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Alpha Pyrrolidinohexiophenone
Alpha
Alpha
(uppercase Α, lowercase α; Ancient Greek: ἄλφα, álpha, modern pronunciation álfa) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 1. It was derived from the Phoenician and Hebrew
Hebrew
letter aleph - an ox or leader.[1] Letters that arose from alpha include the Latin
Latin
A and the Cyrillic letter А. In English, the noun "alpha" is used as a synonym for "beginning", or "first" (in a series), reflecting its Greek roots.[2]Contents1 Uses1.1 Greek1.1.1 Greek grammar1.2 Math and science 1.3 International Phonetic Alphabet2 History and symbolism2.1 Etymology 2.2 Plutarch 2.3 Alpha
Alpha
and Omega 2.4 Language3 Computer encodings 4 ReferencesUses Greek In Ancient Greek, alpha was pronounced [a] and could be either phonemically long ([a:]) or short ([a])
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Alpha (other)
Alpha
Alpha
(Α or α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. Alpha
Alpha
or ALPHA may also refer to:Contents1 Computing and technology 2 Mathematics and statistics 3 Science 4 Places 5
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Greek Letters Used In Mathematics, Science, And Engineering
Greek letters
Greek letters
are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities. In these contexts, the capital letters and the small letters represent distinct and unrelated entities. Those Greek letters which have the same form as Latin letters
Latin letters
are rarely used: capital A, B, E, Z, H, I, K, M, N, O, P, T, Y, X. Small ι, ο and υ are also rarely used, since they closely resemble the Latin letters
Latin letters
i, o and u. Sometimes font variants of Greek letters
Greek letters
are used as distinct symbols in mathematics, in particular for ε/ϵ and π/ϖ
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Heta
Heta
Heta
is a conventional name for the historical Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
letter Eta
Eta
(Η) and several of its variants, when used in their original function of denoting the consonant /h/.Contents1 Overview 2 Computer encoding 3 See also 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] The letter Η had been adopted by Greek from the Phoenician letter Heth () originally with this consonantal sound value, and Hēta was its original name. The Italic alphabets, and ultimately Latin, adopted the letter H from this Greek usage. However, Greek dialects progressively lost the sound /h/ from their phonological systems. In the Ionic dialects, where this loss of /h/ happened early, the name of the letter naturally changed to Ēta, and the letter was subsequently turned from a consonant to a new use as a vowel, denoting the long half-open /ɛː/ sound
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San (letter)
]........ΑΝΤΑΣ:ΧΑ.[ ]....ΚΕΑΣ:ΑΝΓΑΡΙΟΣ[ ]...ΑΥϜΙΟΣ:ΣΟΚΛΕΣ:[ ].ΤΙΔΑΣ:ΑΜΥΝΤΑΣ[ ]ΤΟΙ ΜΑΛΕϘΟ:ΚΑΙ.[Note the use of San at the end of most names, and the difference between San and Mu (with a shorter right stem, ) in the word "ΑΜΥΝΤΑΣ".Use of San in archaic Sicyonian writing: shard incised with the dedicatory inscription "ΗΕΡΟΟΣ" (classic Greek spelling Ἡρώος, "of the Hero"), using San together with consonantal H and a characteristic Sikyonian X-shaped form of Epsilon.San (Ϻ) was an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet. Its shape was similar to modern M, or ϡ, or to a modern Greek Sigma
Sigma
(Σ) turned sideways, and it was used as an alternative to Sigma
Sigma
to denote the sound /s/. Unlike Sigma, whose position in the alphabet is between Rho and Tau, San appeared between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetic order
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Koppa (letter)
Koppa or qoppa (Ϙ, ϙ; as a modern numeral sign: ) is a letter that was used in early forms of the Greek alphabet, derived from Phoenician qoph . It was originally used to denote the /k/ sound, but dropped out of use as an alphabetic character in favor of Kappa
Kappa
(Κ). It has remained in use as a numeral symbol (90) in the system of Greek numerals, although with a modified shape. Koppa is the source of Latin Q, as well as the Cyrillic numeral sign of the same name (Koppa).Contents1 Alphabetic 2 Numeric 3 Typography 4 Computer encoding 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksAlphabeticCorinthian stater. Obverse: Pegasus
Pegasus
with koppa beneath, for Corinth. Reverse: Athena
Athena
wearing a Corinthian helmet.Corinthian hemiobol
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Sampi
Sampi
Sampi
(modern: ϡ; ancient shapes: , ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet. It was used as an addition to the classical 24-letter alphabet in some eastern Ionic dialects of ancient Greek in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, to denote some type of a sibilant sound, probably [ss] or [ts], and was abandoned when the sound disappeared from Greek. It later remained in use as a numeral symbol for 900 in the alphabetic ("Milesian") system of Greek numerals. Its modern shape, which resembles a π inclining to the right with a longish curved cross-stroke, developed during its use as a numeric symbol in minuscule handwriting of the Byzantine era. Its current name, sampi, originally probably meant "san pi", i.e. "like a pi", and is also of medieval origin. The letter's original name in antiquity is not known
