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Area Studies
Area studies (also: regional studies) are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions. The term exists primarily as a general description for what are, in the practice of scholarship, many heterogeneous fields of research, encompassing both the social sciences and the humanities. Typical area study programs involve history, political science, sociology, cultural studies, languages, geography, literature, and related disciplines. In contrast to cultural studies, area studies often include diaspora and emigration from the area.Contents1 History 2 Controversy within the field 3 Fields 4 Institutions 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] Interdisciplinary area studies became increasingly common in the United States of America
United States of America
and in Western scholarship after World War II
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Interdisciplinary
Interdisciplinarity involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, anthropology, psychology, economics etc. It is about creating something new by thinking across boundaries. It is related to an interdiscipline or an interdisciplinary field, which is an organizational unit that crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought, as new needs and professions emerge. Large engineering teams are usually interdisciplinary, as a power station or mobile phone or other project requires the melding of several specialties
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Rational Choice Theory
Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.[1] The basic premise of rational choice theory is that aggregate social behavior results from the behavior of individual actors, each of whom is making their individual decisions. The theory also focuses on the determinants of the individual choices (methodological individualism). Rational choice theory
Rational choice theory
then assumes that an individual has preferences among the available choice alternatives that allow them to state which option they prefer. These preferences are assumed to be complete (the person can always say which of two alternatives they consider preferable or that neither is preferred to the other) and transitive (if option A is preferred over option B and option B is preferred over option C, then A is preferred over C)
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Carnegie Corporation Of New York
Carnegie Corporation of New York was established by Andrew Carnegie during 1911 "to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding".[3] Carnegie Corporation has helped to establish and endowed a variety of institutions, including the Carnegie libraries, the National Research Council, the Russian Research Center at Harvard, and the Children's Television Workshop, and for many years strongly funded Carnegie's other philanthropic organizations, especially Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP), the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (CFAT), and the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS).Contents1 History1.1 Founding and early years 1.2 Frederick P. Keppel 1.3 Charles Dollard 1.4 John Gardner 1.5 Alan Pifer 1.6 David A
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Modernization Theory
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or 'traditional' to a 'modern' society. Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German sociologist Max Weber
Max Weber
(1864–1920), which provided the basis for the modernization paradigm developed by Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons (1902–1979). The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that with assistance, "traditional" countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have been. Modernization theory was a dominant paradigm in the social sciences in the 1950s and 1960s, then went into a deep eclipse
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American Council Of Learned Societies
The American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), founded in 1919, is a private, nonprofit federation of 75 scholarly organizations in the humanities and related social sciences.[1] It is best known for its fellowship competitions which provide a range of opportunities for scholars in the humanities and related social sciences at all career stages, from graduate students to distinguished professors to independent scholars, working with a number of disciplines and methodologies in the U.S. and abroad.Contents1 Background1.1 Advancing scholarship in the humanities 1.2 Relationships among learned societies 1.3 New research methods and subjects 1.4 Humanities scholarship 1.5 Structure and governance 1.6 Archives2 Awards 3 Member societies 4 Affiliates 5 References 6 External linksBackground[edit] The federation was created in 1919 to represent the United States in the Union Académique Internationale (International Union of Academies)
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National Resource Center
The National Resource Center (NRC) Program of the U.S. Department of Education provides funding grants to American universities to establish, strengthen, and operate language and area or international studies centers that will be national resources for teaching any modern foreign language. Also known as Title VI grants, because the program is formally established in Title VI, Part A, § 602 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (Title VI was originally authorized as Title VI of the National Defense Education Act of 1958 as a response to the launch of Sputnik I and the U.S
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Foreign Language And Area Studies
The Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) fellowships are federally funded academic scholarships designed to provide support and funding to graduate and undergraduate students studying the languages and cultures of specific foreign countries, in particular those in the strategic interest of the United States. Prior to the 1970s, the fellowships were called National Defence Foreign Language Fellowships, funded by the National Defense Education Act. American universities are allotted funds from the federal government, and then the individual schools hold their own competitions to determine the recipients for both summer and year-long grants. FLAS fellowships cover tuition, school fees, medical insurance, and provide an additional living stipend. The stipends for 2009-2010 were $15,000 for an academic-year award and $2,500 for summer. Eligibility for year-long grants is limited to graduate students who are U.S. citizens or permanent residents
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CIA
The Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States
United States
federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT). As one of the principal members of the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC), the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is primarily focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI), which is a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is mainly focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection
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FBI
The Federal Bureau of Investigation
Bureau of Investigation
(FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Justice, the FBI is also a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to/ both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence.[3] A leading U.S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes.[4][5] Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5
MI5
and the Russian FSB
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Chalmers Johnson
Chalmers Ashby Johnson (August 6, 1931 – November 20, 2010)[1] was an American author and professor emeritus of the University of California, San Diego. He served in the Korean War, was a consultant for the CIA
CIA
from 1967 to 1973, and chaired the Center for Chinese Studies at the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
from 1967 to 1972.[2] He was also president and co-founder with Steven Clemons
Steven Clemons
of the Japan Policy Research Institute (now based at the University of San Francisco), an organization promoting public education about Japan and Asia.[3] Johnson wrote numerous books including three examinations of the consequences of American Empire: Blowback, The Sorrows of Empire, and Nemesis; The Last Days of the American Republic. A former cold warrior, he feared that, "A nation can be one or the other, a democracy or an imperialist, but it can't be both
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Ford Foundation
The Ford Foundation
Ford Foundation
is a New York-headquartered, globally oriented private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare.[2][3][4][5] Created in 1936[6] by Edsel Ford
Edsel Ford
and Henry Ford, it was originally funded by a US$25,000 gift from Edsel Ford.[3] By 1947, after the death of the two founders, the foundation owned 90% of the non-voting shares of the Ford Motor Company. (The Ford family retained the voting shares.)[7] Between 1955 and 1974, the foundation sold its Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
holdings and now plays no role in the automobile company
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Egyptology
Egyptology
Egyptology
(from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. Arabic: علم المصريات‎) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD. A practitioner of the discipline is an "Egyptologist". In Europe, particularly on the Continent, Egyptology
Egyptology
is primarily regarded as being a philological discipline, while in North America it is often regarded as a branch of archaeology.Contents1 History1.1 First explorers 1.2 Graeco-Roman Period 1.3 Middle Ages2 Development of the field2.1 Muslim scholars 2.2 European explorers3 Modern Egyptology 4 Academic discipline 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory First explorers The first explorers were the ancient Egyptians
Egyptians
themselves
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Lat
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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American Studies In Britain
American studies as an academic discipline is taught at some British universities and incorporated in several school subjects, such as history, politics and literature.[1] While the United States of America is the focus of most study, American Studies can also include the study of all the Americas, including South America
South America
and Canada
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