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Foreign Relations Of South Africa During Apartheid
Foreign relations of South Africa during apartheid refers to the foreign relations of South Africa between 1948 and the early 1990s. South Africa introduced ''apartheid'' in 1948, as a systematic extension of pre-existing racial discrimination laws. Initially the regime implemented an offensive foreign policy trying to consolidate South African hegemony over Southern Africa. These attempts had clearly failed by the late 1970s. As a result of its racism, occupation of Namibia and foreign interventionism in Angola, the country became increasingly isolated internationally. Initial relations In the aftermath of World War II and the Nazi Holocaust, the Western world quickly distanced itself from ideas of racial dominanceSee Borstelmann, Thomas; ‘Jim Crow’s coming out: Race relations and American foreign policy in the Truman years’; ''Presidential Studies Quarterly''; volume 29, issue 3, (September 1999), pp. 549-569 and policies based on racial prejudice. Racially discriminatory ...
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Foreign Relations Of South Africa
The foreign relations of South Africa have spanned from the country's time as Dominion of the British Empire to its isolationist policies under Apartheid to its position as a responsible international actor taking a key role in Africa, particularly Southern Africa. South Africa is a member of the United Nations, the African Union and the Commonwealth of Nations. Considered a possible permanent addition to the United Nations Security Council, South Africa was elected in 2006 and again in 2010 by the UN General Assembly to serve on the Security Council, which it did until 31 December 2012. Since, South Africa has also been elected as member of the UNSC for the 2019–2020 period. South African President Cyril Ramaphosa is the current chair of the African Union, the second time South Africa has chaired the organisation since its formation in 2003. History Pre-Apartheid South Africa, as a key member of the British Empire and Commonwealth as a Dominion, fought alongside the United Ki ...
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United Nations Security Council Resolution 418
United Nations Security Council Resolution 418, adopted unanimously on 4 November 1977, imposed a mandatory arms embargo against South Africa. This resolution differed from the earlier Resolution 282, which was only voluntary. The embargo was subsequently tightened and extended by Resolution 591. The embargo was lifted by Resolution 919 following democratic elections in South Africa in 1994. Impact The embargo had a direct impact on South Africa in a number of ways: * Last-minute cancellation of the sale of D'Estienne d'Orves-class avisos and Agosta-class submarines by France. * The cancelation of the purchase of Saar 4 class missile boat from Israel, some of which had to be built covertly in South Africa instead. * South Africa's inability to purchase modern fighter aircraft to counter Cuban MiG-23s over the SAAF in the South African Border War. * The growth of the modern day multibillion-dollar South African arms industry. * The end of shipments by the United States of enrich ...
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Arms Embargo
An arms embargo is a restriction or a set of sanctions that applies either solely to weaponry or also to "dual-use technology." An arms embargo may serve one or more purposes: * to signal disapproval of the behavior of a certain actor * to maintain neutrality in an ongoing conflict * as a peace mechanism that is part of a peace process to resolve an armed conflict * to limit the ability of an actor to inflict violence on others * to weaken a country's military capabilities before a foreign intervention Historical examples Argentina US President Jimmy Carter imposed an arms embargo on the military government of Argentina in 1977 in response to human rights abuses. An arms embargo was put in place, along with other economic sanctions by the European Economic Community (EEC), within a week of the 1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands by Argentina, two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic. The European nations ended the embargo after the end of the ensuing Falklands War, a ...
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United Nations Security Council Resolution 181
United Nations Security Council Resolution 181, adopted on August 7, 1963, was concerned with an arms build-up by the Republic of South Africa and fears that those arms might be used to further the racial conflict in that country. The Council called upon the government of South Africa to abandon its policy of apartheid, as first requested to by Resolution 134 (1960), and called upon all states to voluntarily cease the sale and shipment of all arms, ammunition and other military equipment to South Africa. The resolution was adopted by nine votes to none; France and the United Kingdom abstained. However, the resolution had little immediate effect on the conduct of the regime in South Africa. See also *List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 101 to 200 (1953–1965) References External links * Text of the Resolution at undocs.orgResolution 181 United Nations Security Council Resolution 181 0181 0181 Category:August 1963 events {{Apartheid-sa-stub ...
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United Nations Security Council
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international peace and security, recommending the admission of new UN members to the General Assembly, and approving any changes to the UN Charter. Its powers include establishing peacekeeping operations, enacting international sanctions, and authorizing military action. The UNSC is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions on member states. Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created after World War II to address the failings of the League of Nations in maintaining world peace. It held its first session on 17 January 1946, and in the ensuing decades was largely paralyzed by the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies. Nevertheless, it authorized military interventions in the Korean War and the Congo Crisis and peacekeeping missions in the Suez Crisis, Cyprus, and West Ne ...