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Tsan
]........ΑΝΤΑΣ:ΧΑ.[ ]....ΚΕΑΣ:ΑΝΓΑΡΙΟΣ[ ]...ΑΥϜΙΟΣ:ΣΟΚΛΕΣ:[ ].ΤΙΔΑΣ:ΑΜΥΝΤΑΣ[ ]ΤΟΙ ΜΑΛΕϘΟ:ΚΑΙ.[Note the use of San at the end of most names, and the difference between San and Mu (with a shorter right stem, ) in the word "ΑΜΥΝΤΑΣ".Use of San in archaic Sicyonian writing: shard incised with the dedicatory inscription "ΗΕΡΟΟΣ" (classic Greek spelling Ἡρώος, "of the Hero"), using San together with consonantal H and a characteristic Sikyonian X-shaped form of Epsilon.San (Ϻ) was an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet. Its shape was similar to modern M, or ϡ, or to a modern Greek Sigma
Sigma
(Σ) turned sideways, and it was used as an alternative to Sigma
Sigma
to denote the sound /s/. Unlike Sigma, whose position in the alphabet is between Rho and Tau, San appeared between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetic order
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Greek Diacritics
Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period. The more complex polytonic orthography (Greek: πολυτονικό σύστημα γραφής, translit. politonikó sístima grafís) notates Ancient Greek phonology. The simpler monotonic orthography (Greek: μονοτονικό σύστημα γραφής, translit. monotonikó sístima grafís), introduced in 1982, corresponds to Modern Greek
Modern Greek
phonology, and requires only two diacritics. Polytonic orthography (from polys (πολύς) "much, many" and tonos (τόνος) "accent") is the standard system for Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Medieval Greek. The acute accent (´), the circumflex (ˆ), and the grave accent (`) indicate different kinds of pitch accent
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Greek Ligatures
Greek ligatures
Greek ligatures
are graphic combinations of the letters of the Greek alphabet that were used in medieval handwritten Greek and in early printing. Ligatures were used in the cursive writing style and very extensively in later minuscule writing. There were dozens[1][2] of conventional ligatures. Some of them stood for frequent letter combinations, some for inflectional endings of words, and some were abbreviations of entire words. In early printed Greek from around 1500, many ligatures fashioned after contemporary manuscript hands continued to be used. Important models for this early typesetting practice were the designs of Aldus Manutius in Venice, and those of Claude Garamond
Claude Garamond
in Paris, who created the influential Grecs du roi
Grecs du roi
typeface in 1541. However, the use of ligatures gradually declined during the 17th and 18th centuries and became mostly obsolete in modern typesetting
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Greek Numerals
Greek numerals, also known as Ionic, Ionian, Milesian, or Alexandrian numerals, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet. In modern Greece, they are still used for ordinal numbers and in contexts similar to those in which Roman numerals
Roman numerals
are still used elsewhere in the West. For ordinary cardinal numbers, however, Greece
Greece
uses Arabic numerals.Contents1 History 2 Description 3 Table 4 Higher numbers 5 Zero 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations' Linear A
Linear A
and Linear B alphabets used a different system, called Aegean numerals, which included specialized symbols for numbers: 𐄇 = 1, 𐄐 = 10, 𐄙 = 100, 𐄢 = 1000, and 𐄫 = 10000.[1] Attic numerals, which were later adopted as the basis for Roman numerals, were the first alphabetic set
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Bactrian Language
Bactrian (Αριαο, Aryao, [arjaːu̯ɔ][?]) is an Iranian language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria
Bactria
(present-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Tajikistan)[3] and used as the official language of
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Coptic Alphabet
The Coptic alphabet
Coptic alphabet
is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language
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Book
A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it. The book's most common modern form is that of a codex volume consisting of rectangular paper pages bound on one side, with a heavier cover and spine, so that it can fan open for reading. Books have taken other forms, such as scrolls, leaves on a string, or strips tied together; and the pages have been of parchment, vellum, papyrus, bamboo slips, palm leaves, silk, wood, and other materials.[1] The contents of books are also called books, as are other compositions of that length. For instance, Aristotle's Physics, the constituent sections of the Bible, and even the Egyptian Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead
are called books independently of their physical form. Conversely, some long literary compositions are divided into books of varying sizes, which typically do not correspond to physically bound units
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Archaic Greek Alphabets
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC
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Ancient Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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