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20th Century Studios, Inc. (also known as 20th Century for short, and nicknamed 20th Pictures, formerly Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation) is an American
film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own privately owned studio facility or facilities that are used to make films, which is handled by the production c ...
that is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originally founded o ...
. The studio is located on the Fox Studio Lot in the
Century City Century City is a 176-acre (71.2 ha) neighborhood and business district in Los Angeles, California. Located on the Westside to the south of Santa Monica Boulevard around 10 miles (16 km) west of Downtown Los Angeles, Century City is one of th ...
area of
Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often abbreviated as L.A., is the largest city in California. With an estimated population of nearly four million people, it is the second most populous ...
.
Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures (formerly known as Buena Vista Pictures Distribution, Inc.) is an American film distribution studio within the Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution division of The Walt Disney Company. It handles theatric ...
distributes and markets the films produced by 20th Century. 20th Century was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios for over 83 years. Formerly known as the Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, it was formed from the merger of the
Fox Film Corporation The Fox Film Corporation was an American company that produced motion pictures, formed by William Fox on February 1, 1915. It was the corporate successor to his earlier Greater New York Film Rental Company and Box Office Attractions Film Company ...
and
20th Century Pictures Twentieth Century Pictures, Inc., was an independent Hollywood motion picture production company created in 1933 by Joseph Schenck (the former president of United Artists) and Darryl F. Zanuck from Warner Bros. Financial backing came from Schenck' ...
in 1935. In 1985, the studio became known as 20th Century Fox after being acquired by
News Corporation The original incarnation of News Corporation (abbreviated News Corp.) was an American multinational mass media corporation operated and owned by media mogul Rupert Murdoch and headquartered in New York City. Prior to its split in 2013, it was ...
, which was split and succeeded by
21st Century Fox Twenty-First Century Fox, Inc., doing business as 21st Century Fox (21CF), was an American multinational mass media corporation that was based in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was one of the two companies formed from the 2013 spin-off ...
in 2013, after spinning off its publishing assets. In 2019, Disney purchased 20th Century through its acquisition of 21st Century Fox. The studio's current name was adopted on January 17, 2020.


