévéziers'' (S 621) – completed 1977 – decommissioned 1998 * ''La Praya'' (S 622) – completed 1978 – decommissioned 2000 * (S 623) – completed 1978 – decommissioned 2001(transferred to Royal Malaysian Navy).

Royal Malaysian Navy

* (S623) - transferred from French Navy at 2005- using for training purpose for the Scorpene-class submarine. Decommissioned in 2009. Now the submarine was present at Submarine Museum at Klebang, Malacca since 2011.

Spanish Navy

built by Cartagena dockyard * ''Galerna'' (S 71) – completed 1983 – in service * ''Siroco'' (S 72) – completed 1983 – decommissioned 2012 * ''Mistral'' (S 73) – completed 1985 – decommissioned 2020 * (S 74) – completed 1985 – in service

Pakistan Navy

* PNS/M ''Hashmat'' (S135) – completed in 1979, originally named ''Astrant'' * PNS/M ''Hurmat'' (S136) – completed in 1980, originally named ''Adventurous'' On 10 September 1974, South Africa announced to expand its submarine arm by entering in defence talks with France to acquire the ''Agosta-70''-class submarines. South African Prime Minister P. W. Botha engaged in discussion with acquiring two ''Agosta-70''-class submarines with French President Valéry d'Estaing, and had Capt. L. J. Woodburne as the project-manager of acquisition of ''Agosta-70'' program in South African Navy. Dubigeon-Normandie, the French contractor, built two Agosta-70 class submarine. However, France denied to order of delivery to South African Navy following the implementation of Resolution 418 (an arms embargo) by the United Nations. In 1983–1985, the class of submarines were deployed in Arabian Sea during and prevented the Indian actions in seaborne theatre. As part of the Cold War operation, they were deployed in the Arabian Sea and later embarked on being deployed on long-range mission to test depth and submerged endurance in Indian Ocean.


Variants


The Agosta-90B-class submarines is an improved version with modern systems, better battery with longer endurance, deeper diving capability, lower acoustic cavitation and better automatic control (reducing crew from 54 to 36). It can be equipped with the MESMA air-independent propulsion (AIP) system. It is capable of carrying a combined load up to 16 torpedoes, SM39 Exocet, and seaborne nuclear cruise missiles. The submarines were built through the technology transfer by France to Pakistan that resulted in complicated and lengthy negotiations between the Benazir Bhutto government and the Mitterrand administration in 1992, and signed with the Chirac administration in 1992. The ''Agosta–90B''s were chosen over the British ''Upholder''/''Victoria'' class and the project was initially aimed at $520 million but the programme of technology transfer costed $950 million, for which France first provided loans that were paid in five to six years. In 2000, France gave Pakistan the licence to offer commercial production of the submarines to potential customers. The SM39 was test-fired from a ''Khalid''-class submarine in 2001. * PNS/M ''Khalid'' (S137) – built in France by DCN Cherbourg, completed in 1999 * PNS/M ''Saad Dogar '' (S138) – assembled in Pakistan with French assistance, completed in 2002 * PNS/M ''Hamza'' (S139) – built in Pakistan with French assistance, commissioned 14 August 2006


See also


* List of submarines of France * List of submarine classes in service

References



External links


Naval Technology
page on Agosta 90B {{Agosta class submarines Category:Submarine classes A