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Dentist
A dentist, also known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist's supporting team aids in providing oral health services. The dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and in some states, dental therapists.Contents1 History1.1 Middle Ages 1.2 Modern dentistry2 Training 3 Responsibilities 4 Specialties 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Middle Ages[edit] In China as well as France, the first people to perform dentistry were barbers. They have been categorized into 2 distinct groups: guild of barbers and lay barbers. The first group, the Guild of Barbers, was created to distinguish more educated and qualified dental surgeons from lay barbers
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Hypnotic
Hypnotic
Hypnotic
(from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep[1] and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.[note 1] This group is related to sedatives. Where as the term sedative describes drugs that serve to calm or relieve anxiety, the term hypnotic generally describes drugs whose main purpose is to initiate, sustain, or lengthen sleep
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Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. In short, trying to work out why certain people are getting ill. It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists help with study design, collection, and statistical analysis of data, amend interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and occasional systematic review)
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Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics
Science, Technology, Engineering
Engineering
and Mathematics
Mathematics
(STEM), previously Science, Math, Engineering, and Technology (SMET), is a term used to group together these academic disciplines.[1] This term is typically used when addressing education policy and curriculum choices in schools to improve competitiveness in science and technology development. It has implications for workforce development, national security concerns and immigration policy.[1] The acronym arose in common use shortly after an interagency meeting science education held at the US National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
chaired by the then NSF director Rita Colwell.[2] A director from the Office of Science division of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists, Peter Faletra, suggested the change from the older acronym METS to STEM
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Antibiotic
Antibiotics
Antibiotics
(from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called antibacterials, are a type of antimicrobial[1] drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.[2][3] They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria
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PGY-1
PGY, short for postgraduate year, refers to a North American numerical scheme denoting the progress of postgraduate dental, medicine, podiatry or pharmacy residents in their residency programs. It is used to stratify responsibility in most training programs and to determine salary. The grade of the resident is denoted with a numeral after the PGY designation, such as PGY-3 for a third-year resident. The length of residency depends mostly on the field a graduate chooses to take. Medical specialties such as family medicine and internal medicine often requires three years, whereas surgery usually requires a minimum of five, and neurological surgery is the longest at seven years
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Continuing Education
Continuing education (similar to further education in the United Kingdom and Ireland) is an all-encompassing term within a broad list of post-secondary learning activities and programs. The term is used mainly in the United States and Canada. Recognized forms of post-secondary learning activities within the domain include: degree credit courses by non-traditional students, non-degree career training, workforce training, and formal personal enrichment courses (both on-campus and online).[1][2] General continuing education is similar to adult education, at least in being intended for adult learners, especially those beyond traditional undergraduate college or university age. Frequently, in the United States and Canada continuing education courses are delivered through a division or school of continuing education of a college or university known sometimes as the university extension or extension school
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Mouth
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris,[1] is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds. It is also the cavity lying at the upper end of the alimentary canal, bounded on the outside by the lips and inside by the pharynx and containing in higher vertebrates the tongue and teeth.[2] This cavity is also known as the buccal cavity, from the Latin bucca ("cheek").[3] Some animal phyla, including vertebrates, have a complete digestive system, with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other
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Surgeon
In medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations. There are also surgeons in podiatry, dentistry and the veterinary fields.Contents1 History 2 Titles in the Commonwealth 3 Military titles 4 Specialties 5 Pioneer surgeons 6 Organizations and fellowships 7 ReferencesHistory[edit]Al-Zahrawi, the Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age
physician widely considered one of the '"Fathers of Modern Surgery"The first person to document a surgery was the 6th Century BC Indian physician-surgeon, Sushruta. He specialised in cosmetic plastic surgery and had documented even an operation of open rhinoplasty[1]. His magnum opus Suśruta-saṃhitā is one of the most important surviving ancient treatises on medicine and is considered a foundational text of Ayurveda and surgery. The treatise addresses all aspects of general medicine, but the translator G. D
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Sedative
A sedative or tranquilliser[1] is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability[2] or excitement.[3] They are central nervous depressants and interact with brain activity causing its deceleration. Various kinds of sedatives can be distinguished, but the majority of them affect the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which are brain chemicals performing communication between brain cells. In spite of the fact that each sedative acts in its own way, they produce beneficial relaxing effect by increasing GABA activity.[4] At higher doses it may result in slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepines, when used as a hypnotic to induce sleep, tend to be higher than amounts used to relieve anxiety, whereas only low doses are needed to provide a peaceful effect.[5] Sedatives can be misused to produce an overly-calming effect (alcohol being the classic and most common sedating drug)
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Dental Pulp
The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. The dental pulp is a part of the dentin–pulp complex (endodontium).[1] The vitality of the dentin-pulp complex, both during health and after injury, depends on pulp cell activity and the signaling processes that regulate the cell’s behavior.[2]Contents1 Anatomy 2 Development 3 Internal structure3.1 The plexus of Raschkow4 Functions 5 Pulp Testing 6 Reversible Pulpitis6.1 Common Causes [6] 6.2 Symptoms [6] 6.3 Prevention [6]7 Irreversible Pulpitis 8 Complications 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksAnatomy[edit]Pulps of two extracted, not fully developed wisdom teeth, photographed from below.The pulp is the neurovascular bundle central to each tooth, permanent or primary. It comprises a central pulp chamber, pulp horns and radicular canals
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Pain Killer
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. Analgesic
Analgesic
drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems
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Doctor Of Medicine
A Doctor of Medicine
Medicine
(MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In some countries, the MD denotes a first professional graduate degree awarded upon initial graduation from medical school.[1] In other countries, the MD denotes an academic research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or advanced clinical coursework degree restricted to medical graduates; in those countries, the equivalent first professional degree is titled differently (for example, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of
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Dental Admissions Test
US$ 445 [1] ("Fee Assistance Program" available to U.S. citizens, permanent residents or refugees, demonstrating financial need.[1])Scores / grades used by Dental colleges (mostly in United States and Canada).Website www.ada.org/en/education-careers/dental-admission-test/The Dental Admission Test (abbreviated DAT) is a multiple-choice standardized exam taken by potential dental school students in the United States and Canada (although there is a separate Canadian version with differing sections, both American and Canadian versions are usually interchangeably accepted in both countries' dental schools. This article will specifically describe the American DAT). The DAT is a computer based test that can be administered almost any day of the year. Tests are taken at Prometric testing centers throughout the United States after the preliminary application through the American Dental Association
American Dental Association
is completed
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Local Anesthetic
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well. Also, when it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) also can be achieved. Clinical LAs belong to one of two classes: aminoamide and aminoester local anesthetics
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Pathology
Pathology
Pathology
(from the Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" whence the English word "path" is derived by transliteration, and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant component of the causal study of pathogens and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis. Hence, 'the study of paths', by which disease comes. The term pathology itself may be used broadly to refer to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices (including plant pathology and veterinary pathology), or more narrowly to describe work within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology," which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease—mostly through analysis of tissue, cell, and body fluid samples
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