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Caliber
In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the gun barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it shoots. It is measured in hundredths or thousandths of an inch or in millimetres. For example, a ".45 caliber" firearm has a barrel diameter of roughly 0.45 inches (11 mm). Barrel diameters can also be expressed using metric dimensions. For example, a "9mm pistol" has a barrel diameter of about 9 millimetres (it is rare for the actual barrel diameter to precisely match the designation however, and the bullet itself is yet another dimension). When the barrel diameter is given in inches, the abbreviation "cal" (for "caliber") can be used
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.22 Caliber
The 5.6 mm caliber or .22 caliber, is a small, extremely common size of ammunition, fitted to firearms with a bore diameter of 5.6 mm (0.22 in)
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Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War
American Civil War
(1861–1865), the Union referred to the United States
United States
of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
and the 20 free states, 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states (or 13, according to the Southern view and one western territory) that formed the Confederate States of America, or also known as "the Confederacy". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States
United States
Army (also known as the Union Army), though the border areas also sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy
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Millimetre
The millimetre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit
SI base unit
of length. Therefore, there are one thousand millimetres in a metre. There are ten millimetres in a centimetre. One millimetre is equal to 7003100000000000000♠1000 micrometres or 7006100000000000000♠1000000 nanometres
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Rimfire Ammunition
Rimfire is a method of ignition for metallic firearm cartridges as well as the cartridges themselves. It is called rimfire because the firing pin of a gun strikes and crushes the base's rim to ignite the primer. The rim of the rimfire cartridge is essentially an extended and widened percussion cap which contains the priming compound, while the cartridge case itself contains the propellant powder and the projectile (bullet). Once the rim of the cartridge has been struck and the bullet discharged, the cartridge cannot be reloaded, because the head has been deformed by the firing pin impact. While many other different cartridge priming methods have been tried since the 19th century, only rimfire technology and centerfire technology survive today in significant use. Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Flobert invented the first rimfire metallic cartridge in 1845
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Varmint Hunting
Varmint hunting
Varmint hunting
is the practice of hunting vermin, generally small mammals targeted as a means of pest control, rather than for food. Varminter may refer to a varmint hunter, or describe hunting equipment either specifically designed for, or suitable for varmint hunting, such as a varmint rifle. Varmint hunters may hunt to exterminate a nuisance animal from their own property, to collect a bounty offered by another landowner or the government, or for amusement.Contents1 Targets of varmint hunting 2 Products2.1 Blowgun 2.2 Varmint Rifle Characteristics 2.3 Examples3 Impacts on varmint populations 4 See also 5 ReferencesTargets of varmint hunting[edit]A contemporary woodcut of varmint hunters shooting passenger pigeons, a varmint species that was known to damage crops
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Terminal Ballistics
Terminal ballistics
Terminal ballistics
(also known as wound ballistics) a sub-field of ballistics, is the study of the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits its target and transfers its energy to the target. Bullet design and the velocity of impact determine the effectiveness of its impact.[1]Contents1 General 2 Firearm projectiles2.1 Classes of bullet2.1.1 Target shooting 2.1.2 Maximum penetration 2.1.3 Controlled penetration2.1.3.1 Flat point 2.1.3.2 Expanding 2.1.3.3 Fragmenting 2.1.3.4 Frangible2.2 Large caliber3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksGeneral[edit] An early result is due to Newton; the impact depth of any projectile is the depth that a projectile will reach before stopping in a medium; in Newtonian mechanics, a projectile stops when it has transferred its momentum to an equal mass of the medium
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.950 JDJ
The .950 JDJ (24.1x70mm) is a powerful large caliber rifle cartridge developed by American gunsmith and weapon designer J. D. Jones of SSK Industries.Contents1 Cartridge 2 Rifles 3 Ballistics 4 ReferencesCartridge[edit] .950 JDJ cases are approximately 70 mm in length, and are based on a 20×110mm case shortened and necked up to accept the .950 in (24.1 mm) bullet. Projectiles are custom-made and most commonly weigh 3,600 grains (230 g) which is 8.2 ounces or over half a pound.[1] Rifles[edit] As its name implies, rifles chambered for the cartridge have a groove diameter of 0.950 in (24.1 mm). SSK received a "Sporting Use Exception" to de-regulate the rifles. Thus, in the United States, they can be purchased and owned like any other Title I rifle by an American citizen at age 18
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USS Missouri (BB-63)
USS Missouri (BB-63) ("Mighty Mo" or "Big Mo") is a United States
United States
Navy Iowa-class battleship
Iowa-class battleship
and was the third ship of the U.S. Navy to be named after the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Missouri. Missouri
Missouri
was the last battleship commissioned by the United States
United States
and is best remembered as the site of the surrender of the Empire of Japan which ended World War II. Missouri
Missouri
was ordered in 1940 and commissioned in June 1944. In the Pacific Theater of World War II
World War II
she fought in the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa
Okinawa
and shelled the Japanese home islands, and she fought in the Korean War
Korean War
from 1950 to 1953
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American Civil War
Union victoryDissolution of the Confederate States U.S. territorial integrity preserved Slavery abolished Beginning of the Reconstruction EraBelligerents United States  Confederate StatesCommanders and leaders Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman David Farragut George B. McClellan Henry Halleck George Meade and others Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee  J. E. Johnston  G. T. Beauregard  A. S
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Inch
The inch (abbreviation: in or ″) is a unit of length in the (British) imperial and United States customary systems of measurement now formally equal to ​1⁄36 yard but usually understood as ​1⁄12 of a foot. Derived from the Roman uncia ("twelfth"), inch is also sometimes used to translate related units in other measurement systems, usually understood as deriving from the width of the human thumb
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Chamber (firearms)
In firearms, the chamber is the portion of the barrel or firing cylinder in which the cartridge is inserted before being fired. Rifles and pistols generally have a single chamber in their barrel, but revolvers have multiple chambers in their cylinder, and no chamber in their barrel
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.44-40
The .44-40 Winchester, also known as .44 Winchester, .44 WCF (Winchester Center Fire), and .44 Largo (in Spanish speaking countries) was introduced in 1873 by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company. It was the first metallic centerfire cartridge manufactured by Winchester, and was promoted as the standard chambering for the new Winchester Model 1873 rifle.[1][2] As both a rifle and a handgun caliber, the cartridge soon became widely popular, so much so that the Winchester Model 1873 rifle became known as "The gun that won the West."[3]Contents1 History 2 Technical background 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] When Winchester released the new cartridge, many other firearm companies chambered their guns in the new round
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Black Powder
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate (saltpeter)
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Grain (measure)
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly 7001647989100000000♠64.79891 milligrams. It is nominally based upon the mass of a single virtual ideal seed of a cereal. From the Bronze Age into the Renaissance the average masses of wheat and barley grains were part of the legal definitions of units of mass
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Smokeless Powder
Smokeless powder
Smokeless powder
is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced
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