History


From founding to 1956

220px, Alice Faye as Baroness Cecilia Duarte, Don Ameche as Larry Martin and Baron Manuel Duarte, and
Carmen Miranda Carmen Miranda (; born Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha; 9 February 1909 – 5 August 1955) was a Portuguese-born Brazilian samba singer, dancer, Broadway actress, and film star who was active from the 1930s on. Nicknamed "The Brazilian Bom ...
as Carmen in ''That Night in Rio'', produced by Fox in 1941
Twentieth Century Pictures Twentieth Century Pictures, Inc., was an independent Hollywood motion picture production company created in 1933 by Joseph Schenck (the former president of United Artists) and Darryl F. Zanuck from Warner Bros. Financial backing came from Schenck' ...
'
Joseph Schenck Joseph Michael Schenck (; December 25, 1876 – October 22, 1961) was a Russian-born American film studio executive. Life and career Schenck was born to a Jewish family in Rybinsk, Yaroslavl Oblast, Russian Empire. He emigrated to New York City ...
and Darryl F. Zanuck left
United Artists United Artists Corporation (UA), currently doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American digital production company. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, and Douglas Fairbanks, the studio ...
over a stock dispute, and began merger talks with the management of financially struggling
Fox Film The Fox Film Corporation was an American company that produced motion pictures, formed by William Fox on February 1, 1915. It was the corporate successor to his earlier Greater New York Film Rental Company and Box Office Attractions Film Company ...
, under President Sidney Kent.
Spyros Skouras Spyros Panagiotis Skouras (; gr, Σπύρος Σκούρας; March 28, 1893 – August 16, 1971) was a Greek-American motion picture pioneer and movie executive who was the president of the 20th Century-Fox from 1942 to 1962. He resigned June 27, ...
, then manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen (and later became president of the new company). The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. Fox Film Corporation and Twentieth Century Pictures merged in 1935. Initially, it was speculated in ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won 130 Pulitzer Prizes (the most of any newspaper), and has long be ...
'' that the newly merged company would be named ''Fox-Twentieth Century Pictures''. The new company, Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Schenck and Zanuck. Zanuck replaced
Winfield Sheehan Winfield R. Sheehan (September 24, 1883 – July 25, 1945) was a film company executive. He was responsible for much of Fox Film Corporation's output during the 1920s and 1930s. As studio head, he won an Academy Award for Best Picture for the film ' ...
as the company's production chief. The company established a special training school.
Lynn Bari Lynn Bari (born Margaret Schuyler Fisher, December 18, 1913 – November 20, 1989) was a film actress who specialized in playing sultry, statuesque man-killers in roughly 150 movies for 20th Century Fox from the early 1930s through the 1940s. Earl ...
,
Patricia Farr Patricia Farr (January 15, 1913 – February 23, 1948) was an American film actress who appeared in films of the 1930s and 1940s. Despite being billed as leading lady in at least one (''Lady Luck'') of the films in which she appeared, very few detai ...
and
Anne Nagel Anne Nagel (born Anna Marie Dolan; September 29, 1915 – July 6, 1966) was an American actress. She played in adventures, mysteries, and comedies for twenty-five years. She also appeared in television series in the 1950s. One book described her a ...
were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century-Fox after spending 18 months in the school. The contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century-Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding, even though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915. The company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox. After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox:
Tyrone Power Tyrone Edmund Power III (May 5, 1914 – November 15, 1958) was an American actor. From the 1930s to the 1950s, Power appeared in dozens of films, often in swashbuckler roles or romantic leads. His better-known films include ''The Mark of Zorro' ...
,
Linda Darnell Linda Darnell (born Monetta Eloyse Darnell; October 16, 1923 – April 10, 1965) was an American actress. Darnell progressed from modeling as a child to acting in theater and film. At the encouragement of her mother, she made her first film in 193 ...
,
Carmen Miranda Carmen Miranda (; born Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha; 9 February 1909 – 5 August 1955) was a Portuguese-born Brazilian samba singer, dancer, Broadway actress, and film star who was active from the 1930s on. Nicknamed "The Brazilian Bom ...
,
Don Ameche Don Ameche (; born Dominic Felix Amici; May 31, 1908 – December 6, 1993) was an American actor, comedian and vaudevillian. After playing in college shows, stock, and vaudeville, he became a major radio star in the early 1930s, which led to the o ...
,
Henry Fonda Henry Jaynes Fonda (May 16, 1905 – August 12, 1982) was an American film and stage actor who had a career that spanned five decades in Hollywood. Fonda cultivated a strong, appealing screen image in several films now considered to be classics, ...
,
Gene Tierney Gene Eliza Tierney (November 19, 1920 – November 6, 1991) was an American film and stage actress. Acclaimed for her great beauty, she became established as a leading lady. Tierney was best known for her portrayal of the title character in the f ...
,
Sonja Henie Sonja Henie (8 April 1912 – 12 October 1969) was a Norwegian figure skater and film star. She was a three-time Olympic champion (1928, 1932, 1936) in women's singles, a ten-time World champion (1927–1936) and a six-time European champion (1 ...
, and
Betty Grable Elizabeth Ruth Grable (December 18, 1916 – July 2, 1973) was an American actress, pin-up girl, dancer, model, and singer. Her 42 films during the 1930s and 1940s grossed more than $100 million; for 10 consecutive years (1942–1951) she reigned ...
. 20th Century-Fox also hired
Alice Faye Alice Jeanne Faye (; ''née'' Leppert; May 5, 1915 – May 9, 1998) was an American actress and singer. A musical star of 20th Century-Fox in the 1930s and 1940s, Faye starred in such films as ''On the Avenue'' (1937) and ''Alexander's Ragtime Ban ...
and
Shirley Temple Shirley Temple BlackWhile Temple occasionally used "Jane" as a middle name, her birth certificate reads "Shirley Temple". Her birth certificate was altered to prolong her babyhood shortly after she signed with Fox in 1934; her birth year was adv ...
, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930s. Higher attendance during World War II helped 20th Century-Fox overtake RKO and
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures, initialized as MGM; often referred to as Metro; common metonym: the Lion or Leo) is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distributio ...
to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U.S. Army training films. His partner,
William Goetz William B. "Bill" Goetz (March 24, 1903 – August 15, 1969) was an American film producer and studio executive. Goetz was one of the founders of Twentieth Century Pictures, later renamed 20th Century Fox. He served as Fox's vice president and la ...
, filled in at 20th Century-Fox. In 1942,
Spyros Skouras Spyros Panagiotis Skouras (; gr, Σπύρος Σκούρας; March 28, 1893 – August 16, 1971) was a Greek-American motion picture pioneer and movie executive who was the president of the 20th Century-Fox from 1942 to 1962. He resigned June 27, ...
succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like '' Wilson'' (1944), '' The Razor's Edge'' (1946), ''
Boomerang A boomerang is a thrown tool, typically constructed as a flat airfoil, that is designed to spin about an axis perpendicular to the direction of its flight. A returning boomerang is designed to return to the thrower. It is well known as a weapo ...
'', ''
Gentleman's Agreement ''Gentleman's Agreement'' is a 1947 American drama film based on Laura Z. Hobson's best-selling 1947 novel of the same name. It concerns a journalist (played by Gregory Peck) who poses as a Jew to research an exposé on the widespread distrust a ...
'' (both 1947), ''
The Snake Pit ''The Snake Pit'' is a 1948 American drama film directed by Anatole Litvak and starring Olivia de Havilland, Mark Stevens, Leo Genn, Celeste Holm, Beulah Bondi, and Lee Patrick. Based on Mary Jane Ward's 1946 semi-autobiographical novel of the s ...
'' (1948), and '' Pinky'' (1949), Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. 20th Century-Fox also specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as
Ben Ames Williams Ben Ames Williams (March 7, 1889 – February 4, 1953) was an American novelist and writer of short stories; he wrote hundreds of short stories and over 30 novels. Among his novels are ''Come Spring'' (1940), ''Leave Her to Heaven'' (1944) '' ...
' ''
Leave Her to Heaven ''Leave Her to Heaven'' is a 1945 American psychological thriller film noir directed by John M. Stahl and starring Gene Tierney, Cornel Wilde, Jeanne Crain, and Vincent Price. It follows a socialite who marries a prominent novelist, which spurs a ...
'' (1945), starring
Gene Tierney Gene Eliza Tierney (November 19, 1920 – November 6, 1991) was an American film and stage actress. Acclaimed for her great beauty, she became established as a leading lady. Tierney was best known for her portrayal of the title character in the f ...
, which was the highest-grossing 20th Century-Fox film of the 1940s. The studio also produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the
Rodgers and Hammerstein 300px, Rodgers (left) and Hammerstein (right), with Irving Berlin (middle) and Helen Tamiris, watching auditions at the St. James Theatre in 1948 Rodgers and Hammerstein refers to the duo of composer Richard Rodgers (1902–1979) and lyricist- ...
films, beginning with the musical version of ''
State FairA state fair is a competitive and recreational gathering in the United States. It may also refer to: * ''State Fair'' (novel), a 1932 novel by Phil Stong ** ''State Fair'' (1933 film), based on the novel ** ''State Fair'' (1945 film), a musical rema ...
'' (1945), the only work that the partnership written especially for films. After the war, audiences slowly drifted away with the advent of television. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce"; they were spun off as Fox National Theaters in 1953. That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven process. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been
Cinerama Cinerama is a widescreen process that originally projected images simultaneously from three synchronized 35mm projectors onto a huge, deeply curved screen, subtending 146° of arc. The trademarked process was marketed by the Cinerama corporation ...
, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, and "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, 20th Century-Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President
Spyros Skouras Spyros Panagiotis Skouras (; gr, Σπύρος Σκούρας; March 28, 1893 – August 16, 1971) was a Greek-American motion picture pioneer and movie executive who was the president of the 20th Century-Fox from 1942 to 1962. He resigned June 27, ...
struck a deal with the inventor
Henri ChrétienHenri Jacques Chrétien (1 February 1879, Paris – 6 February 1956, Washington, D.C.) was a French astronomer and an inventor. Trompe-l'œil mosaic floor in the Villa Paradou by Rainer Maria Latzke honoring Henri Chrétien, Born in Paris, France, ...
, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, and in 1953 introduced
CinemaScope CinemaScope is an anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, and less often later, for shooting widescreen films that, crucially, could be screened in theatres using existing equipment, albeit with a lens adapter. Its creation in 1953 by Spyr ...
in the studio's groundbreaking feature film '' The Robe''. Zanuck announced in February 1953 that henceforth all 20th Century-Fox pictures would be made in CinemaScope. To convince theater owners to install this new process, 20th Century-Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs (about $25,000 per screen); and to ensure enough product, 20th Century-Fox gave access to CinemaScope to any rival studio choosing to use it. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, ''The Robe'' and ''
How to Marry a Millionaire ''How to Marry a Millionaire'' is a 1953 American romantic comedy film directed by Jean Negulesco and written and produced by Nunnally Johnson. The screenplay was based on the plays ''The Greeks Had a Word for It'' (1930) by Zoe Akins and ''Loco' ...
'' (also 1953), Warner Bros., MGM,
Universal-International Universal Pictures (legally Universal City Studios LLC, also known as Universal Studios, and formerly named Universal Film Manufacturing Company and Universal-International Pictures Inc.) is an American film production and distribution company ow ...
),
Columbia Pictures Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. (commonly known as Columbia Pictures) is an American film studio and production company that is a member of the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group, a division of Sony Entertainment's Sony Pictures Entertainment, ...
and
Disney The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originally founded o ...
quickly adopted the process. In 1956, 20th Century-Fox engaged
Robert Lippert Robert Lenard Lippert (March 31, 1909 – November 16, 1976) was an American film producer and cinema chain owner. He was president and chief operating officer of Lippert Theatres, Affiliated Theatres and Transcontinental Theatres, all based in Sa ...
to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures, later Associated Producers Incorporated to film
B picture A B movie or B film is a low-budget commercial motion picture that is not an arthouse film. In its original usage, during the Golden Age of Hollywood, the term more precisely identified films intended for distribution as the less-publicized bot ...
s in CinemaScope (but "branded" RegalScope). 20th Century-Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including ''
Carousel A carousel (American English: from French ''carrousel'' and Italian ''carosello''), roundabout (British English), or merry-go-round, is a type of amusement ride consisting of a rotating circular platform with seats for riders. The "seats" are t ...
'' and ''
The King and I ''The King and I'' is the fifth musical by the team of Rodgers and Hammerstein. It is based on Margaret Landon's novel, ''Anna and the King of Siam'' (1944), which is in turn derived from the memoirs of Anna Leonowens, governess to the children ...
'' (both 1956). CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance, but by 1956 the numbers again began to slide. That year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to
Paris Paris () is the capital and most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, co ...
, setting up as an independent producer, seldom being in the United States for many years.


