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Rebaudioside
Steviol
Steviol
glycosides are the chemical compounds responsible for the sweet taste of the leaves of the South American plant Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) and the main ingredients (or precursors) of many sweeteners marketed under the generic name stevia and several trade names
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Isoprene
Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2=C(CH3)−CH=CH2. In its pure form it is a colorless volatile liquid. Isoprene
Isoprene
is produced by many plants, and its polymers are the main component of natural rubber. C. G. Williams named the compound in 1860 after obtaining it from thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) of natural rubber; he correctly deduced the empirical formula C5H8.[1][2]Contents1 Natural occurrences1.1 Plants1.1.1 Regulation1.2 Other organisms2 Biological roles2.1 Isoprenoids3 Impact on aerosols 4 Industrial production 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksNatural occurrences[edit] Isoprene
Isoprene
is produced and emitted by many species of trees (major producers are oaks, poplars, eucalyptus, and some legumes)
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Acetal
An acetal is a functional group with the following connectivity R2C(OR')2, where both R' groups are organic fragments. The central carbon atom has four bonds to it, and is therefore saturated and has tetrahedral geometry. The two R'O groups may be equivalent to each other or not. The two R groups can be equivalent to each other (a "symmetric acetal") or not (a "mixed acetal"), and one or both can even be hydrogen atoms rather than organic fragments. Acetals are formed from and convertible to carbonyl compounds (aldehydes or ketones R2C=O). The term ketal is sometimes used to identify structures associated with ketones rather than aldehydes and, historically, the term acetal was used specifically for the aldehyde cases.[1] Formation of an acetal occurs when the hydroxyl group of a hemiacetal becomes protonated and is lost as water. The carbocation that is produced is then rapidly attacked by a molecule of alcohol
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Stevioside
Stevioside
Stevioside
is a glycoside derived from the stevia plant, which can be used as a sweetener.[1] Evidence of benefit is lacking for long term effects on weight loss and heart disease risks.[2] Origin[edit] Stevioside
Stevioside
is the main sweetener with rebaudioside A, found in the leaves of Stevia
Stevia
rebaudiana, a plant originating in South America. Dried leaves, as well as aqueous extracts, have been used for decades as a sweetener in many countries, notably in Latin America and Asia (Japan, China).[3] Stevioside
Stevioside
was discovered in 1931 by French chemists who gave it its name.[3] The sweetening power of stevioside was estimated to be about 300 times stronger than cane sugar.[3] See also[edit]Steviol glycosideReferences[edit]^ Ceunen S, Geuns JM (June 2013). "Steviol glycosides: chemical diversity, metabolism, and function". Journal of Natural Products
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Biosynthesis
Biosynthesis
Biosynthesis
(also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides. The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes (e.g.NADH, NADPH). These elements create monomers, the building blocks for macromolecules
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Plastid
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a major double-membrane organelle[1] found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms. Plastids were discovered and named by Ernst Haeckel, but A. F. W. Schimper was the first to grant them a clear definition. Plastids are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cell. They often contain pigments used in photosynthesis, and the types of pigments in a plastid determine the cell's color. They have a common evolutionary origin and possess a double-stranded DNA
DNA
molecule that is circular, like that of prokaryotic cells
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Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae. The membranes of the ER are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane. The endoplasmic reticulum occurs in most types of eukaryotic cells, but is absent from red blood cells and spermatozoa. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: rough and smooth. The outer (cytosolic) face of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes that are the sites of protein synthesis. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is especially prominent in cells such as hepatocytes. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes and functions in lipid manufacture and metabolism, the production of steroid hormones, and detoxification.[1] The smooth ER is especially abundant in mammalian liver and gonad cells
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Glycosylation
Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor). In biology glycosylation mainly refers in particular to the enzymatic process that attaches glycans to proteins, lipids, or other organic molecules. This enzymatic process produces one of the fundamental biopolymers found in cells (along with DNA, RNA, and proteins). Glycosylation is a form of co-translational and post-translational modification. Glycans serve a variety of structural and functional roles in membrane and secreted proteins.[1] The majority of proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum undergo glycosylation. It is an enzyme-directed site-specific process, as opposed to the non-enzymatic chemical reaction of glycation
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Cytoplasm
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus. It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryotic organisms (such as bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryotic organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless.[1] The submicroscopic ground cell substance or cytoplasmatic matrix which remains after exclusion the cell organelles and particles is groundplasm
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Glucosyltransferases
Glucosyltransferases are a type of glycosyltransferase that enable the transfer of glucose.[1] Examples include:glycogen synthase glycogen phosphorylaseThey are categorized under EC number 2.4.1. References[edit]^ edited by Ajit Varki ... (2009). Essentials of Glycobiology. Ajit Varki (ed.) (2nd ed.). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories Press. ISBN 978-0-87969-770-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)External links[edit]Glucosyltransferases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)This EC 2.4 enzyme-related article is a stub
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Molecule
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.[4][5][6][7][8] Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge. However, in quantum physics, organic chemistry, and biochemistry, the term molecule is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions. In the kinetic theory of gases, the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are monoatomic molecules.[9] A molecule may be homonuclear, that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element, as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear, a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O)
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Non-mevalonate Pathway
The non-mevalonate pathway—also appearing as the mevalonate-independent pathway and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate/1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (MEP/DOXP) pathway—is an alternative metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursors isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP).[1][2][3] The currently preferred name for this pathway is the MEP pathway, since MEP is the first committed metabolite on the route to IPP.Contents1 Isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis 2 Reactions 3 Inhibition and other pathway research 4 References 5 Further readingIsoprenoid precursor biosynthesis[edit] The classical mevalonate pathway or HMG-CoA reductase
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Hydroxyl
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH. It contains oxygen bonded to hydrogen. In organic chemistry, alcohol and carboxylic acids contain hydroxy groups. The anion [OH−], called hydroxide, consists of a hydroxy group. According to IUPAC rules, the term hydroxyl refers to the radical OH only, while the functional group −OH is called hydroxy group.[1]Contents1 Properties 2 Occurrence 3 Hydroxyl radical 4 Lunar and other extraterrestrial observations 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksProperties[edit] Water, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and many other hydroxy-containing compounds can be deprotonated readily. This behavior is rationalized by the disparate electronegativities of oxygen and hydrogen. Hydroxy-containing compounds engage in hydrogen bonding, which causes them to stick together, leading to higher boiling and melting points than found for compounds that lack this functional group
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Primary Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolism
(from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments
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Pyruvic Acid
Pyruvic acid
Pyruvic acid
(CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group
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