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Andrey Bolshoy
Andrey Vasilyevich Bolshoy, nicknamed Goryai (Russian: Андрей Васильевич Большой) (14 August 1446 in Uglich
Uglich
– 6 November 1493 in Moscow), was the third son of Vasili II of Russia
Vasili II of Russia
who transformed his capital in Uglich
Uglich
into a major centre of political power and ensured the town's prosperity for two centuries to come. After the death of his father in 1462, Andrey Bolshoy
Andrey Bolshoy
inherited the cities of Uglich, Zvenigorod, and Bezhetsk. His relations with his older brother, Ivan III of Moscow, were cordial at first. It was ten years later that the death of their brother, the childless Yury of Dmitrov, led to bad blood between the two
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Kazimierz IV Jagiellon
Casimir IV KG (Polish: Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk [kaˈʑimi̯ɛʒ jaɡi̯ɛlˈlɔɲt͡ʃɨk] ( listen); Lithuanian: Kazimieras Jogailaitis [kaˈziˈmieˈrʲaːs joːˈgaːiˈlʲaiˈtisʲ] ( listen); 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492[1]) of the Jagiellonian dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland
King of Poland
from 1447, until his death. He was one of the most active Polish rulers, under whom Poland, by defeating the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in the Thirteen Years' War recovered Pomerania, and the Jagiellonian dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
became one of the leading royal houses in Europe
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Vologda
Vologda
Vologda
(Russian: Вологда, IPA: [ˈvoləɡdə]) is a city and the administrative, cultural, and scientific center of Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the Vologda River
Vologda River
within the watershed of the Northern Dvina
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Meñli I Giray
Meñli I Giray (Crimean Tatar: I Meñli Geray, ۱منكلى كراى‎‎) (1445–1515), also spelled as Mengli I Giray, was a khan of the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
(1466, 1469–1475, 1478–1515) and the sixth son of Hacı I Giray.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Family 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Meñli ascended the throne in 1466 for some months, but was then deposed by his brother Nur Devlet. He was restored to the throne in January 1469, but lost power again in March 1475 as a result of a rebellion of the rival brothers and nobility.[2] In 1475, he was captured by the Ottomans in Feodosiya
Feodosiya
and delivered to Constantinople. After being forced to recognize Ottoman suzerainty over the Crimean Khanate, he was returned to the throne of Crimea in 1478. He made a great contribution to the development of Crimean Tatar statehood
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Mozhaisk
Mozhaysk[6] (Russian: Можайск, IPA: [mɐˈʐajsk]) is a town and the administrative center of Mozhaysky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 110 kilometers (68 mi) to the west of Moscow, on the historic road leading to Smolensk
Smolensk
and then to Poland. Population: 31,363 (2010 Census);[3] 31,459 (2002 Census);[7] 30,735 (1989 Census).[8]Contents1 History 2 Administrative and municipal status 3 Architecture 4 Trivia 5 Twin towns and sister cities 6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 Sources7 External linksHistory[edit] It was first mentioned in 1231 as an appanage of Chernigov;[citation needed] it was named after the Mozhay (Mozhaya) River, whose name is of Baltic origin (cf. Lithuanian mažoja 'small').[9] Later it was an important stronghold of the Smolensk
Smolensk
dynasty, at one time owned by Theodore the Black
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Bishop
A bishop (English derivation[a][1][2][3] from the New Testament
New Testament
of the Christian Bible Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic
Catholic
Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic
Old Catholic
and Independent Catholic churches
Independent Catholic churches
and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop
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Metropolitan Bishop
In Christian
Christian
churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. Before the establishment of patriarchs (beginning in AD 325), metropolitan was the highest episcopal rank in the Eastern rites of the Church
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Great Standing On The Ugra River
The Great Stand on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra) was a standoff between the forces of Akhmat, Khan of the Great Horde, and the Grand Prince Ivan III
Ivan III
of Muscovy
Muscovy
in 1480, which ended when the Tatars departed without conflict
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Ugra River (Oka)
