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Credit Card Interest
Credit card
Credit card
interest is the principal way in which credit card issuers generate revenue. A card issuer is a bank or credit union that gives a consumer (the cardholder) a card or account number that can be used with various payees to make payments and borrow money from the bank simultaneously. The bank pays the payee and then charges the cardholder interest over the time the money remains borrowed. Banks suffer losses when cardholders do not pay back the borrowed money as agreed. As a result, optimal calculation of interest based on any information they have about the cardholder's credit risk is key to a card issuer's profitability
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Finance
Finance
Finance
is a field that deals with the study of investments. It includes the dynamics of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of different degrees of uncertainties and risks. Finance can also be defined as the science of money management. Market participants aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, and their expected rate of return
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Financial Statement
Financial statements
Financial statements
(or financial report) is a formal record of the financial activities and position of a business, person, or other entity. Relevant financial information is presented in a structured manner and in a form easy to understand. They typically include basic financial statements, accompanied by a management discussion and analysis:[1]A balance sheet or statement of financial position, reports on a company's assets, liabilities, and owners equity at a given point in time. An income statement or statement of comprehensive income, statement of revenue & expense, P&L or profit and loss report, reports on a company's income, expenses, and profits over a period of time. A profit and loss statement provides information on the operation of the enterprise
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Security (finance)
A security is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of financial instrument, but its legal definition varies by jurisdiction. In some jurisdictions the term specifically excludes financial instruments other than equities and fixed income instruments. In some jurisdictions it includes some instruments that are close to equities and fixed income, e.g., equity warrants
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Stock
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners. A single share of the stock represents fractional ownership of the corporation in proportion to the total number of shares. In liquidation, the stock represents the residual assets of the company that would be due to stockholders after discharge of all senior claims such as secured and unsecured debt. Stockholders' equity cannot be withdrawn from the company in a way that is intended to be detrimental to the company's creditors.[1]Contents1 Shares 2 Types2.1 Rule 144 stock3 Stock
Stock
derivatives 4 History 5 Shareholder 6 Application6.1 Shareholder rights 6.2 Means of financing7 Trading7.1 Buying 7.2 Selling 7.3 Stock
Stock
price fluctuations 7.4 Share price determination 7.5 Arbitrage trading8 See also 9 References 10 External linksShares[edit] The shares together form stock
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Time Deposit
A time deposit or term deposit (also known as a certificate of deposit in the United States) is a deposit with a specified period of maturity and earns interest.[1] It is a money deposit at a banking institution that cannot be withdrawn for a specific term or period of time (unless a penalty is paid).[citation needed] When the term is over it can be withdrawn or it can be held for another term. Generally speaking, the longer the term the better the yield on the money
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Certificate Of Deposit
A certificate of deposit (CD) is a time deposit, a financial product commonly sold in the United States and elsewhere by banks, thrift institutions, and credit unions. CDs are similar to savings accounts in that they are insured "money in the bank" and thus virtually risk free. In the USA, CDs are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
(FDIC) for banks and by the National Credit Union Administration
National Credit Union Administration
(NCUA) for credit unions. They differ from savings accounts in that the CD has a specific, fixed term (often one, three, or six months, or one to five years) and, usually, a fixed interest rate
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Corporate Finance
Corporate finance
Corporate finance
is the area of finance dealing with the sources of funding and the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, and the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources. The primary goal of corporate finance is to maximize or increase shareholder value.[1] Although it is in principle different from managerial finance which studies the financial management of all firms, rather than corporations alone, the main concepts in the study of corporate finance are applicable to the financial problems of all kinds of firms. Correspondingly, corporate finance comprises two main sub-disciplines.[citation needed] Capital budgeting
Capital budgeting
is concerned with the setting of criteria about which value-adding projects should receive investment funding, and whether to finance that investment with equity or debt capital
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Accounting
Accounting
Accounting
or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities[1][2] such as businesses and corporations. The modern field was established by the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli
Luca Pacioli
in 1494.[3] Accounting, which has been called the "language of business",[4] measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators.[5] Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants
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Audit
An audit is a systematic and independent examination of books, accounts, statutory records, documents and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements as well as non-financial disclosures present a true and fair view of the concern. It also attempts to ensure that the books of accounts are properly maintained by the concern as required by law. Auditing has become such a ubiquitous phenomenon in the corporate and the public sector that academics started identifying an " Audit
Audit
Society".[1] The auditor perceives and recognises the propositions before them for examination, obtains evidence, evaluates the same and formulates an opinion on the basis of his judgement which is communicated through their audit report.[2] Any subject matter may be audited
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Capital Budgeting
Capital budgeting, and investment appraisal, is the planning process used to determine whether an organization's long term investments such as new machinery, replacement of machinery, new plants, new products, and research development projects are worth the funding of cash through the firm's capitalization structure (debt, equity or retained earnings). It is the process of allocating resources for major capital, or investment, expenditures.[1] One of the primary goals of capital budgeting investments is to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders. Many formal methods are used in capital budgeting, including the techniques such asAccounting rate of return Average accounting return Payback period Net present value Profitability index Internal rate of return Modified internal rate of return Equivalent annual cost Real options valuationThese methods use the incremental cash flows from each potential investment, or project
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Credit Rating Agency
A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default. An agency may rate the creditworthiness of issuers of debt obligations, of debt instruments,[1] and in some cases, of the servicers of the underlying debt,[2] but not of individual consumers. The debt instruments rated by CRAs include government bonds, corporate bonds, CDs, municipal bonds, preferred stock, and collateralized securities, such as mortgage-backed securities and collateralized debt obligations.[3] The issuers of the obligations or securities may be companies, special purpose entities, state or local governments, non-profit organizations, or sovereign nations.[3] A credit rating facilitates the trading of securities on a secondary market. It affects the interest rate that a security pays out, with higher ratings leading to lower interest rates
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Financial Risk Management
Financial risk
Financial risk
management is the practice of economic value in a firm by using financial instruments to manage exposure to risk: operational risk, credit risk and market risk, foreign exchange risk, shape risk, volatility risk, liquidity risk, inflation risk, business risk, legal risk, reputational risk, sector risk etc. Similar to general risk management, financial risk management requires identifying its sources, measuring it, and plans to address them.[1] Financial risk
Financial risk
management can be qualitative and quantitative
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Leveraged Buyout
A leveraged buyout (LBO) is a financial transaction in which a company is purchased with a combination of equity and debt, such that the company's cash flow is the collateral used to secure and repay the borrowed money. The use of debt, which has a lower cost of capital than equity, serves to reduce the overall cost of financing the acquisition. The cost of debt is lower because interest payments reduce corporate income tax liability, whereas dividend payments do not.[1] This reduced cost of financing allows greater gains to accrue to the equity, and, as a result, the debt serves as a lever to increase the returns to the equity.[2] The term LBO is usually employed when a financial sponsor acquires a company. However, many corporate transactions are partially funded by bank debt, thus effectively also representing an LBO
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Exotic Option
In finance, an exotic option is an option which has features making it more complex than commonly traded vanilla options. Like the more general exotic derivatives they may have several triggers relating to determination of payoff. An exotic option may also include non-standard underlying instrument, developed for a particular client or for a particular market
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Mergers And Acquisitions
Mergers and acquisitions
Mergers and acquisitions
(M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations or their operating units are transferred or combined. As an aspect of strategic management, M&A can allow enterprises to grow, shrink, and change the nature of their business or competitive position. From a legal point of view, a merger is a legal consolidation of two entities into one entity, whereas an acquisition occurs when one entity takes ownership of another entity's stock, equity interests or assets. From a commercial and economic point of view, both types of transactions generally result in the consolidation of assets and liabilities under one entity, and the distinction between a "merger" and an "acquisition" is less clear
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