Production and financial problems

Zanuck's successor, producer
Buddy Adler E. Maurice "Buddy" Adler (June 22, 1906 – July 12, 1960) was an American film producer and production head for 20th Century Fox studios. In 1954, his production of ''From Here to Eternity'' won the Academy Award for Best Picture and in 1956, his ...
, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, 20th Century-Fox was in trouble. A new version of ''
Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator ( grc-koi, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ}; 69 BC10 August 30 BC) was queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, and its last active ruler.She was also a diplomat, naval commander, linguist, and medical au ...
'' (1963) began production in 1959 with
Joan Collins Dame Joan Henrietta Collins (born 23 May 1933) is an English actress, author, and columnist. Collins is the recipient of several accolades, including a Golden Globe Award, a People's Choice Award, two Soap Opera Digest Awards and a Primetime E ...
in the lead. As a publicity gimmick, producer
Walter Wanger Walter Wanger (né Feuchtwanger; July 11, 1894 – November 18, 1968) was an American film producer active in filmmaking beginning in the 1910s, concluding with the turbulent production of ''Cleopatra,'' his last film, in 1963. He began at Para ...
offered $1 million to
Elizabeth Taylor Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor (February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011) was an English-American actress, businesswoman, and humanitarian. She began her career as a child actress in the early 1940s and was one of the most popular stars of classical ...
if she would star; she accepted and costs for ''Cleopatra'' began to escalate.
Richard Burton Richard Burton, (; born Richard Walter Jenkins Jr.; 10 November 19255 August 1984) was a Welsh actor. Noted for his baritone voice, Burton established himself as a formidable Shakespearean actor in the 1950s, and he gave a memorable performan ...
's on-set romance with Taylor was surrounding the media. However, Skouras' selfish preferences and inexperienced micromanagement on the film's production did nothing to speed up production on ''Cleopatra''. Meanwhile, another remake — of the
Cary Grant Cary Grant (born Archibald Alec Leach; January 18, 1904November 29, 1986) was an English-American actor. Known for his transatlantic accent, debonair demeanor, light-hearted approach to acting, and sense of comic timing, he was one of classic ...
hit ''
My Favorite Wife ''My Favorite Wife'' (released in the U.K. as ''My Favourite Wife'') is a 1940 screwball comedy produced and co-written by Leo McCarey and directed by Garson Kanin. The picture stars Irene Dunne as a woman who, after being shipwrecked on a tropic ...

My Favorite Wife
'' (1940) — was rushed into production in an attempt to turn over a quick profit to help keep 20th Century-Fox afloat. The
romantic comedy Romantic comedy (also known as romcom or rom-com) is a subgenre of comedy and slice-of-life fiction, focusing on lighthearted, humorous plot lines centered on romantic ideas, such as how true love is able to surmount most obstacles. One diction ...
entitled ''
Something's Got to Give ''Something's Got to Give'' is an unfinished 1962 American feature film, directed by George Cukor for 20th Century Fox and starring Marilyn Monroe, Dean Martin and Cyd Charisse. A remake of ''My Favorite Wife'' (1940), a screwball comedy starring ...
'' paired
Marilyn Monroe Marilyn Monroe (; born Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926 – August 4, 1962) was an American actress, model, and singer. Famous for playing comedic "blonde bombshell" characters, she became one of the most popular sex symbols of the 195 ...

Marilyn Monroe
, 20th Century-Fox's most bankable star of the 1950s, with
Dean Martin Dean Martin (born Dino Paul Crocetti; June 7, 1917 – December 25, 1995) was an American singer, actor, and comedian. One of the most popular and enduring American entertainers of the mid-20th century, Martin was nicknamed "The King of Cool". M ...
and director
George Cukor George Dewey Cukor (; July 7, 1899 – January 24, 1983) was an American film director. He mainly concentrated on comedies and literary adaptations. His career flourished at RKO when David O. Selznick, the studio's Head of Production, assigne ...
. The troubled Monroe caused delays on a daily basis, and it quickly descended into a costly debacle. As ''Cleopatra''s budget passed $10 million, eventually costing around $40 million, 20th Century-Fox sold its back lot (now the site of
Century City Century City is a 176-acre (71.2 ha) neighborhood and business district in Los Angeles, California. Located on the Westside to the south of Santa Monica Boulevard around 10 miles (16 km) west of Downtown Los Angeles, Century City is one of th ...
) to Alcoa in 1961 to raise funds. After several weeks of script rewrites on the Monroe picture and very little progress, mostly due to director George Cukor's filming methods, in addition to Monroe's chronic
sinusitis Sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the mucous membranes that line the sinuses resulting in symptoms that may include thick nasal mucus, a plugged nose, and facial pain. Other signs and symptoms may include fever, headache ...
, Monroe was fired from ''Something's Got to Give'' and two months later she was found dead. According to 20th Century-Fox files, she was rehired within weeks for a two-picture deal totaling $1 million, $500,000 to finish ''Something's Got to Give'' (plus a bonus at completion), and another $500,000 for ''What a Way to Go''. Elizabeth Taylor's bout with pneumonia and the media coverage of the Burton affair allowed Skouras to scapegoat the two stars for all the production setbacks, which helped earn the long-time industry professional Taylor a new disruptive reputation. Challenges on the ''Cleopatra'' set continued from 1960 into 1962, though three 20th Century-Fox executives went to
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The territo ...
in June 1962 to fire her. They learned that director
Joseph L. Mankiewicz Joseph Leo Mankiewicz (; February 11, 1909 – February 5, 1993) was an American film director, screenwriter, and producer. Mankiewicz had a long Hollywood career, and set a record by winning a pair of writing and directing Academy Awards two yea ...
had filmed out of sequence and had only done interiors, so 20th Century-Fox was then forced to allow Taylor several more weeks of filming. In the meantime during that summer of 1962 Fox released nearly all of its contract stars to offset burgeoning costs, including
Jayne Mansfield Jayne Mansfield (born Vera Jayne Palmer; April 19, 1933 – June 29, 1967) was an American film, theater, and television actress. She was also a singer and nightclub entertainer as well as one of the early ''Playboy'' Playmates. She was a major H ...
. With few pictures on the schedule, Skouras wanted to rush Zanuck's big-budget war epic '' The Longest Day'' (1962), an accurate account of the
Allied invasion of Normandy Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II. The operation was launched on 6 June 1944 with the Normandy landi ...
on June 6, 1944, with a huge international cast, into release as another source of quick cash. This offended Zanuck, still 20th Century-Fox's largest shareholder, for whom ''The Longest Day'' was a labor of love that he had dearly wanted to produce for many years. After it became clear that ''Something's Got to Give'' would not be able to progress without Monroe in the lead (Martin had refused to work with anyone else), Skouras finally decided that re-signing her was unavoidable. But days before filming was due to resume, she was found dead at her Los Angeles home and the picture resumed filming as ''
Move Over, Darling ''Move Over, Darling'' is a 1963 American DeLuxe Color comedy film starring Doris Day, James Garner, and Polly Bergen and directed by Michael Gordon. The CinemaScope picture was a remake of a 1940 screwball comedy film, ''My Favorite Wife'', with ...
'', with
Doris Day Doris Day (born Doris Mary Anne Kappelhoff; April 3, 1922 – May 13, 2019) was an American actress, singer, and animal welfare activist. She began her career as a big band singer in 1939, achieving commercial success in 1945 with two No. 1 ...
and
James Garner James Garner (born James Scott Bumgarner; April 7, 1928July 19, 2014) was an American actor and producer. He starred in several television series over more than five decades, including popular roles such as Bret Maverick in the 1950s Western seri ...

