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Muslims
Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic word meaning "submitter (to God)". Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad. The majority of Muslims also follow their own versions of compilations claimed to be the teachings and practices of Muhammad (''sunnah'') as recorded in traditional accounts (''hadith''). The beliefs of Muslims include: that God ( ar|الله ''Allah'') is eternal, transcendent and absolutely one (''tawhid''); that God is incomparable, self-sustaining and neither begets nor was begotten; that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that has been revealed before through many prophets including Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Moses, and Jesus; that these previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time (''tahrif'') and that the Q ...
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Islam
Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (''Merriam Webster''). The most common are (''Oxford English Dictionary''. Random House) and (''American Heritage Dictionary''). ar|اَلْإِسْلَامُ|al-’Islām, "submission o God) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: Oxford University Press. . (See alsoquick reference) "e Muslims' understanding of Allāh is based…on the Qurʿān's public witness. Allāh is Unique, the Creator, Sovereign, and Judge of mankind. It is Allāh who directs the universe through his direct action on nature and who has guided human history through his prophets, Abraham, with whom he made his covenant, Moses/Moosa, Jesus/Eesa, and Muḥa ...
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Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya (, ), officially the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at ( ar|الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية|al-Jamāʿah al-Islāmīyah al-Aḥmadīyah; ur||translit=Jamā'at Aḥmadiyyah Muslimah), is an Islamic revival or messianic movement originating in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century. It was founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908), who claimed to have been divinely appointed as both the Promised Mahdi (Guided One) and Messiah expected by Muslims to appear towards the end times and bring about, by peaceful means, the final triumph of Islam; as well as to embody, in this capacity, the expected eschatological figure of other major religious traditions. Adherents of the Ahmadiyya—a term adopted expressly in reference to Muhammad's alternative name ''Aḥmad''—are known as Ahmadi Muslims or simply Ahmadis. Ahmadi thought emphasizes the belief that Islam is the final dispensation for humanity as revealed to Muhamma ...
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Muslim World
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the ''Islamic community'', which is also known as the Ummah. This consists of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced. In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion. The term Muslim-majority countries is an alternative often used for the latter sense. The history of the Muslim world spans about 1,400 years and includes a variety of socio-political developments, as well as advances in the arts, science, philosophy, and technology, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age. All Muslims look for guidance to the Quran and believe in the prophetic mission of Muhammad, but disagreements on other matters have led to the appearance of different religious schools of thought and sects within Islam. In the modern era, most of the Muslim world came under European colonial domination. The n ...
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Abrahamic Religions
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religions that claim descent from the Judaism of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham. The Abrahamic religions are monotheistic, with the term deriving from the patriarch Abraham (a major figure described in the Tanakh, the Bible, and the Quran, recognized by Jews, Christians, Muslims, and others). The three major Abrahamic religions trace their origins to the first two sons of Abraham: for Jews and Christians it is his second son Isaac, and for Muslims his elder son Ishmael. Abrahamic religions spread globally through Christianity being adopted by the Roman Empire in the 4th century and Islam by the Umayyad Empire from the 7th century. Today the Abrahamic religions are one of the major divisions in comparative religion (along with Indian, Iranian, and East Asian religions).
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Muhammad
) | birth_date = | birth_place = | death_date = | death_place = | resting_place = | resting_place_coordinates = | nationality = | other_names = | years_active = | notable_works = Constitution of Medina | successor = ''See'' Succession to Muhammad | opponents = Quraysh | spouse = | children = ''See'' Children of Muhammad | parents = Abdallah ibn Abd al-Muttalib (father)Aminah bint Wahb (mother) | relatives = Family tree of Muhammad, Ahl al-Bayt("Family of the House") | module = | signature = Seal of Muhammad MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim ( ar|أَبُو ٱلْقَاسِم مُحَمَّد ٱبْن عَبْد ٱللَّٰه ٱبْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب ٱبْن هَاشِم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abd al-Muttalib son ...
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Shia Islam
Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main branches of Islam. It holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor and the Imam (spiritual and political leader) after him, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, but was prevented from succeeding Muhammad as the leader of all Muslims as a result of the choice made by Muhammad's other companions at Saqifah. This view primarily contrasts with that of Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor before his death and consider Abu Bakr, who was appointed caliph by a group of senior Muslims at Saqifah, to be the first rightful caliph after Muhammad. A person observing Shia Islam is called a Shi'ite or Shi'i. Shia Islam is based on Muhammad's hadith (Ghadir Khumm).Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam". Oxford University Press, 2002 | . p. 40 Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first Imam ...
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Quran
The Quran (, ; ar|القرآن|translit=al-Qurʼān|lit=the recitation, ), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation from God (''Allah''). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature. It is organized in 114 chapters (''surah'' ( ar|سور|translit=|lit=|label=none; singular: ar|سورة|translit=sūrah|lit=|label=none)), which consist of verses (''āyāt'' ( ar|آيات|translit=|lit=|label=none; singular: ar|آية|translit=āyah|lit=|label=none)). Muslims believe that the Quran was orally revealed by God to the final prophet, Muhammad, through the archangel Gabriel (''Jibril''), incrementally over a period of some 23 years, beginning in the month of Ramadan, when Muhammad was 40; and concluding in 632, the year of his death.Fisher, Mary Pat. 1997. ''Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths''. I. B. Tauris Publishers. p. 338. Muslims regard the Quran as Muhammad ...
