HOME TheInfoList
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff


Entrenched Clause
An entrenched clause or entrenchment clause of a basic law or constitution is a provision that makes certain amendments either more difficult or impossible to pass, making such amendments inadmissible. Overriding an entrenched clause may require a supermajority, a referendum, or the consent of the minority party. The term eternity clause is used in a similar manner in the constitutions of Brazil, the Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Morocco, Norway, and Turkey. The Constitution of Colombia contains similar provisions aimed at making it difficult, but not impossible, to change their basic structure. Once adopted, a properly drafted entrenchment clause makes some portion of a basic law or constitution irrevocable except through the assertion of the right of revolution. Any amendment to a basic law or constitution that would not satisfy the prerequisites enshrined in a valid entrenched clause would lead to so-called "unconstitutional constitutional law"—that is, a ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Basic Law
In countries with uncodified constitutions, basic law is the denomination of a law providing constitutional powers. In Germany ''basic law'' ("Grundgesetz") is the name given to the codified constitution. "Basic law" is often used to denote an interim or transitory piece of legislation corresponding to a formal constitution or to avoid claiming that there is a supreme legal provision, often for religious reasons. In West Germany the term ''Grundgesetz'' was used to indicate that the Constitution was provisional pending the ultimate reunification of Germany. However, when the latter eventually took place in 1990, the term was retained for the entire territory of reunified Germany. Similar to a constitution, a basic law overrides ordinary 'statute law'. The Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China, namely Hong Kong and Macau, have basic laws as their constitutional documents. The basic laws are the highest authority, respectively, in the territories, while the ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Algerian Constitution Of 2016
The Algerian constitutional amendment of 2016 is a constitutional revision which introduced numerous amendments to the constitution adopted in 1996. The proposed amendment was presented on 4 February 2016 by prime minister Abdelmalek Sellal and then adopted on 7 February 2016. References {{DEFAULTSORT:Constitution Of Algeria Category:Algerian law Algeria Category:2016 documents Category:Constitutions of Algeria ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



2019 Egyptian Constitutional Referendum
A constitutional referendum was held in Egypt from 20–22 April 2019, with overseas voting taking place between 19 and 21 April. The proposed changes allow President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi to remain in power until 2030; under the previous version of the constitution, he would have been barred from contesting the next elections, which were due in 2022. The changes were approved by 88.83% of voters who voted, with a 44% turnout. Preparation Plans to amend the constitution were prepared by the General Intelligence Directorate (Mukhabarat) around December 2018, with nearly daily meetings headed by el-Sisi's son Mahmoud el-Sisi, Deputy Director of the Mukhabarat. Some meetings were also attended by Abbas Kamel, the Director of the Mukhabarat. The initial plans were to extend the presidential term to six years while retaining a maximum of two terms and to weaken the powers of Parliament. Security services planned "wide-reaching arrest campaigns of civilian public figures from across th ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Constitution Of Egypt
The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the fundamental law of Egypt. The Egyptian Constitution of 2014 was passed in a referendum in January 2014. The constitution took effect after the results were announced on 18 January 2014. A constitutional amendments referendum was held from 20 to 22 April 2019. Background In July 2013, after the ousting of former President Mohammed Morsi, the military announced the schedule for the development of the constitution, with the vote to occur around the end of November 2013. Two different committees were involved in amending the 2012 constitution. The constitution replaces the Egyptian Constitution of 2012 which came into effect under Morsi. Contents The constitution adopted in 2014, like the constitution drafted under Morsi, is based on the Egyptian Constitution of 1971. The 2014 constitution sets up a president and parliament. The president is elected to a four-year term and may serve 2 terms. The parliament may impeach the presi ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