James Garner
in the leads. Released in 1963, the film was a hit. The unfinished scenes from ''Something's Got to Give'' were shelved for nearly 40 years. Rather than being rushed into release as if it were a B-picture, ''The Longest Day'' was lovingly and carefully produced under Zanuck's supervision. It was finally released at a length of three hours, and was well received. At the next board meeting, Zanuck spoke for eight hours, convincing directors that Skouras was mismanaging the company and that he was the only possible successor. Zanuck was installed as chairman, and then named his son Richard Zanuck as president. This new management group seized ''Cleopatra'' and rushed it to completion, shut down the studio, laid off the entire staff to save money, axed the long-running
Movietone News Movietone News is a newsreel that ran from 1928 to 1963 in the United States. Under the name British Movietone News, it also ran in the United Kingdom from 1929 to 1979, In France also produced by Fox-Europa, in Australia and New Zealand until 1970, ...
reel (the archives of which are now owned by
Fox News#REDIRECT Fox News {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from incorrect name {{R from other capitalisation ...
), and made a series of cheap, popular pictures that restored 20th Century-Fox as a major studio. The saving grace for the studio's fortunes came from the tremendous success of ''
The Sound of Music ''The Sound of Music'' is a musical with music by Richard Rodgers, lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, and a book by Howard Lindsay and Russel Crouse. It is based on the 1949 memoir of Maria von Trapp, ''The Story of the Trapp Family Singers''. Set ...
'' (1965), an expensive and handsomely produced film adaptation of the highly acclaimed Rodgers and Hammerstein Broadway musical, which became a significant success at the box office and won five
Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. They are regarded as the most famous and prestigious awards in the entertainment industry around the world. Given annually by ...
, including
Best DirectorBest Director is the name of an award which is presented by various film, television and theatre organizations, festivals, and people's awards. It may refer to: Film awards * AACTA Award for Best Direction * Academy Award for Best Director * BAFTA ...
(
Robert Wise Robert Earl Wise (September 10, 1914 – September 14, 2005) was an American film director, producer, and editor. He won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture for both ''West Side Story'' (1961) and ''The Sound of Music'' (1965). He w ...
) and Best Picture of the Year. 20th Century-Fox also had two big science-fiction hits in the decade: ''
Fantastic Voyage ''Fantastic Voyage'' is a 1966 American submarine science fiction adventure film directed by Richard Fleischer and written by Harry Kleiner, based on a story by Otto Klement and Jerome Bixby. The film is about a submarine crew who are shrunk to m ...
'' (1966), and the original ''
Planet of the Apes ''Planet of the Apes'' is an American science fiction media franchise consisting of films, books, television series, comics, and other media about a world in which humans and intelligent apes clash for control. The franchise is based on French ...
'' (1968), starring
Charlton Heston Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter; October 4, 1923April 5, 2008) was an American actor and political activist. As a Hollywood star, he appeared in almost 100 films over the course of 60 years. He played Moses in the epic film ''The Ten Co ...

Charlton Heston
,
Kim Hunter Kim Hunter (born Janet Cole; November 12, 1922 – September 11, 2002) was an American film, theatre, and television actress. She won both an Academy Award and a Golden Globe Award, each as Best Supporting Actress, for her performance as Stella Ko ...
, and
Roddy McDowall Roderick Andrew Anthony Jude McDowall (17 September 1928 – 3 October 1998) was a British-born American actor, film director and photographer. He is best known for portraying Cornelius and Caesar in the original ''Planet of the Apes'' film ser ...
. ''Fantastic Voyage'' was the last film made in
CinemaScope CinemaScope is an anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, and less often later, for shooting widescreen films that, crucially, could be screened in theatres using existing equipment, albeit with a lens adapter. Its creation in 1953 by Spyr ...
; the studio had held on the format while
Panavision Panavision is an American motion picture equipment company founded in 1953 specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills, California. Formed by Robert Gottschalk as a small partnership to create anamorphic projection lenses during t ...
lenses were being used elsewhere. Zanuck stayed on as chairman until 1971, but there were several expensive flops in his last years, resulting in 20th Century-Fox posting losses from 1969 to 1971. Following his removal, and after an uncertain period, new management brought 20th Century-Fox back to health. Under president Gordon T. Stulberg and production head Alan Ladd, Jr., 20th Century-Fox films connected with modern audiences. Stulberg used the profits to acquire resort properties, soft-drink bottlers, Australian theaters and other properties in an attempt to diversify enough to offset the boom-or-bust cycle of picture-making. Foreshadowing a pattern of film production still yet to come, in late 1973 20th Century-Fox joined forces with Warner Bros. to co-produce ''
The Towering Inferno ''The Towering Inferno'' is a 1974 American disaster film produced by Irwin Allen featuring an ensemble cast led by Paul Newman and Steve McQueen. Directed by John Guillermin, the film is a co-production between 20th Century Fox and Warner Bros., ...
'' (1974), an all-star action blockbuster from producer
Irwin Allen Irwin Allen (June 12, 1916 – November 2, 1991) was an American film and television producer and director, known for his work in science fiction, then later as the "Master of Disaster" for his work in the disaster film genre. His most successful ...
. Both studios found themselves owning the rights to books about burning skyscrapers. Allen insisted on a meeting with the heads of both studios, and announced that as 20th Century-Fox was already in the lead with their property it would be career suicide to have competing movies. Thus the first joint-venture studio deal was struck. In hindsight, while it may be commonplace now, back in the 1970s, it was a risky, but revolutionary, idea that paid off handsomely at both domestic and international box offices around the world. 20th Century-Fox's success reached new heights by backing the most profitable film made up to that time, ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon. The franchise has been expanded into various films and other ...
'' (1977). Substantial financial gains were realized as a result of the film's unprecedented success: from a low of $6 in June 1976, stock prices more than quadrupled to almost $27 after ''Star Wars release; 1976 revenues of $195 million rose to $301 million in 1977.


Marvin Davis and Rupert Murdoch

, Century City headquarters completed in 1987, alt= With financial stability came new owners, when 20th Century-Fox was sold for $720 million on June 8, 1981 to investors
Marc Rich Marc Rich (born Marcell David Reich; December 18, 1934 – June 26, 2013) was an international commodities trader, hedge fund manager, financier, businessman, and financial criminal.
and
Marvin Davis Marvin H. Davis (August 31, 1925 – September 25, 2004) was an American industrialist. He made his fortunes as the chair of Davis Petroleum and at one time owned 20th Century Fox, the Pebble Beach Corporation, the Beverly Hills Hotel, and the As ...
. 20th Century-Fox's assets included
Pebble Beach Golf Links Pebble Beach Golf Links is a public golf course on the west coast of the United States, located in Pebble Beach, California. Widely regarded as one of the most beautiful courses in the world, it hugs the rugged coastline and has wide open views of ...
, the
Aspen Skiing Company The Aspen Skiing Company, known locally as Ski Co, is a commercial enterprise based in Aspen, Colorado. The Aspen Skiing Company operates the Aspen/Snowmass resort complex, comprising four ski areas: Aspen Mountain, Aspen Highlands, Buttermilk, and ...
and a
Century City Century City is a 176-acre (71.2 ha) neighborhood and business district in Los Angeles, California. Located on the Westside to the south of Santa Monica Boulevard around 10 miles (16 km) west of Downtown Los Angeles, Century City is one of th ...
property upon which Davis built and twice sold Fox Plaza. By 1984, Rich had become a fugitive from justice, having fled to Switzerland after being charged by U.S. federal prosecutors with tax evasion, racketeering and illegal trading with Iran during the
Iran hostage crisis The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between the United States and Iran. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage after a group of militarized Iranian college students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of t ...
. Rich's assets were frozen by U.S. authorities. In 1984
Marvin Davis Marvin H. Davis (August 31, 1925 – September 25, 2004) was an American industrialist. He made his fortunes as the chair of Davis Petroleum and at one time owned 20th Century Fox, the Pebble Beach Corporation, the Beverly Hills Hotel, and the As ...
bought out
Marc Rich Marc Rich (born Marcell David Reich; December 18, 1934 – June 26, 2013) was an international commodities trader, hedge fund manager, financier, businessman, and financial criminal.
's 50% interest in 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation for an undisclosed amount, reported to be $116 million. Davis sold this interest to
Rupert Murdoch Keith Rupert Murdoch ( ; born 11 March 1931) is an Australian-born American media mogul. Through his company News Corp, he is the owner of hundreds of local, national, and international publishing outlets around the world, including in the U ...