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UN General Assembly Resolution 1761
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761 was passed on 6 November 1962 in response to the racist policies of apartheid established by the South African Government. Condemnation of apartheid The resolution deemed apartheid and the policies enforcing it to be a violation of South Africa's obligations under the UN Charter and a threat to international peace and security. Call for a voluntary boycott Additionally, the resolution requested Member States to break off diplomatic relations with South Africa, to cease trading with South Africa (arms exports in particular), and to deny passage to South African ships and aircraft. Establishment of the UN Special Committee on Apartheid The resolution also established the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid.
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United Nations General Assembly
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no|Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), serving as the main deliberative, policy-making, and representative organ of the UN. Its powers, composition, functions, and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of the United Nations Charter. The UNGA is responsible for the UN budget, appointing the non-permanent members to the Security Council, appointing the Secretary-General of the United Nations, receiving reports from other parts of the UN system, and making recommendations through resolutions. It also establishes numerous subsidiary organs to advance or assist in its broad mandate. The UNGA is the only UN organ wherein all member states have equal representation. The General Assembly meets under its president or the UN secretary-general in annual sessions at UN headquarters in New York City; the main part of these meetings generally run from September to part of Januar ...
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Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( , ; 29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a Swedish economist and diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations. As of 2021, Hammarskjöld remains the youngest person to have held the Secretary-General post, having been only 47 years old when he was appointed in 1953. His second term was cut short when he died in the crash of his DC-6 airplane in Northern Rhodesia while en route to cease-fire negotiations during the Congo Crisis. He is the only person in history to be awarded a Nobel Peace Prize posthumously. Hammarskjöld has been referred to as one of the two best secretaries-general of the United Nations, and his appointment has been mentioned as the most notable success for the UN. US President John F. Kennedy called Hammarskjöld "the greatest statesman of our century."
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Republic Within The Commonwealth
The republics in the Commonwealth of Nations are the sovereign states in the organization with a republican form of government. As of 1 February 2021, 33 out of the 54 member states were republics. Elizabeth II, who is the monarch in the Commonwealth realms, is also still the titular Head of the Commonwealth organization (but not the head of the members of the Commonwealth) in a personal capacity, but this role does not carry with it any power; instead, it is a symbol of the free association of Commonwealth members. Except for the former Portuguese possession of Mozambique and the former Belgian trust territory of Rwanda, they are all former British (or partly British) colonies or self-governing colonies that have evolved into republics. Most of the Commonwealth's members achieved independence while keeping the British monarch as their own individual head of state (in a form of personal union) and later became republics within the Commonwealth by abolishing the monarchy. In some ...
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India
India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago. (a) (b) (c) Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity. Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river bas ...
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Commonwealth Of Nations
A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically it has sometimes been synonymous with "republic". The noun "commonwealth", meaning "public welfare, general good or advantage", dates from the 15th century. Originally a phrase (the common-wealth or the common wealth – echoed in the modern synonym "public wealth") it comes from the old meaning of "wealth", which is "well-being", and is itself a loose translation of the Latin res publica (republic). The term literally meant "common well-being". In the 17th century, the definition of "commonwealth" expanded from its original sense of "public welfare" or "commonweal" to mean "a state in which the supreme power is vested in the people; a republic or democratic state". The term evolved to become a title to a number of political entities. Three countries – Australia, The Bahamas, and Dominica – have the official title "Commonwealth", as do four U.S. states and two U.S. t ...
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South West Africa
South West Africa ( af|Suidwes-Afrika; german: Südwestafrika; nl|Zuidwest-Afrika) was the name for modern-day Namibia when it was under South African administration, from 1915 to 1990. Previously the colony of German South West Africa from 1884–1915, it was made a League of Nations mandate of the British-ruled Union of South Africa following Germany’s defeat in World War I. Although the mandate was abolished by the UN in 1966, South African rule continued despite it being illegal under international law. The territory was administered directly by the South African government from 1915 to 1978, when the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference laid the groundwork for semi-autonomous rule. During an interim period between 1978 and 1985, South Africa gradually granted South West Africa a limited form of home rule, culminating in the formation of a Transitional Government of National Unity. In 1990, South West Africa was granted independence as the Republic of Namibia with the excep ...
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British Monarchy
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies (the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Isle of Man) and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952. The monarch and their immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial, diplomatic and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the prime minister, which are performed in a non-partisan manner. The monarch is also Head of the British Armed Forces. Though the ultimate executive authority over the government is still formally by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in Parliament and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent. The Government of the Unit ...
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1960 South Africa Referendum
A referendum on becoming a republic was held in South Africa on 5 October 1960. The Afrikaner-dominated right-wing National Party, which had come to power in 1948, was avowedly republican, and regarded the position of Queen Elizabeth II as head of state as a relic of British imperialism.South Africa: A War Won
''TIME'', 9 June 1961
The National Party government subsequently organised the referendum on whether the then Union of South Africa should become a
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