European Law
European Union law is a system of rules operating within the member states of the European Union. Since the founding of the Coal and Steel Community after World War II, the EU has developed the aim to "promote peace, its values and the well-being of its peoples". The EU has political institutions, social and economic policies, which transcend nation states for the purpose of cooperation and human development. According to its Court of Justice the EU represents "a new legal order of international law".''Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen'' (1963Case 26/62/ref> The EU's legal foundations are the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, unanimously agreed by the governments of 27 member states. New members may join, if they agree to follow the rules of the union, and existing states may leave according to their "own constitutional requirements".TEart 50 On the most sophisticated discussion of constitutional law and h ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Constitutional Act Of The Czech Republic
A constitutional act, with respect to the laws of the Czech Republic, is an act which can change the Constitution of the Czech Republic, provisions of the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms, the conditions under which the citizenry may exercise state power directly, or the exterior or interior frontiers of the territory of the Czech Republic.Constitution of the Czech Republic, Art. 9Constitution of the Czech Republic, Art. 11Constitution of the Czech Republic, Art. 2Constitution of the Czech Republic, Art. 112Constitution of the Czech Republic, Art. 100 Passage of such an act can only be accomplished through the agreement of 3/5 of all Deputies and Senators present at the time the proposed act is laid before each house of Parliament.Constitution of the Czech Republic, Art. 39 It is the only type of legislation which does not require the signature of the President to become law.Constitution of the Czech Republic, Art. 50 Furthermore, it is the only type of legislation w ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Constitutional Court Of The Czech Republic
The Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic ( cz|Ústavní soud České republiky) is a specialized type of court which primarily works to protect the people in the Czech Republic against violations of the Constitution by either the legislature, government or by any other subject that violates people's constitutional rights and freedoms. In this respect, it is similar in functionality to the Supreme Court of the United States, but is distinct from the Supreme Court of the Czech Republic. Of all the various levels of the Czech Judiciary it is the one created with the greatest specificity in the constitution. The decisions of the Court are final, cannot be overturned and are considered a source of law, similar to precedents in a common law system. Although the Court itself was established only in 1993, its Czechoslovak predecessor was already provided for in the Constitution of 1920, making Czechoslovakia the first country in the world with a system of judicial review by a spec ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Amendments
A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution of a polity, organization or other type of entity. Amendments are often interwoven into the relevant sections of an existing constitution, directly altering the text. Conversely, they can be appended to the constitution as supplemental additions (codicils), thus changing the frame of government without altering the existing text of the document. Most constitutions require that amendments cannot be enacted unless they have passed a special procedure that is more stringent than that required of ordinary legislation. Examples of such special procedures include supermajorities in the legislature, or direct approval by the electorate in a referendum, or even a combination of two or more different special procedures. A referendum to amend the constitution may also be triggered in some jurisdictions by popular initiative. Australia and Ireland provide examples of constitutions requiring that all amendments are first passe ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Constitution Of Bosnia And Herzegovina
The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: ''Ustav Bosne i Hercegovine'' / Устав Босне и Херцеговине) is the highest legal document of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The current Constitution is the Annex 4 of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, signed on 14 December 1995. The Constitution saw the end of war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, however it has seen a large amount of criticism. Under the supervision of international community, an "arrangement of amendments" (later called "April arrangement of amendments") to the Constitution, agreed upon by leading political parties, was proposed for adoption in the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina in April 2006, but it failed to get the approval of two-thirds of members in the House of Representatives. In five cases since 2009, the European Court of Human Rights has determined that the constitution discriminates aga ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Australia Act
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Its population of nearly million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide. Indigenous Australians inhabited the continent for about 65,000 years prior to the first arrival of Dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it New Holland. In 1770, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of a ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Statute Of Westminster Adoption Act 1942
A statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrument which govern the state, country or any nation. it includes laws, rules and the reulation whichhas to be followed by each citizen in the county. A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs the legal entities of a city, state, or country by way of consent. Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. Statutes are rules made by legislative bodies; they are distinguished from case law or precedent, which is decided by courts, and regulations issued by government agencies. Publication and organization In virtually all countries, newly enacted statutes are published and distributed so that everyone can look up the statutory law. This can be done in the form of a government gazette which may include other kinds of legal notices released by the government, or in the form of a series of books whose content is limited to legislative acts. ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Chapter VIII Of The Australian Constitution
Chapter 8 of the Australian constitution contains section 128; the section describing the constitutional referendum process required for amendments. The amendment by referendum method described in the section was modeled on provisions in the Swiss Federal Constitution. Its inclusion was influenced also by the Swiss method being present in the constitutions of several U.S. states at the time of federation. Summary The section stipulates that the constitution may only be amended by referendum, and describes the referendum process. The process A bill containing the change must be passed by the Commonwealth parliament. This bill must be passed by an absolute majority in both houses. If one house passes the bill containing the proposed change while the other refuses, it may attempt to pass the bill again. If the second house again refuses to pass it, the Governor-General (presumably on the advice of the Prime Minister) may still submit the proposed change for referendum. The propo ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Constitution Of Australia
The Constitution of Australia (or Australian Constitution) is a written constitution that is the supreme law of Australia. It establishes Australia as a federation under a constitutional monarchy and outlines the structure and powers of the federal executive government, legislature and judiciary. The constitution was drafted between 1891 and 1898, through a series of conventions conducted by representatives of the six self-governing British colonies in Australia. The final draft was then approved in a set of referendums from 1898 to 1900. The British government objected to some elements of the final draft, but a slightly modified form was enacted as section 9 of the ''Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900'', an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The act was given royal assent on 9 July 1900, was proclaimed on 17 September 1900, and entered into force on 1 January 1901. The constitution gave the six colonies the status of states within the new federation. Aus ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Parliamentary Sovereignty
Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies. It holds that the legislative body has absolute sovereignty and is supreme over all other government institutions, including executive or judicial bodies. It also holds that the legislative body may change or repeal any previous legislation and so it is not bound by written law (in some cases, even a constitution) or by precedent. In some countries, parliamentary sovereignty may be contrasted with separation of powers, which limits the legislature's scope often to general law-making, and judicial review, where laws passed by the legislature may be declared invalid in certain circumstances. Many states have sovereign legislatures, including the United Kingdom, Finland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Barbados, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, Israel, and the Solomon Islands. In political philosop ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]