Ugra (Russian: Угра́) is a river in Smolensk and Kaluga
Kaluga
Oblasts in Russia, left tributary of the Oka River. The east-flowing Ugra joins the north-flowing Oka at Kaluga
Kaluga
and the united river, called the Oka, continues east to the Volga. In the 16th century, the Ugra-Oka juncture was the western end of a line of forts protecting Muscovy from Tatar raids. The river is known for the Great stand on the Ugra River. Its length is 399 kilometres (248 mi) and its basin 15,700 square kilometres (6,100 sq mi). It is frozen from late November (sometimes as late as January) until the end of March. 60% of its annual flow is snowmelt, mostly in April. A part of the valley of the Ugra located in Kaluga Oblast
Kaluga Oblast
belongs to Ugra National Park.[1] References[edit]^ "Общие сведения о парке" (in Russian). Ugra National Park
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Akhmat Khan
Ahmed bin Küchük (Urdu; Persian; Arabic:احمد خان بن کوچک) was a Khan of the Great Horde between 1465 and 1481. In 1465, Ahmed Khan seized power in the Horde by rising against his brother Mahmud bin Küchük, who had been its ruler since 1459. In 1472, Ahmed Khan entered into alliance with the Polish king Casimir IV against Ivan III of Russia. In 1476, Ahmed Khan suggested to Ivan III that he should recognize him as his overlord. However the situation of forces was not in the Horde's favour. In 1480, Ahmed Khan organized another military campaign against Muscovy, which would result in the great stand on the Ugra river, 150 miles from Moscow. They stood off shouting at one another on opposite banks for weeks before a conflict became inevitable. Panic set in, as both sides suddenly turned deciding to flee, rather than fight in the tradition of Genghis Khan. The Horde's retreat meant that the last of the conflict between Eurasians was over
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Aleksin
Aleksin
Aleksin
(Russian: Але́ксин) is a town and the administrative center of Aleksinsky District
Aleksinsky District
in Tula Oblast, Russia, located 71 kilometers (44 mi) northwest of Tula, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 61,732 (2010 Census);[5] 68,156 (2002 Census);[9] 74,274 (1989 Census).[10]Contents1 History 2 Administrative and municipal status 3 Twin towns and sister cities 4 References4.1 Notes 4.2 SourcesHistory[edit] It was founded at the end of the 13th century[7] and first mentioned in 1348 in the Nikon Chronicle. Aleksin
Aleksin
was sacked by Khan Akhmat in 1472 during his invasion of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Because of its location on the Oka River, it was, for a while, an important inland port
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Kaluga
Kaluga
Kaluga
(Russian: Калуга, IPA: [kɐˈluɡə]) is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga
Kaluga
Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River 150 kilometers (93 mi) southwest of Moscow. Population: 324,698 (2010 Census);[8] 334,751 (2002 Census);[14] 311,319 (1989 Census).[15]Contents1 History 2 Administrative and municipal status 3 Economy 4 Transportation 5 Climate 6 Notable people 7 Twin towns and sister cities 8 Gallery 9 References9.1 Notes 9.2 Sources10 External linksHistory[edit] Kaluga, founded in the mid-14th century as a border fortress on the southwestern borders of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, first appears in the historical record in chronicles in the 14th century as Koluga; the name comes from Old Russian kaluga - "bog, quagmire".[16] In the Middle Ages Kaluga
Kaluga
was a minor settlement owned by the Princes Vorotynsky
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Pskov
Pskov
Pskov
(Russian: Псков, IPA: [pskof] ( listen); see also names in other languages) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov
Pskov
Oblast, Russia, located about 20 kilometers (12 mi) east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River
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Kingdom Of Poland (1385–1569)
The Kingdom of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
joined in a personal union created by the Union of Krewo
Union of Krewo
(1385). The union was transformed into a closer one by the Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
in 1569, which was shortly followed by the end of the Jagiellon dynasty, which had ruled Poland
Poland
for two centuries. See also[edit]Crown of the Kingdom of Poland Culture of medieval Poland History of Poland
Poland
during the Jagiellon dynasty
Jagiellon dynasty
(1386–1572)Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kingdom of Poland
Poland
— Jagiellonian Dynasty (1385–1569).References[edit]^ " Gaude Mater Polonia
Gaude Mater Polonia
Creation and History"
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