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Press Freedom
Press commonly refers to: *Pressure, or the act of pressing *Printing press, commonly called "the press" *Print media, commonly called "the press" after the printing press Press may also refer to: People * Press (surname), a family name of English and Eastern European origin Arts, entertainment, and media Music * ''Press'' (album), by MU330 * "Press" (Paul McCartney song) *"Press" (Cardi B song) News agencies * Associated Press, a global news network * United Press International Other arts, entertainment, and media * ''Press'' (film), a Turkish film * ''Press'' (newspaper), a newspaper in Serbia * News media, the section of the mass media industry that focuses on presenting current news to the public *The Xtremewood Press, a newspaper published in Gulu, Uganda * Press release * Press TV, the Iranian television network * ''Press'' (TV series), a 2018 BBC One/PBS TV series * Publisher, a company that produces or disseminates literature or information Machines Food preparation * Fr ...
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Pressure
Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled ''gage'' pressure)The preferred spelling varies by country and even by industry. Further, both spellings are often used ''within'' a particular industry or country. Industries in British English-speaking countries typically use the "gauge" spelling. is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre (N/m2); similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and U.S. customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as of this. Manometric units su ...
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French Press
A French press A French press, also known as a cafetière, ''cafetière à piston'', ''caffettiera a stantuffo'', press pot, coffee press, or coffee plunger, is a coffee brewing device, although it can also be used for other tasks. In 1923 Ugo Paolini, an Italian, lodged patent documents relating to a tomato juice separator and he developed the idea of making a coffee pot with a press action and a filter. He assigned his 1928 patent to Italian designer Attilio Calimani and Giulio Moneta who filed it in 1929. Nomenclature In English, the device is known in North America as a ''French press'' or ''coffee press''; in Britain and Ireland as a ''cafetière''; in New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa, as a ''coffee plunger'', and coffee brewed in it as ''plunger coffee''. In Italian it is known as a ''caffettiera a stantuffo''; in German, as a ''Stempelkanne'' (“stamp pot”); in French as ''cafetière à piston'', or simply as ''cafetière'' (also the usage in Dutch), though some sp ...
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Full-court Press
A full-court press is a basketball term for a defensive style in which the defense applies pressure to the offensive team the entire length of the court before and after the inbound pass. Pressure may be applied man-to-man, or via a zone press using a zone defense. Some presses attempt to deny the initial inbounds pass and trap ball handlers either in the backcourt or at midcourt. Defenses not employing a full-court press generally allow the offensive team to get halfway down the court (a half-court press) or near the basket before applying strong defensive pressure. Gameplay A full-court press takes a great deal of effort, but can be an effective tactic. Often when teams are behind late in a game, they will apply full-court pressure as a means of attempting to produce turnovers as well as tire opponents. Certain teams, such as those coached by Rick Pitino and Billy Donovan, are known for applying full-court pressure during most of the game (this was especially evident for Pitino's K ...
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Bench Press
The bench press is an upper-body weight training exercise in which the trainee presses a weight upwards while lying on a weight training bench. The exercise uses the pectoralis major, the anterior deltoids, and the triceps, among other stabilizing muscles. A barbell is generally used to hold the weight, but a pair of dumbbells can also be used. The barbell bench press is one of three lifts in the sport of powerlifting alongside the deadlift and squat, and is the only lift in the sport of Paralympic powerlifting. It is also used extensively in weight training, bodybuilding, and other types of training to develop the chest muscles. Movement The person performing the exercise lies on their back on a bench with a barbell grasped in both hands. They lower the barbell to chest level, then press the barbell upwards, extending the arms until the elbows are locked out. This is one repetition (rep). Powerlifting: Take position on a flat bench with body weight resting on buttocks and uppe ...
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Cupboard
The term cupboard was originally used to describe an open-shelved side table for displaying dishware, more specifically plates, cups and saucers. These open cupboards typically had between one and three display tiers, and at the time, a drawer or multiple drawers fitted to them. The word cupboard gradually came to mean a closed piece of furniture.Andrews, John (2006) ''British Antique Furniture''. Antique Collectors' Club ; p. 226 Types of cupboards Airing cupboard An airing cupboard (or hot press) is a built-in storage space, sometimes of walk-in dimensions, containing a water heater, either an immersion heater for hot running water or a boiler for central heating water (hence, also "boiler cupboard"), or a hot water storage tank. Shelves, usually slatted to allow for circulation of heat, are positioned above or around the heater to provide room for clothing. The purpose is to allow air to circulate around the stored fabrics to prevent damp forming. Some variants of airing cupb ...