Rupert Murdoch
's
News Corporation The original incarnation of News Corporation (abbreviated News Corp.) was an American multinational mass media corporation operated and owned by media mogul Rupert Murdoch and headquartered in New York City. Prior to its split in 2013, it was ...
for $250 million in March 1985. Davis later backed out of a deal with Murdoch to purchase
John Kluge John Werner Kluge (; September 21, 1914September 8, 2010) was a German-American entrepreneur who became a television industry mogul in the United States. At one time he was the richest person in the U.S. Early life and education Kluge was born t ...
's Metromedia television stations. Murdoch went ahead alone and bought the stations, and later bought out Davis' remaining stake in 20th Century Fox for $325 million. From 1985, the
hyphen The hyphen is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word. The use of hyphens is called hyphenation. ''Son-in-law'' is an example of a hyphenated word. The hyphen is sometimes confused with dashes (figure da ...
was quietly dropped from the brand name, with ''20th Century-Fox'' changing to ''20th Century Fox''. To gain FCC approval of 20th Century-Fox's purchase of
Metromedia Metromedia (also often MetroMedia) was an American media company that owned radio and television stations in the United States from 1956 to 1986 and controlled Orion Pictures from 1988 to 1997. Metromedia was established in 1956 after the DuMont T ...
's television holdings, once the stations of the long-dissolved DuMont network, Murdoch had to become a U.S. citizen. He did so in 1985, and in 1986 the new
Fox Broadcasting Company The Fox Broadcasting Company (often shortened to Fox and stylized in all caps as FOX) is an American commercial broadcast over-the-air television network. It is the flagship property of the Fox Corporation, and is headquartered at 1211 Avenue of ...
took to the air. Over the next 20-odd years the network and owned-stations group expanded to become extremely profitable for News Corp. The company formed its Fox Family Films division in 1994 to boost production at the studio and would handled animation films. In February 1998, following the success of ''
Anastasia russian: Анастасия uk, Анастасія sr, label=Serbian Cyrillic, Анастасија , related names = Annastasia, Anastasiya, Anastasya Anastasia (from Greek ()) is a feminine given name and the female equivalent of the male name A ...
'', Fox Family Films changed its name to Fox Animation Studios and drop its live action production which would be picked up by other production units. Image:Foxstudios.jpg, left, The
Fox Broadcasting Company The Fox Broadcasting Company (often shortened to Fox and stylized in all caps as FOX) is an American commercial broadcast over-the-air television network. It is the flagship property of the Fox Corporation, and is headquartered at 1211 Avenue of ...
's Los Angeles studios in 2005 Since January 2000, this company has been the international distributor for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, MGM/United Artists, UA releases. In the 1980s, 20th Century Fox — through a joint venture with
CBS CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American commercial broadcast television and radio network owned by ViacomCBS through its CBS Entertainment Group division. The network is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City, with major p ...

CBS
called
CBS/Fox Video The CBS/Fox Company doing business under the brand CBS/Fox Video, was a home video entertainment company formed and established in June 1982, as a merger between 20th Century-Fox Video and CBS Video Enterprises. CBS/Fox released videos in the VHS, ...
— had distributed certain UA films on video; thus UA has come full circle by switching to 20th Century Fox for video distribution. 20th Century Fox also makes money distributing films for small independent film companies. In late 2006, Fox Atomic was started up under
Fox Searchlight Searchlight Pictures, Inc. (formerly Fox Searchlight Pictures) is an American film studio within Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company, that focuses primarily on producing, distributing, and acquiring specialty films. Sear ...
head
Peter Rice Peter Rice (16 June 1935 – 25 October 1992) was an Irish structural engineer. Born in Dublin, he grew up in 52 Castle Road, Dundalk in County Louth, and spent his childhood between the town of Dundalk, and the villages of Gyles' Quay and Inni ...
and COO John Hegeman as a sibling production division under Fox Filmed Entertainment. In early 2008, Atomic's marketing unit was transferred to Fox Searchlight and 20th Century Fox, when Hegeman moved to New Regency Productions. Debbie Liebling became president. After two middling successes and falling short with other films, the unit was shut down in April 2009. The remaining films under Atomic in production and post-productions were transferred to 20th Century Fox and Fox Spotlight with Liebling overseeing them. In 2008, 20th Century Fox announced an Asian subsidiary, Fox STAR Studios, a joint venture with STAR TV, also owned by News Corporation. It was reported that Fox STAR would start by producing films for the
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood". The industry is related to Cinema ...

Bollywood
market, then expand to several Asian markets. In 2008, 20th Century Fox started Fox International Productions .
Chernin Entertainment Chernin Entertainment is an American film and television production company founded and owned by former News Corporation president and chief operating officer Peter Chernin, also CEO and chairman of the company. Jenno Topping is the current Head of ...
was founded by Peter Chernin after he stepped down as president of 20th Century Fox's then-parent company News Corp. in 2009. Chernin Entertainment's five-year
first-look dealA first-look deal is any contract containing a clause granting, usually for a fee or other consideration that covers a specified period of time, a pre-emption right, right of first refusal, or right of first offer (also called a right of first negoti ...
for the film and television was signed with 20th Century Fox and 20th Century Fox TV in 2009. In August 2012, 20th Century Fox signed a five-year deal with
DreamWorks Animation#REDIRECT DreamWorks Animation#REDIRECT DreamWorks Animation {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
to distribute in domestic and international markets. However, the deal did not include the distribution rights for previously released films which DreamWorks Animation acquired from
Paramount Pictures Paramount Pictures Corporation (commonly known as Paramount Pictures, or simply Paramount) is an American film production company and a subsidiary of ViacomCBS. It is the fifth oldest film studio in the world, the second oldest film studio in t ...

Paramount Pictures
later in 2014. Fox's deal with DreamWorks Animation ended on June 2, 2017 with '' Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie'', with
Universal Pictures Universal Pictures (legally Universal City Studios LLC, also known as Universal Studios, and formerly named Universal Film Manufacturing Company and Universal-International Pictures Inc.) is an American film production and distribution company ow ...
taking over the distribution deal with DreamWorks Animation due to
NBCUniversal NBCUniversal Media, LLC is an American mass media and entertainment conglomerate owned by Comcast and headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. NBCUniversal is primarily involved in the media and entertainment indu ...
's acquisition of DreamWorks Animation on August 22, 2016, starting on February 22, 2019 with the release of '' How to Train Your Dragon: The Hidden World''.


