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BitLocker
BitLocker
BitLocker
is a full disk encryption feature included with Windows Vista and later. It is designed to protect data by providing encryption for entire volumes
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Hard-copy
In information handling, the U.S. Federal Standard 1037C (Glossary of Telecommunication Terms) defines a hard copy is a permanent reproduction, or copy, in the form of a physical object, of any media suitable for direct use by a person (in particular paper), of displayed or transmitted data. Examples of hard copy include teleprinter pages, continuous printed tapes, computer printouts, and radio photo prints. On the other hand, physical objects such as magnetic tapes diskettes, or non-printed punched paper tapes are not defined as hard copy by 1037C.[1] A file which can be viewed on a screen without printing it out is sometimes called a soft copy.[2][3] The U.S. Federal Standard 1037C defines "soft copy" as "a nonpermanent display image, for example, a cathode ray tube display."[4] The term "hard copy" predates the age of the digital computer
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Bootstrapping (computing)
In general, bootstrapping usually refers to a self-starting process that is supposed to proceed without external input
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Solid-state Drive
A solid-state drive (SSD), or solid-state disk[1][2][3] is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. SSD technology primarily uses electronic interfaces compatible with traditional block input/output (I/O) hard disk drives (HDDs), which permit simple replacements in common applications.[4] New I/O interfaces like SATA Express
SATA Express
and M.2 have been designed to address specific requirements of the SSD technology. SSDs have no moving mechanical components
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Booting
In computing, booting (or booting up) is the initialization of a computerized system. The system can be a computer or a computer appliance. The booting process can be "hard", e.g., after electrical power to the CPU is switched from off to on (in order to diagnose particular hardware errors), or "soft", when those power-on self-tests (POST) can be avoided. On some systems a soft boot may optionally clear RAM
RAM
to zero. Both hard and soft booting can be initiated by hardware such as a button press, or by software command. Booting
Booting
is complete when the normal, operative, runtime environment is attained. A boot loader is a computer program that loads an operating system or some other system software for the computer after completion of the power-on self-tests; it is the loader for the operating system itself. Within the hard reboot process, it runs after completion of the self-tests, then loads and runs the software
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Personal Identification Number
ATM[1] "PIN number" redirects here. For Indian postal codes, see Postal Index Number. [2]A personal identification number sent to its user in a letter
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CCID (protocol)
CCID (chip card interface device) protocol is a USB
USB
protocol that allows a smartcard to be connected to a computer via a card reader using a standard USB
USB
interface, without the need for each manufacturer of smartcards to provide its own reader or protocol.[1] This allows the smartcard to be used as a security token for authentication and data encryption, such as that used in Bitlocker. Chip card interface devices come in a variety of forms. The smallest CCID form is a standard USB
USB
dongle and may contain a SIM card or Secure Digital
Secure Digital
card inside the USB
USB
dongle
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Key Escrow
Key escrow (also known as a “fair” cryptosystem) is an arrangement in which the keys needed to decrypt encrypted data are held in escrow so that, under certain circumstances, an authorized third party may gain access to those keys. These third parties may include businesses, who may want access to employees' private communications, or governments, who may wish to be able to view the contents of encrypted communications. The technical problem is a largely structural one since access to protected information must be provided only to the intended recipient and at least one third party. The third party should be permitted access only under carefully controlled conditions, as for instance, a court order. Thus far, no system design has been shown to meet this requirement fully on a technical basis alone
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Hard Disk Drive
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk[b] is a data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material. The platters are paired with magnetic heads, usually arranged on a moving actuator arm, which read and write data to the platter surfaces.[2] Data is accessed in a random-access manner, meaning that individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order and not only sequentially. HDDs are a type of non-volatile storage, retaining stored data even when powered off.[3][4][5] Introduced by IBM
IBM
in 1956,[6] HDDs became the dominant secondary storage device for general-purpose computers by the early 1960s. Continuously improved, HDDs have maintained this position into the modern era of servers and personal computers
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Bootkit
A root kit is a collection of computer software, typically malicious, designed to enable access to a computer or areas of its software that is not otherwise allowed (for example, to an unauthorized user) and often masks its existence or the existence of other software.[1] The term rootkit is a concatenation of "root" (the traditional name of the privileged account on Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems) and the word "kit" (which refers to the software components that implement the tool). The term "rootkit" has negative connotations through its association with malware.[1] Rootkit
Rootkit
installation can be automated, or an attacker can install it after having obtained root or Administrator access. Obtaining this access is a result of direct attack on a system, i.e
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Operating System
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing
Time-sharing
operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware,[1][2] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it
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BIOS
For IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
computers, BIOS
BIOS
(/ˈbaɪɒs/ BY-oss; an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS
BIOS
or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs.[1] The BIOS
BIOS
firmware comes pre-installed on a personal computer's system board, and it is the first software run when powered on. The name originates from the Basic Input/Output System used in the CP/M operating system in 1975.[2][3] Originally proprietary to the IBM PC, the BIOS
BIOS
has been reverse engineered by companies looking to create compatible systems
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Boot Sector
A boot sector is a region of a hard disk, floppy disk, optical disc, or other data storage device that contains machine code to be loaded into random-access memory (RAM) by a computer system's built-in firmware. The purpose of a boot sector is to allow the boot process of a computer to load a program (usually, but not necessarily, an operating system) stored on the same storage device
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Backdoor (computing)
A backdoor is a method, often secret, of bypassing normal authentication or encryption in a computer system, a product, or an embedded device (e.g. a home router), or its embodiment, e.g. as part of a cryptosystem, an algorithm, a chipset, or a "homunculus computer"[1] (such as that as found in Intel's AMT technology). Backdoors are often used for securing remote access to a computer, or obtaining access to plaintext in cryptographic systems. A backdoor may take the form of a hidden part of a program one uses,[2] a separate program (e.g. Back Orifice may subvert the system through a rootkit), or code in the firmware of ones hardware[3] or parts of ones operating system such as Microsoft Windows.[4][5][6] Although normally surreptitiously installed, in some cases backdoors are deliberate and widely known
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Home Office
The Home Office
Home Office
(HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order. As such it is responsible for the police, fire and rescue services, visas and immigration and the Security Service (MI5). It is also in charge of government policy on security-related issues such as drugs, counter-terrorism and ID cards. It was formerly responsible for Her Majesty's Prison Service
Her Majesty's Prison Service
and the National Probation
Probation
Service, but these have been transferred to the Ministry of Justice
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Niels Ferguson
Niels T. Ferguson (born 10 December 1965, Eindhoven) is a Dutch cryptographer and consultant who currently works for Microsoft. He has worked with others, including Bruce Schneier, designing cryptographic algorithms, testing algorithms and protocols, and writing papers and books. Among the designs Ferguson has contributed to is the AES finalist block cipher algorithm Twofish
Twofish
as well as the stream cipher Helix and the Skein hash function. In 1999, Niels Ferguson, together with Bruce Schneier
Bruce Schneier
and John Kelsey, developed the Yarrow algorithm
Yarrow algorithm
random number generator
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