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Ironing
Ironing is the use of a machine, usually a heated tool (an iron), to remove wrinkles from fabric. The heating is commonly done to a temperature of 180–220 °Celsius (356-428 Fahrenheit), depending on the fabric. Ironing works by loosening the bonds between the long-chain polymer molecules in the fibers of the material. While the molecules are hot, the fibers are straightened by the weight of the iron, and they hold their new shape as they cool. Some fabrics, such as cotton, require the addition of water to loosen the intermolecular bonds. Many modern fabrics (developed in or after the mid-twentieth century) are advertised as needing little or no ironing. Permanent press clothing was developed to reduce the ironing necessary by combining wrinkle-resistant polyester with cotton. The first known use of heated metal to "iron" clothes is known to have occurred in China. The electric iron was invented in 1882, by Henry W. Seeley. Seeley patented his "electric flatiron" on June 6, 1882 ...
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PRESS Statistic
In statistics, the predicted residual error sum of squares (PRESS) statistic is a form of cross-validation used in regression analysis to provide a summary measure of the fit of a model to a sample of observations that were not themselves used to estimate the model. It is calculated as the sums of squares of the prediction residuals for those observations. A ''fitted model'' having been produced, each observation in turn is removed and the model is refitted using the remaining observations. The out-of-sample predicted value is calculated for the omitted observation in each case, and the PRESS statistic is calculated as the sum of the squares of all the resulting prediction errors: : \operatorname =\sum_^n (y_i - \hat_)^2 Given this procedure, the PRESS statistic can be calculated for a number of candidate model structures for the same dataset, with the lowest values of PRESS indicating the best structures. Models that are over-parameterised (over-fitted) would tend to give small ...
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Linen-press
Traditionally, a linen-press (or just ''press'') is a cabinet, usually of woods such as oak, walnut, or mahogany, and designed for storing sheets, table-napkins, clothing, and other textiles. Such linen-presses were made chiefly in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries and are now considered decorative examples of antique furniture. Early versions were often quite plain, with some exhibiting carving characteristic of Jacobean designs. Examples made during the 18th and 19th centuries often featured expensive veneers and intricate inlays, and were designed to occupy prominent places in early bedrooms as storage closets for clothing. In modern houses, a linen press is often a built-in cabinet near bedroom or bathroom, for easy access to fresh bed sheets and towels. Analogous terms are ''laundry cupboard'' or ''linen cupboard''. In Ireland the term ''hot press'' describes an airing cupboard used for storing linen. See also *Cupboard *Closet References Category:Clothing containers Ca ...
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Trouser Press
''Trouser Press'' was a rock and roll magazine started in New York in 1974 as a mimeographed fanzine by editor/publisher Ira Robbins, fellow fan of the Who Dave Schulps and Karen Rose under the name "Trans-Oceanic Trouser Press" (a reference to a song by the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band and an acronymic play on the British TV show ''Top of the Pops)''. Publication of the magazine ceased in 1984; the unexpired portion of mail subscriptions was completed by ''Rolling Stone'' sister publication ''Record'', which itself folded in 1985. ''Trouser Press'' has continued to exist in various formats. History The magazine's original scope was British bands and artists (early issues featured the slogan "America's Only British Rock Magazine"). Initial issues contained occasional interviews with major artists like Brian Eno and Robert Fripp and extensive record reviews. After 14 issues, the title was shortened to simply ''Trouser Press'', and it gradually transformed into a professional magazine with ...
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RAM Press
A RAM press (or ram press) is a machine, invented in the USA in the mid-1940s, that is used to press clay into moulded shapes, such as plates and bowls. In operation a slice of de-aired clay body is placed in between two shaped porous moulds, and vertical movement of the moulds presses the body into the required shape. History The patented RAM Process was devised around 1945 by the ceramics engineers Reif Blackburn and Richard Steele. The first RAM Press was made by Harold Dawson in Columbus, Ohio. Blackburn and Steele sold their company to the Wallace Murray Corp. RAM Products Inc. of Columbus, Ohio was set up in 1979 and now manufactures the RAM press, as do other companies.Pelleriti, Richard (July 1998"History of the RAM Process" Ceramic Industry magazine. Other uses The phrase ''ram press'' (in lower case) commonly means the same thing; it is simply used for machines that press items by a mechanical ram, such as with a plunger, piston, force pump, or hydraulic ram. Reference ...