21st Century Fox era

In 2012, Rupert Murdoch announced that News Corp. would be split into two publishing and media-oriented companies: a new News Corporation, and
21st Century Fox Twenty-First Century Fox, Inc., doing business as 21st Century Fox (21CF), was an American multinational mass media corporation that was based in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was one of the two companies formed from the 2013 spin-off ...
, which operated the Fox Entertainment Group and 20th Century Fox. Murdoch considered the name of the new company a way to maintain the 20th Century Fox's heritage. Fox Stage Productions was formed in June 2013. In August 2013, 20CF started a theatrical joint venture with a trio of producers, both film and theater,
Kevin McCollum Kevin McCollum (born March 1, 1962) is an American theatrical booking executive and producer of musical theater and plays, many on Broadway. During a producing career spanning over twenty-five years, McCollum has received three Tony Awards for Best ...
, John Davis and Tom McGrath. In September 2017,
Locksmith Animation Locksmith Animation is a British animation studio founded by Sarah Smith and Julie Lockhart in 2014. It is based in London, England, and claims to be the only high-end computer-animation studio in the UK making computer-animated family films. His ...
formed a multi-year production deal with 20th Century Fox, who will distribute Locksmith's films, with Locksmith aiming to release a film every 12–18 months. The deal was to bolster Blue Sky's output and replace the loss of distributing
DreamWorks Animation#REDIRECT DreamWorks Animation#REDIRECT DreamWorks Animation {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
films. Technoprops, a VFX company that worked on ''
Avatar An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST: ; ), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", is the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth. The relative verb to "alight, to make one's appearance" is sometimes used to refer to an ...
'' and ''
The Jungle Book ''The Jungle Book'' (1894) is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling. Most of the characters are animals such as Shere Khan the tiger and Baloo the bear, though a principal character is the boy or "man-cub" Mowgli, who ...
'', was purchased in April 2017 to operate as Fox VFX Lab. Technoprops' founder Glenn Derry would continue to run the company as vice president of visual effect reporting to John Kilkenny, VFX president. On October 30, 2017, Vanessa Morrison was named president of a new created 20th Century Fox division, Fox Family, reporting to the Chairman & CEO and Vice Chairman of 20th Century Fox. The family division would develop films that appeal to younger moviegoers and their parents both animated films and films with live action elements. Also, the division would oversee the studio's family animated television business, which produce based holiday television specials on existing film properties, and oversee feature film adaptation of its TV shows. To replace Morrision at Fox Animation, Andrea Miloro and Robert Baird were named co-presidents of 20th Century Fox Animation. 20th Century Fox issued a default notice in regards to its licensing agreement for the under-construction 20th Century Fox World theme park in Malaysia by Genting Malaysia Bhd. In November 2018 Genting Malaysia filed suit in response and included soon to be parent
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originally founded o ...
.


Disney era and studio renaming

On December 14, 2017, The
Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originally founded o ...
announced plans to purchase most of the 21st Century Fox assets, including 20th Century Fox, for $52.4 billion. After a bid from
Comcast Comcast Corporation (formerly registered as Comcast Holdings)Before the AT&T merger in 2001, the parent company was Comcast Holdings Corporation. Comcast Holdings Corporation now refers to a subsidiary of Comcast Corporation, not the parent comp ...
(parent company of
NBCUniversal NBCUniversal Media, LLC is an American mass media and entertainment conglomerate owned by Comcast and headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. NBCUniversal is primarily involved in the media and entertainment indu ...
) for $65 billion, Disney counterbid with $71.3 billion. On July 19, 2018, Comcast dropped out of the bid for 21st Century Fox in favor of
Sky plc Sky Group Limited is a British media and telecommunications conglomerate, which is a subsidiary of Comcast, and headquartered in London, England. It has operations in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy and formerl ...
and
Sky UK Sky UK Limited is a British broadcaster and telecommunications company that provides television and broadband Internet services, fixed line and mobile telephone services to consumers and businesses in the United Kingdom. It is the UK's largest p ...
. Eight days later, Disney and 21st Century Fox shareholders approved the merger between the two companies. Although the deal was completed on March 20, 2019, 20th Century Fox was not planning to relocate to Walt Disney Studios in
Burbank Burbank may refer to: Places Australia * Burbank, Queensland, a suburb in Brisbane United States * Burbank, California, a city in Los Angeles County * Burbank, Santa Clara County, California, a census-designated place * Burbank, Illinois, a ci ...
. It would retain its headquarters in Century City on the Fox Studio Lot, which is currently leased to Disney by
Fox Corporation Fox Corporation is an American mass media company headquartered in New York City. The company was formed in 2019 as a result of the acquisition of 21st Century Fox by The Walt Disney Company; the assets that were not acquired by Disney were spu ...
, for seven years. Various units were moved out from under 20th Century Fox at acquisition and months. On January 17, 2020, Disney renamed the studio as 20th Century Studios (legally, 20th Century Studios, Inc.), which served to help avoid brand confusion with the Fox Corporation. Similar to other Disney film units, distribution of 20th Century films is now handled by
Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures (formerly known as Buena Vista Pictures Distribution, Inc.) is an American film distribution studio within the Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution division of The Walt Disney Company. It handles theatric ...
, while 20th Century's sister company,
Searchlight Pictures Searchlight Pictures, Inc. (formerly Fox Searchlight Pictures) is an American film studio within Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company, that focuses primarily on producing, distributing, and acquiring specialty films. Sear ...
, operates their own autonomous distribution unit. The first film released by Disney under the studio's new name was ''
The Call of the Wild ''The Call of the Wild'' is a short adventure novel by Jack London, published in 1903 and set in Yukon, Canada, during the 1890s Klondike Gold Rush, when strong sled dogs were in high demand. The central character of the novel is a dog named Buc ...
''. In January 2020, held-over production president Emma Watts resigned from the company. On March 12, 2020, Steve Asbell was named president, production of 20th Century Studios, while Morrison was named president, streaming, Walt Disney Studios Motion Picture Production to oversee live action development and production of
Walt Disney Pictures Walt Disney Pictures is an American film production studio that is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, which is owned by The Walt Disney Company. The studio is the flagship producer of live-action feature films within the Walt Disney Studios un ...
and 20th Century Studios for
Disney+ Disney+ (pronounced Disney Plus) is an American subscription video on-demand over-the-top streaming service owned and operated by the Media and Entertainment Distribution division of The Walt Disney Company. The service primarily distributes fi ...
. Philip Steuer will now lead physical and post production, as well as VFX, as president of production at Walt Disney Studios Motion Picture Production. Randi Hiller will now lead casting as executive vp casting, overseeing for both Disney Live Action and 20th Century Studios. Steuer has served as executive vp physical production for Walt Disney Studios since 2015, and Hiller has led casting for Walt Disney Studios since 2011. Both will dual-report to Asbell and Bailey.


Television

20th Television 20th Television (formerly 20th Century Fox Television) is an American television production company owned by Walt Disney Television, a unit of the Disney General Entertainment Content division of The Walt Disney Company. The original 20th Televis ...
is the television production division of 20th Century Studios. 20th Century Fox Television was the studio's television production division, along with Fox 21 Television Studios until they were renamed 20th Television and
Touchstone Television The second incarnation of Touchstone Television (formerly known as Fox 21 Television Studios) was an American television production company that is a subsidiary of Disney Media Networks' Walt Disney Television owned by The Walt Disney Company. I ...
respectively in 2020. 20th Television was also the studio's
television syndication Broadcast syndication is the practice of leasing the right to broadcasting television shows and radio programs to multiple television stations and radio stations, without going through a broadcast network. It is common in the United States where b ...
division until it was folded into
Disney Media Distribution Disney Platform Distribution is a business unit within Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution (DMED) that manages all third-party media sales efforts for distribution, affiliate marketing and affiliate-related business operations for all of t ...
and
Disney-ABC Domestic Television Walt Disney Television is an American entertainment company that oversees television content and assets owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company. Forming the company's General Entertainment division, it was formerly called Disney–ABC Tel ...
in 2020. During the mid-1950s, feature films were released to television in the hope that they would broaden sponsorship and help distribution of network programs. Blocks of one-hour programming of feature films to national sponsors on 128 stations was organized by Twentieth Century Fox and
National Telefilm Associates National Telefilm Associates (otherwise known by its initials, NTA) was an audio-visual marketing company primarily concerned with the syndication of American film libraries to television, including the Republic Pictures film library. It was succes ...
. Twentieth Century Fox received 50% interest in NTA Film network after it sold its library to National Telefilm Associates. This gave 90 minutes of cleared time a week and syndicated feature films to 110 non-interconnected stations for sale to national sponsors.


