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Seleucus III Ceraunus
Seleucus III Soter, called Seleucus Ceraunus (Greek: Σέλευκος Γ΄ ὁ Σωτήρ, ὁ Κεραυνός; c. 243 BC – 223 BC), was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Kingdom, the eldest son of Seleucus II Callinicus
Seleucus II Callinicus
and Laodice II. His birth name was Alexander and he was named after his great uncle the Seleucid official Alexander. Alexander changed his name to Seleucus after he succeeded his father as King. After a brief reign of three years (225–223 BC), Seleucus was assassinated in Anatolia
Anatolia
by members of his army while on campaign against Attalus I
Attalus I
of Pergamon. His official byname Soter means "Saviour", while his nickname Ceraunus means "Thunderbolt".Seleucus III Ceraunus Seleucid dynasty Born: c
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Soter
Soter derives from the Greek epithet σωτήρ (sōtēr), meaning a saviour, a deliverer; initial capitalised Σωτήρ; fully capitalised ΣΩΤΗΡ; feminine Soteria (Σωτηρία)
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Ptolemy IX Lathyros
Ptolemy IX Soter II[note 1] (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Saviour"), commonly nicknamed Lathyros (Λάθυρος, Láthuros "grass pea") was king of Egypt three times. During his first two reigns from 116 BC to 110 BC and 109 BC to 107 BC, he was deposed by his mother, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III, and brother, Ptolemy X
Ptolemy X
Alexander I. He ruled Egypt once more from his brother’s death in 88 BC to his own death in 81 BC.Contents1 Biography 2 Successors 3 Ancestry 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Ptolemy IX was the son of Ptolemy VIII
Ptolemy VIII
and Cleopatra III
Cleopatra III
of Egypt.[1] He married his sister Cleopatra IV
Cleopatra IV
in 119 or 118 BC.[2] Ptolemy VIII died in 116 BC, wishing that Cleopatra III
Cleopatra III
would rule with one of her sons
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Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
(Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 309–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice, and was educated by Philitas of Cos. He had two half-brothers, Ptolemy Keraunos and Meleager, who both became kings of Macedonia (in 281 BCE and 279 BCE respectively), and who both died in the Gallic invasion of 280–279 BCE. Ptolemy was first married to Arsinoë I, daughter of Lysimachus, who was the mother of his legitimate children; after her repudiation he married his full sister Arsinoë II, the widow of Lysimachus.[2] During Ptolemy's reign, the material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height
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Ptolemy III Euergetes
Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης Ancient Egyptian: Iwaennetjerwysenwy Sekhemankhre Setepamun[1]Gold coin depicting Ptolemy III issued by Ptolemy IV
Ptolemy IV
to honor his deified fatherKing of EgyptReign 246–222 BC (Ptolemaic)Predecessor Ptolemy IISuccessor Ptolemy IVRoyal titularyPrenomen  (Praenomen)jwꜤ-n-nṯrwj-snwj stp.n-rꜤ sḫm-Ꜥnḫ-n-jmn Iwaensenwinetjerwy setepenre sekhemankhenamun The heir of the two divine brothers, chosen by Ra, the living image of AmunNomenptwlmys Ꜥnḫ
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Ptolemy IV Philopator
Ptolemy IV Philopator[note 1] (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr "Ptolemy Beloved of his Father"; reigned 221–204 BC), son of Ptolemy III
Ptolemy III
and Berenice II, was the fourth Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Ptolemaic Egypt
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Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Ptolemy V Epiphanes[note 1] (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Ἐπιφανής, Ptolemaĩos Epiphanḗs "Ptolemy the Illustrious"); reigned 204–181 BC), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator
Ptolemy IV Philopator
and Arsinoe III of Egypt, was the fifth ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty. He inherited the throne at the age of five, and under a series of regents, the kingdom was paralyzed. The Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone
was produced during his reign as an adult.Contents1 Reign1.1 Regency infighting 1.2 War with the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
and Macedonia 1.3 The Egyptian Revolt2 Succession 3 Legacy 4 Notes 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksReign[edit] Regency infighting[edit]Ptolemaic Empire in 200 BC, during the reign of Ptolemy V (before the second invasion of Antiochus III)Ptolemy Epiphanes was only a small boy when his father, Ptolemy Philopator, died
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Cleopatra I Syra
Cleopatra
Cleopatra
I Syra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Σύρα; c. 204 – 176 BC) was a princess of the Seleucid Empire, Queen of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
by marriage to Ptolemy V
Ptolemy V
of Egypt, and regent of Egypt
Egypt
during the minority of their son, Ptolemy VI, from her husband’s death in 180 BC until her own death in 176 BC.Contents1 Life1.1 Queen 1.2 Regent2 Issue 3 Ancestry 4 Notes 5 ReferencesLife[edit] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
I was the daughter of Antiochus III the Great, King of the Seleucid Empire, and Queen Laodice III. Queen[edit] In 197 BC, Antiochus III had captured a number of cities in Asia Minor previously under the control of the Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt. The Romans supported the Egyptian interests, when they negotiated with the Seleucid king in Lysimachia in 196 BC
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Ptolemy VI Philometor