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Machine Press
A forming press, commonly shortened to press, is a machine tool that changes the shape of a work-piece by the application of pressure. The operator of a forming press is known as a press-tool setter, often shortened to tool-setter. Presses can be classified according to * their mechanism: hydraulic, mechanical, pneumatic; * their function: forging presses, stamping presses, press brakes, punch press, etc. * their structure, e.g. Knuckle-joint press, screw press * their controllability: conventional vs. servo-presses Shop Press Typically consisting of a simple rectangular frame, often fabricated from C-channel or tubing, containing a bottle jack or hydraulic cylinder to apply pressure via a ram to a work-piece. Often used for general-purpose forming work in the auto mechanic shop, machine shop, garage or basement shops, etc. Typical shop presses are capable of applying between 1 and 30 tons pressure, depending on size and construction. Lighter-duty versions are often called a ...
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Wine Press
up16th century winepress A winepress is a device used to extract juice from crushed grapes during wine making. There are a number of different styles of presses that are used by wine makers but their overall functionality is the same. Each style of press exerts controlled pressure in order to free the juice from the fruit (most often grapes). The pressure must be controlled, especially with grapes, in order to avoid crushing the seeds and releasing a great deal of undesirable tannins into the wine. Wine was being made at least as long ago as 4000 BC; in 2011, a winepress was unearthed in Armenia with red wine dated 6,000 years old. Press types Basket A basket press consists of a large basket filled with the crushed grapes. Pressure is applied through a plate that is forced down onto the fruit. The mechanism to lower the plate is often either a screw or a hydraulic device. The juice flows through openings in the basket. The basket style press was the first type of mechanized press t ...
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Ram Press (food)
A ram press is a device or machine commonly used to press items with a mechanical ram, such as with a plunger, piston, force pump, or hydraulic ram. In food preparation, there are various kinds of ram presses: The ''fruit ram press'' and ''cider ram press'' are both types of fruit presses that extract the juices out of the fruit through pressure. The second makes apple cider. An ''oil seed ram press'' is also known as an ''oil ram press'' and it extracts the oil out of oil seeds. References Category:Food technology {{cooking-tool-stub ...
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Garlic Press
Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. A garlic press, also known as a garlic crusher, is a kitchen utensil to crush garlic cloves efficiently by forcing them through a grid of small holes, usually with some type of piston. Many garlic presses also have a device with a matching grid of blunt pins to clean out the holes. The inventor of the garlic press is generally held to be Karl Zysset (1907–1988) founder of the Swiss kitchen utensil company Zyliss. Garlic presses present a convenient alternative to mincing garlic with a knife, especially because a clove of garlic can be passed through a sturdy press without even removing its peel. The peel remains in the press while the garlic is extruded out. Some sources also claim that pressing with the peel on makes cleaning the press easier. Garlic crushed by a press is generally believed to have a different flavor from minced garlic, more of garlic's strong flavor compounds are liberated. A few sources prefer the flavor of pressed g ...
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Fruit Press
A modern cider press. A fruit press is a device used to separate fruit solids - stems, skins, seeds, pulp, leaves, and detritus - from fruit juice. History In the United States, Madeline Turner invented the Turner's Fruit-Press, in 1916. Cider press A cider press is used to crush apples or pears. In North America, the unfiltered juice is referred to as cider, becoming known as apple juice once filtered; in Britain it is referred to as juice regardless of whether it is filtered or not (the term cider is reserved for the fermented (alcoholic) juice). Other products include cider vinegar, (hard) cider, apple wine, apple brandy, and apple jack. The traditional cider press is a ram press. Apples are ground up and placed in a cylinder, and a piston exerts pressure. The cylinder and/or piston is "leaky" and the juice is forced from the solids. The traditional cider press has not changed much since the early modern period. The only difference being that in earlier versions of the press ...
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