Buyout of Four Star

Rupert Murdoch's 20th Century bought out the remaining assets of
Four Star Television Four Star Television, also called Four Star International, was an American television production company. Founded in 1952 as Four Star Productions by prominent Hollywood actors Dick Powell, David Niven, Charles Boyer, and Joel McCrea, it was inspi ...
from
Ronald Perelman Ronald Owen Perelman (; born January 1, 1943) is an American banker, businessman and investor. MacAndrews & Forbes Incorporated, his company, has invested in companies with interests in groceries, cigars, licorice, makeup, cars, photography, tel ...
's Compact Video in 1996. The majority of
Four Star Television Four Star Television, also called Four Star International, was an American television production company. Founded in 1952 as Four Star Productions by prominent Hollywood actors Dick Powell, David Niven, Charles Boyer, and Joel McCrea, it was inspi ...
's library of programs are controlled by
20th Television 20th Television (formerly 20th Century Fox Television) is an American television production company owned by Walt Disney Television, a unit of the Disney General Entertainment Content division of The Walt Disney Company. The original 20th Televis ...
today. After Murdoch's numerous buyouts during the buyout era of the eighties, News Corporation had built up financial debts of $7 billion (much from Sky TV in the UK), despite the many assets that were held by NewsCorp.''The encyclopedia of the history of American management'' (2005)
Morgen WitzelMorgen Witzel (born 1960) is a Canadian historian, business theorist, consultant, lecturer and author of management books, especially known from his work on "Doing business in China" and on "Managing in virtual organizations".Fineman, Stephen, Yianni ...
Continuum International Publishing Group p393
The high levels of debt caused Murdoch to sell many of the American magazine interests he had acquired in the mid-1980s.


Music

Between 1933 and 1937, a custom record label called ''Fox Movietone'' was produced starting at F-100 and running through F-136. It featured songs from 20th Century movies, first using material recorded and issued on Victor's
Bluebird The bluebirds are a group of medium-sized, mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the order of Passerines in the genus ''Sialia'' of the thrush family (Turdidae). Bluebirds are one of the few thrush genera in the Americas. Bluebirds have bl ...
label and halfway through switched to material recorded and issued on ARC's dime store labels (Melotone, Perfect, etc.). These scarce records were sold only at Fox Theaters.
Fox Music Fox Music was the music arm of 20th Century Studios. It encompassed music publishing and licensing businesses, dealing primarily with television and film soundtracks. It was located in Century City, California. During CEO Robert Kraft's tenure at F ...
has been 20th Century's music arm since 2000. It encompasses music publishing and licensing businesses, dealing primarily with Fox Entertainment Group television and film soundtracks. Prior to Fox Music, 20th Century Records was its music arm from 1958 to 1981.


Radio

The ''Twentieth Century Fox Presents'' radio series were broadcast between 1936 and 1942. More often than not, the shows were a radio preview featuring a medley of the songs and soundtracks from the latest movie being released into the theaters, much like the modern day movie trailers we now see on TV, to encourage folks to head down to their nearest Picture House. The radio shows featured the original stars, with the announcer narrating a lead up that encapsulated the performance.


Motion picture film processing

From its earliest ventures into movie production, Fox Film Corporation operated its own processing laboratories. The original lab was located in Fort Lee, New Jersey along with the studios. A lab was included with the new studio built in Los Angeles in 1916. Headed by Alan E. Freedman, the Fort Lee lab was moved into the new Fox Studios building in Manhattan in 1919. In 1932, Freedman bought the labs from Fox for $2,000,000 to bolster what at that time was a failing Fox liquidity. He renamed the operation "DeLuxe Laboratories," which much later became Deluxe Entertainment Services Group, DeLuxe Entertainment Services Group. In the 1940s Freedman sold the labs back to what was then 20th Century Fox and remained as president into the 1960s. Under Freedman's leadership, DeLuxe added two more labs in Chicago and Toronto and processed film from studios other than Fox.


Divisions


20th Century Family

20th Century Family (formerly Fox Family) is a family-friendly production division of 20th Century Studios. Besides family-friendly theatrical films, the division oversees mixed media (live-action with animation), family animated holiday television specials based on film properties and film features based on TV shows. On October 30, 2017, Morrison was transferred from her post as president of 20th Century Fox Animation, the prior Fox Family Films, to be president of a newly created 20th Century Fox division, Fox Family, which as a mandate similar to Fox Family Films. The division pick up supervision of a ''Bob's Burgers'' film and some existing deals with animation producers, including Tonko House. With the sale of 21st Century Fox to Disney in March 2019, rights to ''The Dam Keeper#Feature film, The Dam Keeper'' feature animated film returned to Tonko House. With the August 2019 20th Century Fox Acquisition of 21st Century Fox by Disney#Aftermath (March 2019–present), slate overhaul announcement, 20th Century Fox properties such as ''Home Alone'', ''Night at the Museum'', and ''Diary of a Wimpy Kid (film), Diary of the Wimpy Kid'' have been assigned for
Disney+ Disney+ (pronounced Disney Plus) is an American subscription video on-demand over-the-top streaming service owned and operated by the Media and Entertainment Distribution division of The Walt Disney Company. The service primarily distributes fi ...
release and assigned to 20th Century Family. On March 12, 2020, Morrison was named president, Streaming, Walt Disney Studios Motion Picture Production to oversee live action development and production of Disney Live Action and 20th Century Studios for Disney+. :Upcoming productions * ''Bob's Burgers: The Movie'' * an unnamed ''The Simpsons Movie'' sequel * ''The Prom Goer's Interstellar Excursion'' based film, produced with
Chernin Entertainment Chernin Entertainment is an American film and television production company founded and owned by former News Corporation president and chief operating officer Peter Chernin, also CEO and chairman of the company. Jenno Topping is the current Head of ...
* ''Paper Lanterns'' live-action/animated family film written by Jonny Sun and produced with Chernin Entertainment * ''The Garden'' live-action/CGI musical film based on book of Genesis's the Garden of Eden with Franklin Entertainment


Fox VFX Lab (defunct)

Fox VFX Lab was a visual effects company division of 20th Century Studios that was acquired in 2017 known as Technoprops. It is led by president John Kilkenny. Besides their visual effects activities, the division oversees different parts of the world to apply for and work on projects that include films such as ''
Avatar An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST: ; ), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", is the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth. The relative verb to "alight, to make one's appearance" is sometimes used to refer to an ...
'', ''
The Jungle Book ''The Jungle Book'' (1894) is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling. Most of the characters are animals such as Shere Khan the tiger and Baloo the bear, though a principal character is the boy or "man-cub" Mowgli, who ...
'', ''Rogue One'', ''Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows'', ''Doctor Strange (2016 film), Doctor Strange'', and ''Warcraft (film), Warcraft'' and also video game properties like ''Need for Speed (2015 video game), Need for Speed'' (2015), ''Battlefield 1'', ''Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege, Rainbow Six Siege'', ''Watch Dogs 2'', ''Just Cause 3'', ''Rise of the Tomb Raider'', ''Assassin's Creed Syndicate'', ''Mafia III'', ''Halo 4'', ''Mortal Kombat 11'', ''Far Cry'' (''Far Cry 5'' and ''Far Cry Primal, Primal''), ''Call of Duty'' (''Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare'' and ''Call of Duty: Black Ops III, Black Ops III'') and ''Sonic the Hedgehog'' (''Sonic Forces'' and ''Team Sonic Racing''). On August 1, 2019 Disney would reportedly shut down the unit after firing all of its executives and employees.