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Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word ''Sunnah'', referring to the behaviour of Muhammad. The differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions. According to Sunni traditions, Muhammad designated Abu Bakr as his successor (the first caliph). This contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad announced his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Salafism and Wahhabism. The adherents of Sunni Islam are referred to in Arabic as ("the people of the Sunnah and the community") or for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are ...
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Urdu
Urdu (; ur| , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia. It is the official national language and ''lingua franca'' of Pakistan. In India, Urdu is an Eighth Schedule language whose status, function, and cultural heritage is recognized by the Constitution of India; Quote: "The Eighth Schedule recognizes India’s national languages as including the major regional languages as well as others, such as Sanskrit and Urdu, which contribute to India’s cultural heritage. ... The original list of fourteen languages in the Eighth Schedule at the time of the adoption of the Constitution in 1949 has now grown to twenty-two." Quote: "As Mahapatra says: “It is generally believed that the significance for the Eighth Schedule lies in providing a list of languages from which Hindi is directed to draw the appropriate forms, style and expressions for its enrichment” ... Being recognized in the Constitution, however, has had significant relevance for a language's statu ...
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Ibadi Islam
The Ibadi movement (Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis ( ar|الإباضية, ''al-Ibāḍiyyah'')), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman. It also exists in parts of Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and East Africa. Modern historians trace the origins of the denomination to a moderate current of the Khawarij movement; contemporary Ibāḍīs strongly object to being classified as Kharijites, although they recognize that their movement originated with the Kharijite secession of 657 CE. History The school derives its name from ʿAbdu l-Lāh ibn Ibāḍ of the Banu Tamim.Uzi Rabi, ''The Emergence of States in a Tribal Society: Oman Under Saʻid Bin Taymur, 1932-1970'', pg. 5. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2006. Ibn Ibad was responsible for breaking off from the wider Kharijite movement roughly around the time that Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, the fifth Umayyad ruler, took power. However, the true founder was Jābir ibn Zayd of Nizwa, Oman.Donald Hawley, ''Oman'', pg. 199. ...
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God In Islam
In Islam, God ( ar|ٱللَّٰه|Allāh, contraction of ''al-ʾilāh'', lit. "the God") is the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence. Islam emphasizes that God is strictly singular (''''); unique ('); inherently One ('); and also all-merciful and omnipotent."Allah." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica No human eyes can see God till the Day of Judgement. God doesn't depend on anything. God has no parents and no children.According to Islam, God is neither a material nor a spiritual being. According to Islamic teachings, beyond the Throne (al-ʾArsh)Britannica Encyclopedia, ''Islam'', p. 3 and according to the Quran, "No vision can grasp him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things." In Islam there is only one God and there are 99 names of that one God (' lit. meaning: "The best names"), each of which evokes a distinct attribute ...
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Monotheism
Monotheism is the belief in one god. A narrower definition of monotheism is the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscient.Cross, F.L.; Livingstone, E.A., eds. (1974). "Monotheism". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. A distinction may be made between exclusive monotheism, and both inclusive monotheism and pluriform (panentheistic) monotheism which, while recognising various distinct gods, postulate some underlying unity. Monotheism is distinguished from henotheism, a religious system in which the believer worships one god without denying that others may worship different gods with equal validity, and monolatrism, the recognition of the existence of many gods but with the consistent worship of only one deity. The term ''monolatry'' was perhaps first used by Julius Wellhausen. The broader definition of monotheism characterizes the traditions of Bábism, the Baháʼí ...
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Arabic Language
Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet C. E.Watson; Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin/Boston, 2011. It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the Arabian Peninsula bounded by eastern Egypt in the west, Mesopotamia in the east, and the Anti-Lebanon mountains and Northern Syria in the north, as perceived by ancient Greek geographers The ISO assigns language codes to thirty varieties of Arabic, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, also referred to as Literary Arabic, which is modernized Classical Arabic. This distinction exists primarily among Western linguists; Arabic speakers themselves generally do not distinguish between Modern Standard Arabic and Classical Arabic, but rather refe ...
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Bengali Language
Bengali (), also known by its endonym Bangla ( ), is an Indo-Aryan language and the ''lingua franca'' of the Bengal region of Indian subcontinent. It is the most widely spoken language of Bangladesh and the second most widely spoken of the 22 scheduled languages of India, after Hindi. With approximately 228 million native speakers and another 37 million as second language speakers, Bengali is the fifth most-spoken native language and the seventh most spoken language by total number of speakers in the world. Bengali is the official and national language of Bangladesh, with 98% of Bangladeshis using Bengali as their first language. Within India, Bengali is the official language of the states of West Bengal, Tripura and the Barak Valley region of the state of Assam. It is the most widely spoken language in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as well in the Bay of Bengal, and is spoken by significant populations in other states including Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Chhattisgarh, Jharkha ...
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Prayer In Cairo 1865
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship through deliberate communication. In the narrow sense, the term refers to an act of supplication or intercession directed towards a deity (a god), or a deified ancestor. More generally, prayer can also have the purpose of thanksgiving or praise, and in comparative religion is closely associated with more abstract forms of meditation and with charms or spells. Prayer can take a variety of forms: it can be part of a set liturgy or ritual, and it can be performed alone or in groups. Prayer may take the form of a hymn, incantation, formal creedal statement, or a spontaneous utterance in the praying person. The act of prayer is attested in written sources as early as 5000 years ago. Today, most major religions involve prayer in one way or another; some ritualize the act, requiring a strict sequence of actions or placing a restriction on who is permitted to pray, while others teach that prayer m ...
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