Ptolemy VI Philometor[note 1] (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλομήτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philomḗtōr "Ptolemy Beloved of his Mother"); c. 186–145 BC) was a king of Egypt from the Ptolemaic period. He reigned from 180 to 145 BC.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Ancestry 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit]Ring of Ptolemy VI Philometor
Ptolemy VI Philometor
as Egyptian pharaoh (Louvre)Ptolemy succeeded in 180 BC at the age of about 6 and ruled jointly with his mother, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
I, until her death in 176 BC, which is what 'Philometor', his epithet, implies; "he who loves his mother", φίλος (beloved,friend) + μήτηρ (mother)
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Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator
Philopator (Greek: Φιλοπάτωρ), meaning "father-loving", was a common royal epithet among Hellenistic
Hellenistic
monarchs:Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator, Seleucid King Ariarathes V Eusebes Philopator, King of Cappadocia Ariarathes IX Eusebes Philopator, King of Cappadocia Ariarathes VI Epiphanes Philopator, King of Cappadocia Ariobarzanes II Philopator, King of Cappadocia Arsin
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Cleopatra II Of Egypt
Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα; c. 185 BC – 116 BC) was a queen of Ptolemaic Egypt
Ptolemaic Egypt
who ruled from 175 to 116 BC, with her brothers and (respective first and eventual second) husbands, Ptolemy VI and Ptolemy VIII, and her daughter Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III—often in rivalry with Ptolemy VIII. She was sole ruler of Egypt from 131 BC to 127 BC.Contents1 Life1.1 Early life 1.2 First co-regency 1.3 Second co-regency 1.4 Sole regency 1.5 Third co-regency2 Children 3 Ancestry 4 ReferencesLife[edit] Early life[edit]This head of an Egyptian Ptolemaic queen likely depicts Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II was the daughter of Ptolemy V
Ptolemy V
and likely Cleopatra
Cleopatra
I
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Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Second Horus name: ḥwnw ḥkn.tw-ḥr-nst-jt.f tjt-ḏsr(t)-nt-nsw-nṯrw stp-n-jmn-ḏs.f Hunu hekentuhernesutitef titdjeser(et)netnesunetjeru setepenamundjesef The youthful one, about whose father’s throne one is joyful, the sacred image of the king of the gods, chosen by Atum himselfThird Horus name: ḥwnw ḥri-tp-pḏt zꜢ-wsjrj msj-n-Ꜣst šzp-n.f-nsyt-rꜤ-mꜤ-jt.f Hunu heryteppedjet zausiry mesyenaset shesepenefnesytramaitef The youthful one, leader of the Nine Bows, the son of Osiris, whom Isis has borne, who has received for himself the kingship of Ra from his father’s handNebty nameshrw-jb-tꜢwj Seheruibtawy Who has pleased the Two LandsGolden Horuswr-pḥtj nb-ḥbw-sd-mj-jt.f-ptḥ-tꜢ-ṯnn-jt-nṯrw-jty-mj-rꜤ Werpehty nebhabusedmitefptahtatjenenitnetjeruitymire The one great of strength, a possessor of Sed festivals like his father Ptah Tatenen, the father of the gods, and a sovereign like RaConsort
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Cleopatra III Of Egypt
Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα; c.160–101 BC) was a queen of Egypt. She ruled at first with her mother Cleopatra II
Cleopatra II
and her husband (and uncle) Ptolemy VIII
Ptolemy VIII
from 142 to 131 BC and again from 127 to 116 BC. She later ruled with her sons Ptolemy IX
Ptolemy IX
and Ptolemy X
Ptolemy X
from 116 to 101 BC. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III was also known as Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Euergetis while associated with her husband Ptolemy VIII
Ptolemy VIII
or her son Ptolemy X. She is attested as Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Philometor Soteira while associated with her eldest son Ptolemy IX
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Ptolemy X Alexander I
Ptolemy X Alexander I[note 1] (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Ἀλέξανδρος, Ptolemaĩos Aléxandros) was King of Egypt from 110 BC to 109 BC and 107 BC till 88 BC.Contents1 Life 2 Notes 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] He was the son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Ptolemy VIII Physcon
and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III. In 110 BC he became King with his mother as co-regent, after his mother had deposed his brother Ptolemy IX
Ptolemy IX
Lathyros. However, in 109 BC he was deposed by Ptolemy IX. In 107 BC he became King again with his mother as co-regent. In 101 BC he had his mother killed, and ruled either alone or with his niece/wife, Berenice III. Ptolemy X was exiled around 88 BC when his citizens and army turned against him
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Ptolemy I Soter
With Thaïs
Thaïs
(mistress):Lagus Leontiscus EirenWith Eurydice:Ptolemy Keraunos Meleager Argaeus Lysandra PtolemaisWith Berenice I:Ptolemy Philadelphus Arsinoe II PhiloteraFather Lagus or Philip II of MacedonMother ArsinoeBorn C. 367 BC MacedonDied 283/2 BC (aged 84) Alexandria, EgyptPtolemy I Soter (/ˈtɒləmi/; Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek[1][2][3][4][5] general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi
Diadochi
who succeeded to his empire
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Berenice III Of Egypt
Berenice III (Greek: Βερενίκη; 120–80 BC), sometimes called Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Berenice, ruled as queen of Egypt
Egypt
from 81 to 80 BC, and possibly from 101 to 88 BC jointly with her uncle/husband Ptolemy X Alexander I.[1]Contents1 Early life and marriage 2 Reign 3 Legacy 4 ReferencesEarly life and marriage[edit] She was born in 120 BC, the daughter of Ptolemy IX Lathyros and supposedly Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Selene. She married her uncle Ptolemy X Alexander I in 101 BC, after he took the throne from Lathyros and had his mother (and her grandmother) Cleopatra III killed
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