Fox Atomic (defunct)

Fox Atomic was a youth-focused film production company and division of Fox Filmed Entertainment that operated from 2006 to April 2009. Atomic was originally paired with Fox Spotlight Pictures under the same leadership. In late 2006, Fox Atomic was started up under Fox Searchlight head Peter Rice and COO John Hegeman as a sibling production division under Fox Filmed Entertainment. Debbie Liebling transferred to Fox Atomic in 2007 from Fox. In January 2008, Atomic's marketing unit was transferred to Fox Searchlight and 20th Century Fox, when Hegeman moved to New Regency Productions. Debbie Liebling became president. After two middling successes and falling short with other films, the unit was shut down in April 2009. The remaining films under Atomic in production and post-productions were transferred to 20th Century Fox and Fox Spotlight with Liebling overseeing them. * ''Turistas'' (December 2006) * ''The Hills Have Eyes 2'' (2007) * ''28 Weeks Later'' (2007) * ''The Comebacks'' * ''The Rocker (film), The Rocker'' * ''Miss March'' * ''12 Rounds (film), 12 Rounds'' Films in production at shut down and transferred to other Fox units * ''I Love You, Beth Cooper (film), I Love You, Beth Cooper'' (July 10, 2009) 20th Century Fox release, 1492 Pictures production company, directed by Chris Columbus (filmmaker), Chris Columbus and starring Hayden Panettiere * ''Post Grad'' (August 21, 2009) through Fox Searchlight directed by Vicky Jenson and starring Alexis Bledel * ''Jennifer's Body'' (September 18, 2009) 20th Century Fox release, directed by Karyn Kusama and starring Megan Fox


Fox International Productions (defunct)

Fox International Productions was the division of 20th Century Fox in charge of local production in 12 territories in China, Europe, India and Latin America from 2008 to 2017. In 2008, 20th Century Fox started Fox International Productions under president Sanford Panitch. The company had $900 million in box-office receipts by the time Panitch left the company for Sony on June 2, 2015. Co-president of worldwide theatrical marketing and distribution for 20th Century Fox Tomas Jegeus was named president of Fox International Productions effective September 1, 2015. The company struck a development and production deal in November 2015 with Zhejiang Huace, a Chinese entertainment group. In December 2017, 20th Century Fox film chairman-CEO Stacey Snider indicated that Fox International Productions would be dissolved in favor of each local and regional offices producing or acquiring projects.


Logo and fanfare

The familiar 20th Century production logo originated as the logo of
Twentieth Century Pictures Twentieth Century Pictures, Inc., was an independent Hollywood motion picture production company created in 1933 by Joseph Schenck (the former president of United Artists) and Darryl F. Zanuck from Warner Bros. Financial backing came from Schenck' ...
and was adopted by 20th Century-Fox after the merger in 1935. It consists of a stacked Block letters, block-letter three-dimensional, Monolithic architecture, monolithic logotype (nicknamed "the Monument") surrounded by Art Deco architecture, Art deco buildings and illuminated by searchlights. In the production logo that appears at the start of films, the searchlights are animated and the sequence is accompanied by a distinctive fanfare that was originally composed in 1933 by Alfred Newman (composer), Alfred Newman. The original layout of the logo was designed by special effects animator and matte painting artist Emil Kosa Jr.. The 20th Century logo and fanfare have been recognised as an iconic symbol of a Classical Hollywood cinema, golden age of Hollywood. Its appearance at the start of popular films such as ''How Green Was My Valley (film), How Green Was My Valley'' (1941) and ''MASH (film), MASH'' (1970) established its recognition. In 1953, Rocky Longo, an artist at Pacific Title & Art Studio, Pacific Title, was hired to recreate the original logo design for the new
CinemaScope CinemaScope is an anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, and less often later, for shooting widescreen films that, crucially, could be screened in theatres using existing equipment, albeit with a lens adapter. Its creation in 1953 by Spyr ...
picture process. Longo tilted the "0" in "20th" to have the logo maintain proportions in the wider CinemaScope format. Alfred Newman also re-composed the logo's fanfare with an extension to be heard during the CinemaScope logo that would follow after the Fox logo. Although the format had since declined, director George Lucas specifically requested that the CinemaScope version of the fanfare be used for the opening titles of ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon. The franchise has been expanded into various films and other ...
'' (1977). Additionally, the film's Star Wars (Main Title), main theme was composed by John Williams in the same key as the fanfare (B-flat major, B major), serving as an extension to it of sorts. In 1981, the logo was slightly altered with the re-straightening of the "0" in "20th". In 1994, after a few failed attempts, Fox in-house television producer Kevin Burns was hired to produce a new logo for the company, this time using the then-new process of computer-generated imagery (CGI) adding more detail and animation, with the longer 21-second Fox fanfare arranged by Bruce Broughton used as the underscore. It would later be re-recorded by David Newman (composer), David Newman in 1997 and again in 1998. In 2009, an updated logo created by Blue Sky Studios debuted with the release of ''
Avatar An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST: ; ), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", is the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth. The relative verb to "alight, to make one's appearance" is sometimes used to refer to an ...
''. On September 16, 2014, 20th Century Fox posted a video showcasing all of the various versions of the logo, including some variations, up until the 2009 version of the logo, with the 1998 version of the fanfare composed by David Newman, to promote the new Fox Movies website. On January 17, 2020, it was reported that Disney had begun to phase out the "Fox" name from the studio's branding as it is no longer tied to the current
Fox Corporation Fox Corporation is an American mass media company headquartered in New York City. The company was formed in 2019 as a result of the acquisition of 21st Century Fox by The Walt Disney Company; the assets that were not acquired by Disney were spu ...
, with 20th Century Fox and Fox Searchlight Pictures respectively renamed to 20th Century Studios and Searchlight Pictures. Branding elements associated with the studio, including the searchlights, monolith, and fanfare, will remain in use. The first film that carries the new 20th Century Studios name is ''
The Call of the Wild ''The Call of the Wild'' is a short adventure novel by Jack London, published in 1903 and set in Yukon, Canada, during the 1890s Klondike Gold Rush, when strong sled dogs were in high demand. The central character of the novel is a dog named Buc ...
'' (coincidentally Call of the Wild (1935 film), the original film adaptation was the original
Twentieth Century Pictures Twentieth Century Pictures, Inc., was an independent Hollywood motion picture production company created in 1933 by Joseph Schenck (the former president of United Artists) and Darryl F. Zanuck from Warner Bros. Financial backing came from Schenck' ...
' final movie before its merger with Fox Film). For the 20th Century Studios logo, its print logo debuted on a movie poster of ''The New Mutants (film), The New Mutants'' while the on-screen logo debuted in a television advertisement for and the full version debuted on February 21, 2020 with the film ''The Call of the Wild''. The 20th Century Studios logo was animated by Picturemill, based on Blue Sky Studios' animation. In the television series ''Futurama'', a "30th Century Fox" logo appears at the conclusion of some episodes in reference to its setting.


Films and franchises


Lists

* List of 20th Century Studios films (2020–present) * List of 20th Century Fox films (2000–2020) * List of 20th Century Fox films (1935–1999) * List of Twentieth Century Pictures films (1933–1936) * List of Fox Film films (1914–1935)


Film series


Highest-grossing films

The Academy Film Archive houses the 20th Century Fox Features Collection which contains features, trailers, and production elements mostly from the Fox, Twentieth Century, and Twentieth Century-Fox studios, from the late 1920s–1950s. I ‡—Includes theatrical reissue(s).


See also


Notes


References


Sources

* * * * * * (Reprint edition) * (Kindle edition) * * (First edition) * (Kindle edition) *


Additional sources

* (First Edition) * * *


Archival sources


Finding aid to the Earl I. Sponable papers, 1928-1968, at Columbia University. Rare Book & Manuscript Library.


External links

* *

* {{Authority control 20th Century Studios, 1935 establishments in California American companies established in 1935 Entertainment companies established in 1935 Mass media companies established in 1935 Disney production studios Disney acquisitions American film studios Entertainment companies of the United States Entertainment companies based in California Film production companies of the United States Film distributors of the United States Fox Film Century City, Los Angeles Cinema of Southern California Companies based in Los Angeles Organizations awarded an Academy Honorary Award Articles containing video clips The Walt Disney Studios Recipients of the Scientific and Technical Academy Award of Merit Former News Corporation subsidiaries