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SCSP
The YMF292, aka SCSP (Saturn Custom Sound Processor) is a multi-function sound chip developed by Yamaha for the Sega
Sega
Saturn, and was also used in Sega's arcade version of the Saturn, the ST-V, along with the Model 2 and Model 3. For sound generation, the SCSP contains 32 sound generators which can function in either FM synthesis or PCM digital audio mode. The sound generation hardware is then fed into the FH-1 128-step sound effects Digital Signal Processor, which includes 16 sound effect presets. Finally each audio channel is mixed together, with fully configurable channel combining for various levels of FM generation complexity. This allowed the channels to modulate each other, in practice four generators were connected at a time but all 32 generators could be combined into one channel if desired
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Shortest Common Supersequence Problem
In computer science, the shortest common supersequence of two sequences X and Y is the shortest sequence which has X and Y as subsequences. This is a problem closely related to the longest common subsequence problem. Given two sequences X = < x1,...,xm > and Y = < y1,...,yn >, a sequence U = < u1,...,uk > is a common supersequence of X and Y if items can be removed from U to produce X or Y. A shortest common supersequence (SCS) is a common supersequence of minimal length. In the shortest common supersequence problem, the two sequences X and Y are given and the task is to find a shortest possible common supersequence of these sequences. In general, an SCS is not unique. For two input sequences, an SCS can be formed from a longest common subsequence (LCS) easily
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Programmable Interrupt Controller
In computing, a programmable interrupt controller (PIC) is a device that is used to combine several sources of interrupt onto one or more CPU
CPU
lines, while allowing priority levels to be assigned to its interrupt outputs. When the device has multiple interrupt outputs to assert, it asserts them in the order of their relative priority. Common modes of a PIC include hard priorities, rotating priorities, and cascading priorities.[citation needed] PICs often allow the cascading of their outputs to inputs between each other.Contents1 Common features 2 Well-known types 3 More information 4 See also 5 External linksCommon features[edit] PICs typically have a common set of registers: Interrupt
Interrupt
Request Register (IRR), In-Service Register (ISR), Interrupt
Interrupt
Mask Register (IMR)
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Sound Chip
A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i.e. "chip") designed to produce sound. It might do this through digital, analog or mixed-mode electronics. Sound
Sound
chips normally contain things like oscillators, envelope controllers, samplers, filters and amplifiers
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Digital Signal Processor
A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.[1][2] The goal of DSPs is usually to measure, filter or compress continuous real-world analog signals
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Programmable Sound Generator
A programmable sound generator, or PSG, is a sound chip that generates sound waves by synthesizing multiple basic waveforms, and often some kind of noise generator (all controlled by writing data to dedicated registers in the sound chip, hence the name) and combining and mixing these waveforms into a complex waveform, then shaping the amplitude envelope of the resulting waveform using attack, decay, sustain, and release time periods, so that the resulting waveform then mimics a certain kind of sound. They were, and are, often used in arcade games, game consoles, and home computers. Examples[edit] The most used (canonical example) was the AY-3-8910 from General Instrument (or its derivatives AY-3-8912/AY-3-8913), the SN76489 from Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
and the Yamaha YM2149, a AY-3-8910 made under license. Yamaha also brought out the YM2203 and YM2608 chips on the market, these were also capable of FM synthesis
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Random-access Memory
Random-access memory
Random-access memory
(RAM /ræm/) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memory, the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement. RAM contains multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry, to connect the data lines to the addressed storage for reading or writing the entry. Usually more than one bit of storage is accessed by the same address, and RAM devices often have multiple data lines and are said to be "8-bit" or "16-bit", etc
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Digital-to-analog Converter
In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) performs the reverse function. There are several DAC architectures; the suitability of a DAC for a particular application is determined by figures of merit including: resolution, maximum sampling frequency and others. Digital-to-analog conversion can degrade a signal, so a DAC should be specified that has insignificant errors in terms of the application. DACs are commonly used in music players to convert digital data streams into analog audio signals. They are also used in televisions and mobile phones to convert digital video data into analog video signals which connect to the screen drivers to display monochrome or color images. These two applications use DACs at opposite ends of the frequency/resolution trade-off
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Digital Signal Processor
A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.[1][2] The goal of DSPs is usually to measure, filter or compress continuous real-world analog signals
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Pulse-code Modulation
Pulse-code modulation
Pulse-code modulation
(PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, compact discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications
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Frequency Modulation Synthesis
Spectra for each βIn audio and music, frequency modulation synthesis (or FM synthesis) is a form of audio synthesis where the timbre of a simple waveform (such as a square, triangle, or sawtooth) is changed by modulating its frequency with a modulator frequency that is also in the same or similar audio range, resulting in a more complex waveform and a different-sounding tone that can also be described as "gritty" if it is a thick and dark timbre. The frequency of an oscillator is altered or distorted, "in accordance with the amplitude of a modulating signal." (Dodge & Jerse 1997, p. 115) FM synthesis can create both harmonic and inharmonic sounds. For synthesizing harmonic sounds, the modulating signal must have a harmonic relationship to the original carrier signal. As the amount of frequency modulation increases, the sound grows progressively more complex. Through the use of modulators with frequencies that are non-integer multiples of the carrier signal (i.e
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Sega
Sega
Sega
Games Co., Ltd. (Japanese: 株式会社セガゲームス, Hepburn: Kabushiki gaisha
Kabushiki gaisha
Sega
Sega
Gēmusu), originally short for Service Games and officially styled as SEGA, is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, with offices around the world. Sega
Sega
developed and manufactured numerous home video game consoles from 1983 to 2001, but after financial losses incurred from its Dreamcast
Dreamcast
console, the company restructured to focus on providing software as a third-party developer
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Yamaha Corporation
Coordinates: 34°43′03″N 137°43′58″E / 34.7174427°N 137.7328659°E / 34.7174427; 137.7328659 "Yamaha" redirects here
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Yamaha YM2612
The YM2612, a.k.a. OPN2, is a sound chip developed by Yamaha. It belongs to Yamaha's OPN family of FM synthesis chips used in several game and computer systems.Contents1 Overview 2 Features 3 Technical details3.1 Output DAC peculiarities 3.2 Variants3.2.1 Yamaha YM3438 3.2.2 Yamaha YMF276 3.2.3 Yamaha Fx1004 and FJ30024 Game audio 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOverview[edit] The Yamaha YM2612
Yamaha YM2612
is a six-channel FM synthesizer, based on the Yamaha YM2203C
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Yamaha DSP-1
The Yamaha DSP-1 is a processor of early home theater surround sound equipment, produced in 1985. The DSP-1 (referred to by Yamaha as a Digital Soundfield Processor) allowed owners to synthesize up to 6-channels of surround sound from 2 channel stereo sound via a complex digital signal processor (DSP). Much like today's home theater receivers the DSP-1 offered sixteen "sound fields" created through the DSP including a jazz club, a cathedral, a concert hall, and a stadium. However, unlike today's integrated amps and receivers, these soundfield modes were highly editable, allowing the owner to customize the effect to his or her own personal taste. The DSP-1 also included an analog Dolby Surround
Dolby Surround
decoder as well as other effects such as real-time echo and pitch change. Most of the DSP-1's controls are on the unit's remote control
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